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E.K Walton, Printer. 

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BE H remembered, that on the twenty-ninth day of October^ 
in the forty-ninth year of the Independence of the United 
States of America, ZADOCK THOMPSON and EZEKIEL 
P. WALTON, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title 
of a book, the rig;ht whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words 
following to wil : ^ A Gazetteer of the State of Vermont i; containing^ 
a brief general view of the State, a historical and topog^raphical des- 
cription of all the counties, towns, rivoffi £e- tog^ether with a map, and 
several other engraving^s. By Zadock Thiotaipson, A. B>." In conformity 
to the act of the Congress df the United States, entitled ^ An act for the 
encouragement of leamiog, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and 
books, to the authors and pn^rietors of such copies, during the times 
therein mentioned.*' 

JESSE GOVE, Clerk qf ihe Dittriet 

of Vermont. 
A true oopy of record, e;Kamhied and sealed by me, 

J. GOVE, €•/«*» 







Whose talents and \irtv\es lfta\e vaised 
Viim, \>y the united suffrages oi Viis fel- 
low citizens, to the chief executive mag- 
istracy of the Coininonwealth in which 
lie resides •,— this humble attempt to res- 
cue from oblivion the important facts, re- 
lating to the settlement) history and to- 
pograpliy of tlve several townships of Ver- 

Is respectfully inscribed 
By his obedient and 
Very humble servant, 

THE A\]T110II. 


WHEN this work was commenced, we were aware that the accom> 
p]ishment of our design would be attended with much labor and dif- 
ficulty. But relying upon the cordial cooperation of oar fellow citi- 
zens, in affording facilities for the exeeution of a work, the want and 
utility of which was universally acknowledged, we were induced to 
hazaid the attempt, by the hope, that we might, in this way, render 
Chem at least a trifling service. In the execution of it, we have, how- 
ever, had to encounter umexpected obstacles, which would probably 
have detered us from the undertaking had they been fully antici- 


Thx materials for the following pages have been derived principal- 
ly from personal observations, and from written and oral commonica- 
tions. We have visited most of the townships in person, and have 
likewise received a great number of written communications from 
gentlemen in different sections of the state. The latitudes of the sev- 
eral townships have been copied from Professor DjCAir^ Alphabetical 
Atlas, and also the longitudes, after deducting 13' to bring them to cor- 
respond with recent observations^ Should the longitude of ^y town- 
ship from Greenwich be desired, it may be readily found by subtract- 
ing the given longitude, Trom 76^ 56', the longitude of the Capitol at 
Washington. The dates of the New-Hampshire and New- York char- 
ters have been generally copied from Doct. Williams' History of 
Vermont, as have also those of the Vermont Grants. The Vermont 
charters were not generally taken out till some time after the grants 
were made, and the dates of these have been obtained from original 
records in the office of the Secretary of State. The distances between 
the townships are measured in right lines, and, to find the distances by 
the nearest travelled roads it will be necessary to ^dd from 10 to ^ 
per cent, to the given distances. 

MvcH difficulty has attended that part of the work which relates to 
the settlement and early history of the several towns. But few of the 
first settlers are now remaining, and the faoulties of these are in many 
cases so much impaired by age, that full reliance cannot be' placed 
npon their recollection of events which have long since transpired* 
At the close of the several articles are inserted the initials of the namofi 


of those peraoQs from whom the principal facts have been derived, ei- 
ther by written, or oral, communications ; and it is hoped that these 
will be considered a sufficient acknowledgpnent on the part of the Au- 
thor, while they show the authority upon which the facts are related. 
Among others who deserve our gratitude for their generous assistance, 
we feel it our duty publicly to acknowledge our obligations to Jamxts 
Whitelaw, Esq. late Surveyor General of Vermont, and to Norman 
Williams, Esq. present Secretary of State, through whose politeness 
we have been favoured with'mamy valuable materials, and had access 
to the most authentic sources of information. 

But with all the fiicilities of which we have been able to avail our- 
selves, and with more than one yearns laborious and diligent attention 
to the subject, we are aware that our work is still imperfect — that our 
design is not fully accomplished. We, however, indulge the hope that 
our fellow citizens will recoUeot that this is the first attempt to collect 
facts relating to the settlement and history of our townships, and that 
they will reflect a moment upon the difficulty of the undertaking be- 
fore they give their opinion npoa what is here accomplished. The 
only excuses for carelessness in style and literal errors, are the late pe- 
riod at which many of the communications were received, and the ne- 
cessity we were under of being absent in quest pf information during 
a considerable part of the time the. work was in press, in consequence 
of not receiving communications from many persons who had engaged 
to forward them. 

Ib^ the accomplishment of our work we have spared neither labor 
nor expense, in striving to render it such as to meet the approbation 
of the public ; and should it be patronized with that liberidity whioh 
will warrant the publication of a second edition^ we flatter ourselves 
that our fellow citizens will cheerfully lend their assi*tanee in eoi:i;^ect> 
ing the errors and supplying the deficiencies in this. 



(ftSB^MBiilfe TSXiy* 




1. Situation, *..... 9 

2. Boundaries, ..... 9 

3. Extent, -«.... lo 

4. Divisions, ...... IQ 

6: Mountains, ..... IQ 

6. Rivers, .-..-..Ij 

7. Lakes,- . ^ . - * . 12 


8. Islands, -*.... 13 
19. Bays, 13 

10. Soil and Productions, » - 13 

11. Manufactures aad Trade, - 14 

12. Climate, . . . w . - 15 

13. Diseases, ...... 16 


1. Quadrupeds, . » . . . 18 

2. Birdsi 18 

3. Fishes, -.---. )9 

4. Serpents, ...... 19 

5. Amphibious Reptiles, - - 19 

6. Insects, .-•-.««. 19 

7. Botany, ..-•-- 

8. Forest Trees, .... 

9. Medicinal Plants, • . • 

10. Mineralogy, - - . . 

11. Geology, - ^ - - . 





1. Government, ..... 30 

2. Laws, «.31 

3. Crimes and Punislunents, - 31 

4. Courts, - - 31 

5. State Prison, 32 

6. Banks, - -- - - --33 

7. Revenue, ..--... 33 

8. Militia, - 34 



1. Population, ...... 35 

2. Literature, 36 

3. ReligioB) ^ ...... . 37 

4. Societies, • 

5. Character^ 

6. History, - 



NoTife. — ^In the descnptions t>f totms, we hare, in a few cases, Taried a 
little from the alphabetical order, on account of not receiving coa^mti- 
aicatioBS linnn some of them in season to insert them in their proper 
placesw Hiese variations will, however, it is believed,' all be found 
«i«ong&«t9lnttbegiii&iiig with B« SI aad W« 










vii^a (Di^ TBiBsi®srv< 


1. SITUATION.— Vermont is situated in the TOrthwesteni 

•corner of New Eagland, and lies between the parallels of 42 degrees 44 

minutes and 45 deg. north latitude ; and between 3 deg. 31m. and 5 d^. 

24m. east longitude from the Capitol of the United States at Washinf- 

'ton; X}T between 71 deg. 32m. and 73 deg. 2dm. west from the Rojiml 

'Observatory at Greenwich.* It lies about the middle of the northern 

temperate zone. The longest day in the south paft of the state is 15h. 

'9m. 98. and in the north part 15h. 25m. 50s. 

2. BOUNDARIES.-' — This state is bounded on the north by the 
province of Lower Canada, on the east by New-Hampshire, on the ^outh 
by Massadius^tts, und on the west by New- York. The north line runs 
Upon the paraUel of latitude 45 deg. north. This line was Ifirsit survey- 
ed by eommissioners appointed by Uie provinces of New- York and Cana- 
da, in I7d>7. It was afterwards run by I. Collins and I. Garden, in 1772, 
Irat Teryerroneously. In 1806, Doct. Samuel Williams made some ob- 
senratioiis fyc determining it ; and it has been again carefuUy surveyed 
by commissioners appointed for that purpose by the United States and 
'Oreat Britain, under the treaty of Ghent, but is not yet finally settled.' 
The eastern boundaiy was established^y a decree of Geo. III. July 20, 
1764, which declared the western bank of Connecticut river to be the 
"western boundary of New-Hampshire. The southern boundary is de* 
rived from a rpyal decree of March 5, 1740, and was surveyed by Rich* 
ard Hazen in Februai^-, l741 . The western boundaTy was agreed upon 
by the governments of Vermont and New-York at the close of their con- 
troversy, in 1790. This line passes along the westeiti boundaries of the 
townships of Pownal, Bennington, Shaftsbuiy, Arlington, Sandgate, Ru- 

* When no particular meridian is mentioned, »the longitude it to be wn- 
ienlood, in all cates^ to he reckoned from ike Capitol at Washington, The 
longitude of the Capitol, deduced from numerous observations by Mr, Lam- 
bert, and submitted to Congress in January, 1822, is 76 dsg, 5Sm\ 30*. 
54 west from Greenwich Observatory, 



perl, Pawlet, Weill and Poultney to Poultoej rirer ; thence along the 
inidcUe of Ihe daepeat clmnnel of said river. East boy and lake' Cham' 
plain to the 45th degree of north lalilude, passing- easterly of the islands 
called Four Bralheri, and weiteily of Grand lelaud, Lamotl^, &c. That 
part of the boundary betit:een (.he asuthweit corner uf the state and 
Poulbiey riTer, was aurreyed in 1814. 

3. EXTENT— Vermont is ISf .5 miles in length from north to south, 
tind on an average, about 57 miles in width from east to west, contaiuinj; 
9W0 eqvare miles, or 5,760,000 acres. The length of the north line of 
the state is 00 miles, Uiat of the south line only 40. The width of tha 
state, from Bamel Co Charlotte, through Montpelier, whi«h is 50 milei 
nearer the northern thsn the southern boundar/, is only about 60 milesi • 
The eaatem boundary of the stata is the longest, and, following the course 
of the river, is about 315 mites. The state is divided into two equal 
parts by the parallel of 44 deg, 9ju. north latitude, ami alw by the me- 
ridian 4deg. 15m. east lon^tude. These two lines intersect each other 
aeac the western part of NorthCeld, about 10 miles southwesterly from 

4. DIVISIONS— The state of Vermont is divided into 13 counties, 
Vbich are sabdivided into 345 townships and 16 gores. 1'he townships 
Bra generally about "i» miles square ; the gords are much smaller. The 
nunesofche counties and shire towns, and Ihc number of towns and gores 
in each county, iu 1834, are exhibited in the fullowing 


Skire Toa«i. 































St. Albans, 









The first division of the territory of Vermont ii 

] counties, took plao^^^ 
in 1765, while the governraeot of New- York claimed jurisdiction over it>1 
Tha southwestern parts were then onneiod to the county of Albany, and \ 
the northwestern parts were erected into a connty by the name of Char- 
totte. Cumbertaud county Was formed of the southeastern parts, aniJM 
Gloucester county oi' the northcoslem, The Green Moontiuns form the 
only natural division. These mouatains extend quite through tlie state 
from south to north, and, following the western range, divide it very. 
nearly into two equal parts. 

5. MOUNT AlSS.-^The auriaee of tliis stale is generally uneven, and 
Many parls of it mountainous. TIib celebrated range of Green Moun- 
tains, which g^ve name to the itatc. eiiteoda quite through it from south 
to north, keeping nearly a middle course betwetn ConneElicut river ou 
the east, and lake Chsmplnin ou the west. From tlie line of IVtassnchu- 
wttl to the sohUi part of Waihini^an county, this rauge continues lofty 

< J I 

. ■ ... , , 

■ *- "■ ■ "- 

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»n(\ unbroken Uirough by any considerable streams; dividing the coun- 
ties of Windham, Windsor, and Orange, from the counties of Bennington, 
Kutland, and Addison. In this part of the state, the communication be- 
Iwecu the esai and west sides of the mountain, is somewhat difficult. 
I'he roads are, however, yearly improving, and the difficulty of crossing 
the mountain diminishing. There arc now five gootl turnpike roads a- 
m'oss this portion of the Green Mountains. In the southern part of Wash- 
iugton county, the Green Mountains separate into two ranges. The high- 
est n-wige continues north along the eastern boundaries of the counties of 
Chittenden and Franklin, while the other,callcd the height oflands^ strikes 
o^* to the northeast through the southeastern part of Washington county, 
and the western part of Caledonia county. Tl^e height of lands separates 
the waters which fall into Connecticut river in the north part of the state, 
from thos^ which flow into the lakes, Champlain and Mcmphremagog, 
I'he height of this range is nearly uniform, exhibiting no very promi- 
nent elevations. It, however, diminishes as it Approaches Canada line. 
Tlie western range is high and precipitous, having been broken through 
by the rivers, Lamoille and Onion. This range presents some of the most 
lofty summits in the state, particularly Camers Rump and Mansfield 
Mountains. The communication from east to west is much less difficult 
in this, than in the southern part of the state. In passing over the height 
of lands, the ascent and descent arc gradual and easy, and the rivers La- 
Bfioille and Onion, have opened convenient passages through the western 
range. There are several mountains, which do not belong to the ranges 
above described. These, together with some of the most prominent el*, 
evations belonging to the Gree^ Mountain ranges, will bo mentioned 
under their respective names. The sides and sumnxits of most of the 
mountains in Vermont, are covered with e'vei^reens, such as spruce, 
hemlock and fir. Ot^this account, the French early gave them the name 
of Verd Mons, or Green Mountain, which name was afterwards transfer- 
red to the state. 

6. RIVERS. — The rivers within the state of Vermont are small, but 
▼ery numerous. They all originate among the Green Mountains, and 
their courses are short and generally rapid. Connecticut river washes 
the whole of the eastern boundary of the state, and receives from Ver- 
xnont, besides numerous small streams, the eleven following rivers, viz 3 
West, Sexton's, Williams', Black, Quecchy, .White, Ompomponoosuc, 
Wait's, Wells', P&ssumpsic and Nulhegan. Clyde, Barton and Black 
river run northerly into Memphremagog lake. Missisque, Laraoille« 
Onion and Poultnoy river and Otter creek, run westerly into lake Cham- 
plaios ^^^ the Battenkill and Hoosuc westerly into Hudson river. Deer- 
field river passes off to the south into Massachusetts. These are the 
principal streams, and are hereafter described under their respective 
names. No country in the world is better supplied with pure anci 
wholesome water than Vermont. There are scarcely any farms in tbet 
state which are nqt well watered by fountains or brooks, and none^ which 
are not in the vicinity of one^ or more, considerable mill stream. But, 
while Vermont is most abundantly supplied with water, there is scarce- 
ly any part of the country where so littie stagnant water is found. The 
^untains and streams are nearly all transparent, brisk and lively. It ia 
^bsQrve4 tha,t most qC tUe.strec ms in this state have diDiinished in size 


as the country has become cleared and settled. Many mills have ceas- 
ed to receive the necessary supply of water during; a considerable por- 
tion of the year ; and*some have become quite useless. One of the prin- 
cipal causes of this diminution of the streams, is the cutting down of tlie 
forests, which threw off immense quantities of vapour into- the atmos- 
phere, and the expoging of the surface of the ground to the direct action of 
the sun and winds. But it is beHeved that Siequantity of water, which 
annually passes eff in our streams, is not so much less than formerly as 
is generally imagifted. B'efore tlie country waa eleared, the whole sur- 
fta.ce af the ground was covered with leaves and? logs, and the channels 
of the streams were very much obstructed. The consequence was, that, 
when the snows dissolved or rains fcH, tlie water passed off slowly, and= 
the streams were kept up till they received another supply. On this 
account, the size of the streams continued nearly uniform during the 
whole year. But since the lands have become cleared, and the obstruc- 
tions in the ;<treams removed by freshets, during the melting of the snows 
and- ho«vy rains, the water ruiw off from the surface of the ground quick- 
ly^ tlie streams are suddenly raised, run with great rapidity and soon 
subsixio. C4ansequently they must be less than formerly, for a consider- 
able part of the year, in order to carry off the same quantity of water. 
It is a well known fact that this country is mare subject to sudden and 
violent freshets, than at the tim« it was iSrst settled. Many of the 
channels formed by the rivers in this state are great curiosities. The 
waters in Vermont are generally soft, miscible with soap, and free from 
foreign subetances. This is particularly the case on the east side of 
the mountains. The waters on the west side of the mountains are of- 
ten impregnated with iron, carbonate of lime, and epsom salt. Chaly- 
beate springs, and springs impregnated with sulphur, are found in dif- 
ferent parts ik the state. The latter are very numerous in the north- 
eastern p^rts. Several of these springs have been places of some resort 
for invalids, particularly those in Clarendon, Newbury, Tunbrid^e and 
Plainfield. They are doubtless useful in eruptive complaints, loss of 
appetite, indigestion, &;c. The mineral springs which have been dis- 
covered are not known to possess medicinal qualities which will be like« 
ly to give them much celebrity. 

7. LAKES. — There are no considerable lakes, whicb lie wholly in 
Vermont. Lake Champlain lies between this state and New-York, and 
more than half of it within the limits of Vermont. It extends about 105 
miles along the western boundary, and affords an easy communication 
with Canada and the state of New- York. It has lately been connected 
with the river Hudson, by a canal 23 miles in length ; so that the towns 
on the shores of lake Champlain now have direct communication by wa- 
ter with the cities of Troy, Albany, Hudson, and New-York. Lake 
Champlain is about 130 miles long from north to south, and from one to 
15 miles wide. Its mean width is about 4.5 miles, and its depth sufficient 
for the navigation of the largest vessels. The north end of this lake ex- 
tends some distance into Canada. This lake was discovered and named by 
Samuel Champlain, a French nobleman, in the spring of the year 1609, 
and was the first lake of consequence, discovered by the Europeans, in 
the interior of North America. The communication between Canada, 
N«w Eivgland and New-York, hga ev^r been effected by means of tliis 


Jake, since the first settlement of the country. Hence it became th& 
theatre of many important transactions in the wars between Great Brit-^ 
ain and France, and, subsequently, in the strug;gle8 between the United 
States and Great Britain. The name of lake Champlain, stands, on the 
page of history, in connection with some of the most remarkable events 
in the annals of our country. So many g^rand and romantic associations 
are produced in the mind of the eulig^htened traveller, by the scenery 
which surrounds this lake, that a tour through it, is one of the most a- 
greeable that can bo undertaken in this country. Memphremagbg lake 
lies between this state and Canada. It is between 30 and 40 miles long 
and two or three miles wide. It is mortly in Canada, only 7 or 8 miles 
of the south end being in Vermont. A further account of these lakes 
will be found under their names. Small lakes and ponds are consider- 
ably numerous. A description of these will generally be ibaod undec 
the names of the towns in which they are situated.. 

8. ISLANDS. The principal islands belonging ta this state, are 

Northhero, Southhero and Lamotte. They are all situated in the north, 
part of lake Champlain, west of the county of Franklin. These three 
islands, with the township of Alburgh, constilute the county of Grand- 
isle. Southhero, called also Grand island, is the largest and is divided 
into two townshijps. Each of the other two, constitutes one township. 
There are many other islands in this lake belonging to Vermont, but 
they are in general so small as to be unworthy of particular aotice.^ 

9. BAYS. — The eastern shore of lake Champlain is indented by sev- 
eral considerable bays. The largest of these is Missisqoe, which lies 
between Albufgh and Highgate, and extends some distance into the* 
province of Canada. The other bays of most consequence, are Bala-^ 
maqueen bay, between St. Albans and Georgia, Colchester bay in Col* 
Chester, Burlington bay at Burlington, Shelbum bay in Shelburn, But* 
ton bay in Ferrisburgh, East bay, between Westhaven and Whitehall 
and South bay, at the south end of Memphremagog lake. 

10. SOIL AND PRODUCTIONS.— The soil of Vermont is mgen* 
eral rich and loamy, producing an abundance of those kinds of vegeta* 
bles, which are common in our latitude. Still the variety of soil in the 
different parts of the state, is very considerable. Bordering our nume- 
rous rivers, are beautiful tracts of interval land, which consists of a 
dark, deep and fertile aluvial deposit, very productive in corn, grain,^ 
grass and garden vegetables. Back from the intervals, the land risea 
in some places gradually, in others abruptly, into hills, and further back 
into mountains. These are intersected by numerous streams, and in 
general, present a broken and diversified aspect. The uplands in many 
places are, however, scarcely inferior to the intervals. They are- gen* 
erally sufficiently free from stotie to admit of easy cultivation and pro* 
duce good crops of corn, grain and grass. Farmers, who are iiidu«triou»,i 
seldom fail of having their barns filled with .hay and flax, their granariest 
with com, wheat, rye, oats, barley, peas, and beans, and their cellars witU 
the best of cider, potatoes, turnips, beete, onions, and other esculent veg* 
etables. Those hills and mountains which are not arable, on account oi 
their steepness or rocks, afford the best o( pasturage for cattle and sheepi. 
The greatest part of the state is better adapted to grazing than tillage ;; 
but a eofficieiit quantity of grain, for the supply of the i&habitiU3.t9» is, 

B 2 


_1_ ■! I I I I ■ !■ !■ I ■ — - T' . - -- _ . f - . I.I , 1 ■! L. I I . II . I 

easily raised in all parts. Wheat is produced much more abUiidatitly 
oa the west side of the mountain than on the eastern. We have a con- 
siderable variety of fruits and berries, and many kinds in abundance. 
Apples, pears, plums, cherries and currants, are every where cultivated, 
and in their season are found in the greatest plenty and hig^hest perfec- 
tion in almost every part of the state. Our soil and climate appear to 
be very favourable to the growth of the apple. Immense quantities of 
cider are annually made in the older parts of the state, from which ci- 
der brandy is distilled. The principal articles produced in this state 
for exportation, are lumber, horses, beef, pork, mutton, butter, cheese, 
wheat, rye-, corn and oats. There is perhaps no part of the world bet- 
ter adapted to the production and fattening of horses, cattle and sheep, 
than the hills and mountains of Vermont, and, should government see fit 
to take our infant manufactures under its fostering care, the raising of 
wool will probably, at no distant period, constitute a principal branch 
of agricultural employment. From the best information we have been 
able tOL obtain on the subject, the whole number of horses in this state 
may be-estimated at.46,(^i04 the number of cattle at 300,000, and the 
uumberr of sheep at about 475,0004 

IL MANUFACTURES AND TKADE.—Except the domestic fab^ 
Kicks of linen tmd woollen made in. almost every tajwly for home use, 
the manufaistoces of this state are not very considerable. The most im- 
portant are those of pot and pearlashes,. bar and cast iron and maple 
sugar« lathe newer parts of the state larg<e quantities of ashes are an- 
nually mad^ from the timber, while clearing the lands, and prepared 
for market. Along the w-estern.part of. the state iron. ore is very abun^ 
dant, from which, with proper encouragementi a sufficient quantity of. 
iron'mighibe made to supply the inhabitants,. and much for exporta- 
tion, ThereJa now a considerable number oX forges and furnaces in 
operation, particularly in the towns of Tinmouth, Pittsfprd, Swanton, 
&c. . Maple sugar is macnu&ctttrjed in. nearly, all the towns and by most 
of Uie families in the state. The average quantity made by each fami- 
ly, supported by farming, may be estimated at about 150 pounds. This 
would give about 6,000,000 of pounds for th.^ whole quantity.of maple 
sugar annually made in. this state. The numerous falls incur rivers 
and brooksy afford the most excellent sites for mills, manufactories, and 
other machinery propelled by water. The number of sawmills, grist- 
mills, fuUingmilU and carding niaphioes, wall be found in the statistical 
view at the end of the volume. There are in the state about 40 wool- 
len factories, 12 cotton. factorie?, as many. paj>er miUs, about 26 oil mill^, 
375 tanneries and, ISO distilleries,. The distilleries are employed in dis-. 
tilling grain, cider and. potatoes.. The number of distilleries has dimin- 
ished considerably within a few. years. During the last ^ar with G reat 
Britain, great numbers Wiere erected inalmost every town, and immense 
quanti^^ of potatoe whiske^p, w£re annually made, which found a ready 
markesPm the United States^ arm.y. There is a manufactory of cop- 
peras, m>m the sulphuret iron, iaStrafibrd,. wiiioh produces from one 
to two hundred tons annually,, a, manufactory of Magog oil stones, at 
Burke, which produces from 2 tp 4. tons annually, and extensive manu-. 
factories of marble at Middlebury,. S wanton, Pittsford, &c. The amount 
of our oxpQrts ^ftd imports cannot, be ascertaiaed with any degree of 


— ' ' ' " ■■-' * ■■ • ■ ' ■ ■' ^ 

precision. Our trade is with Moatreal, Quebec, Boston, Hartford, Troy, 
Albany and New-Tork. On the east side of the mountains the trade has 
been edmost exclusively with Boston and Hartford, and on the west side 
with New- York and Canada. In consequence of the canal between Hud- 
son river and lake Champlaip, the greatest share of the trade of this 
state will hereafter undoubtedly be with New- York. Our articles of ex- 
port are lumber, pot and pearl ashes, horses, beef cattle, pork, mutton, 
butter, cheese, grain, clover seed, marble, oil stones, copperas. Sic, The 
lumber in the eastern part of the state, is conveyed to market by means 
of Connecticut river, and that in the western part has, till lately, been 
conveyed by means of lake Champlain, and the rivers Sorell and St. 
Lawrence to Quebec. But since opening the canal from this lake to the 
Hudson, and the restrictions imposed upon the lumbering trade by the 
British government, most of the lumber from this part of the state has 
gone through the canal to New- York. Boston has always been the 
principal mart for our beef, pork and mutton. Our imports are English 
and East and West India goods. 

12. CLIMATE. — The elimate of Vermont is cold, and subject to sud- 
den changes, but the air is pure and healthy. The extremes of heat 
and cold are about 100 degrees above and 27 degrees below the cypher 
on Fahrenheit*s thermometer. But few observations have hitherto been 
made for determining the mean annual temperature. By a course of 
observations made at Burlington from 1803 to 1808, the mean tempeia- 
ture for 5 years, was 43.4 degt-ees. At Rutland the mean temperature 
for 1789 was 43.6 deg, and at Windsor for 1806 it was 45.5 degree?. 
The mean temperature of the sevei^al months, deduced from the 5 years 
observations made at Burlington, is as follows ; January 14.4 deg. Feb- 
ruary 18.9 deg. March 28.5 deg. April 39.5 deg. May 56.3 deg. June 
66.6 deg. July 68.2 deg. August 67.6 deg. September 57.1 deg. Octo- 
ber 45.2 deg, November 33.5 deg. and December 54.7 deg. Winter 
generally commences about the first of December and continues till A- 
pril. During this time the ground is usually covered with snow, and the 
cold severe.. The winters are however milder and more variable, and 
the quantity of snow less, than at the time the state was first settled. 
Frosts commonly cease about the middle of May, and commence again 
in September, but they have been known every month in the year. 
Apple trees put forth their leaves about the 5th of May, and their bl6s- 
soms about the 15thc Indian corn is usually planted between the 10th 
and 20th of May, blossoms about the 20th of July and is gathered in Oc- 
tober. Oa the lands back from the. rivers in the northern parts of the 
state, Indian corn is apt to be ii\jured by early frosts. The seasons in 
all parts of the state are liable to a variation of one or two weeks. The 
coldest summer ever known in Vermont was that of 1816!. Very little 
com came to. maturity this year in any part. On the 8th of June the 
ground was completely cavered with snow, and in many plaoes several 
inches in depths The winds in this state are very various, their courses 
being in a great measure regulated by the different ranges of mountains. 
They are most uniform along the shore of lake Champhiin, blowing a- 
bout one half the time from the noi-th and the other from the south, 
easterly and westerly winds being seldom known. In other parts of the 
^te OQrthwesterly wixuls are most cottunou. Easterly storms sometimeft 


reach the eastern parts, but are scarcely known on tho western side of 
the mountains. Thunder showers usually proceed from the west or 
southwest, and are common in the months of May, June, July and An- 
gust, but seldom in the other months. Very little damag^e is done by 
hurricanes, or hail. The crops oftener suffer from too much wet than 
by drought. It is common in this part of the country, to have a consid- 
erable number of days both in spring, and autumn, on which the atmos- 
phere is filled and the sun obscured by smoke. This smoke has somc" 
times existed in the atmosphere in such quantities as to render midday 
as dark as night. One of the most remarkable occurrences of this na- 
ture, was the memorable darkness of the 19th of May, 1780. The dark- 
ness duringa part of that day, was nearly equal to that of midnight, and ex- 
tended from lake Huron to the Atlantic ocean, covering all the northern 
parts of the United States and Canada. Some of the darkest days, oc- 
casioned by a smoky atmosphere, that have been known for a great num- 
ber of years, were during the fall of 1819 and spring of 1820. The 
smoke in the atmosphere is generally supposed to proceed from the fircs» 
which often prevail at these season?, and this is doubtless in part true. 
But it is believed that much and probably the greatest part of the smoke 
arises from the spontaneous decay of vegetation, the minute particles 
being taken up by the solvent power of the atmosphere. The reasons 
for this opinion are ; firsi, we do not have tlie greatest quantity of smoke 
in the atmosphere in those seasons during which there arei the most ex- 
tensive burnings ; and secondly, a very smoky autumn and spring are al- 
ways preceded by a warm productive summer aud a luxuriant growth of 
vegetation. Smoke produced by burning, is only those particles of fuel 
which escape combustion and are taken up by the atmosphere. Why 
may not partially decomposed particles be taken up in the same way 
during the slower process of putrefaction .'* The Aurora Borealis is a ve- 
ry common meteor. It is most frequently seen in the months of March, 
September and Octaber. The most remarkable Aurora Boreali;?, which 
has been observed for some years, was on the evening of the 12th of Oc- 
tober, 1819. It appeared in the form of three resplendent arches or belts,, 
extending through the firmament from east to west. Two of the arches 
were north of the zenith, and the other south and apparently between, 
the equator and southern tropic. This meteor is in general immediate- 
ly succeeded by snow or rain. 

13. DISEASES. — Vermont enjoys a pure and wholesome air. The 
diseases most common to our climate, are fevers, dysentery, consump- 
tion and other inflammatory complaints, arising from colds, induced by 
the sudden changes ii^ the weather to which, this state is subject. The 
typhus or slow fever, has been the most common fever in Vermont, 
though it has aot generally been very fatal. It has prevailed more or 
less in almost every year since the setkement of the state was commenc- 
ed. The spotted fever commenced its ravages in this state about the 
beginning of the year 181 Kand continued its devastations for about two 
years. This was the most alarming disease ever known in Vermont, 
rt usually attacked persons of the most robust and hardy constitutions 
and often proved fatal in the course of a few hours. It was not uncom- 
mon that the patient was a corpse before a physician could be brought 
to- his aflsistaaee^ Ths lung fever (epidemic ptnpneumony) followed tiia 


spotted fovcr and was the most fatal epidemic disease ever experienced 
in this part of the country. This disease resembled the spotted fever, 
except in having its principal location upon the luu^s, and being slower 
in coming to a crisis. It commenced in this state in the autum of 181^ 
at the nortliwestcrn part. U proved very mortal in the United States* 
army at Burlington, carrying off from 10 to 12 in a day, before it spread 
among the inhabitants : It was, however, but a short time before it be« 
eame general throughout the state. In tlie course of the succeeding 
winter it swept off from 20 to 60 of the most respectable and useful citi- 
zens in almost every town. Intermittent fevers were formerly comihon 
in many places along the shores of lake Champlain, but case^ of this dis- 
ease at present v.ery rarely occur. The dysentery has ever been one of 
the most fatal disorders to children, and has frequently prevailed in dif- 
ferent sections of the state to an alarminj^ degree. This disease is sel- 
dom kmown, except in the months of Julj', August and September. 
Some cases of dysentery have occurred almost every year since the state 
has been settled ; but they have been for some years less frequent than 
formerly. In the autumn of 1822 and 1823, the dysentery appeared in 
a much more malignant form than usual, and was very fatal in some 
places. But of all the diseases, which continue from year to year to 
make their inroads upon our population, the pulmonary consumption is 
the most fatal and the most deplorable. Slow in its advances, it almost 
imperceptibly undermines the constitution — exhausts the vital energies, 
aad, annually, brings down hundreds within this state to an untimely 
grave. The consumption seems to have its origin in the sudden changes 
to which our climate is subject,, and as the weather has become more 
variably in consequence of clearing and cultivating the country, we have 
an obvious cause for the increasing ravages of the disease ; and this cause 
is not a little aided by the propensity, which prevails to indulge the ca- 
prices of the fickle goddess, fashion* Too much pains cannot be taken 
by those, who prize their healtli, to guard themselves against the effects 
of sudden changes of temperature. The measles, canker rash, influen- 
za, &c. have frequently been epidemic in this state. Still it may bo 
safely affirmed that Vermont enjoys as pure an atmosphere, as good and 
wholesome water,^ and as heathy a climate as almqst any p^rt of tho 



I- JBUT very little attention has hitherto been given to the natur- 

al liistory of Vermont. We have, probably, several animals, which 

* For a more particular account of the diseases which have prevailed i)t 
Vermont^ with the most successful methods of treatment^ the reader is refer* 
red to a valuable tretitise upon the epidemics of this state^ by Jos£f h A» 


have uever been accurately described, or classed ; many plants which 
never met the scrutinizing eye of the botanist ; and the mineralogy and 
geology of the state have been very imperfectly explored. An ample 
Seld ii here open tp the man of science and enterprise, which would 
doubtless a^otd fVesh Hurels to entwine the brows of the disciples of Lin- 
ens, and which probably contains many Utent treasures to reward the 
labours of the accurate mineralogist. We are rejoiced to find that^ up- 
on these subjects, a spirit of inquiry and laudable enterprise, is rapidly 
pervading the different sections of our state, ai^d we gladly embrace the 
opportunity to lay before our readers as just a view of the progress which 
has been made in these sciences, as the narrow limits of this Work will 

1. QUADRUPEDS.— sThe native quadrupeds of Vermont are about 
36 in number. Those which have been most common, are the moose, 
bear, wolf, deer, fox, cat, racoon, porcupine, woodchuck, skunk, martin, 
rabit, weasel, squirrel, mole J^ud mouse, together with the beaver, otter, 
muskrat and mink, which are amphibious animals. The largest of our 
animals is the moose. This animal has been found in Vermont, 7 feet 
in height, anid weighing 13 or 14 hundred pounds, Moose were former- 
ly plenty, but are now nearly or quite exterminated. Bears, wolves 

' and deer, ar^ also becoming scarce. We have four kinds of foxes, of 
which the red, or yellow fox, is much the most common and mischiev^ 
ous. Of the cat kind we have also several species. The catamount is 
the ]ai*gest ; and is the most ferocious animal found in this part of the 
continent, but is not very common. The largest and last of these ani- 
mals, which has been taken within this state to our knowledge, Was kill- 
ed in Roxbury, in December, 1821. It measured 7 feet in length, 3 in 
height and weighed 1 18 pounds. Most of the other animals enumerat-^ 
^u above are still common in the different parts of the state, except the 
beaver and otter, which have nearly, or quite, all deserted us. 

2. BIRDS. — A complete catalogue of the birds found in this state will 
n'6t here be attempted, We have most of those, which are common to 
the inland parts, aqd the lakes of northern climates. The following is 
a list of those which are most common and best known. The water 

fowls are the goose, duck, teal, heron, gull, sheldrake, crane, stork, loon 
and water hen. Oif most of these there are several species. The sin^" 
ing birds are the robin, thrush, mockbird, boblincolq, bluebird, yellow- 
bird, wren, catbird, spring1>ird, goldfinch and hangbird. Many of these 
birds usher in the morning in spring with their delightful and cheering 
strains of music. Those usually esteemed birds of passage^ are the wild 
goose, wild pigeon, house 6#rallow, bam swallow, ground swallow, black 
martin and snowbird. The birds which winter in our climate, are the 
fork tailed hawk, crow, owl, partridge, blue jay, snowbird and speckled 
woodpecker. Besides the birds above named we have two kinds of 
eagles, three of hawks, two of owls, and seven of woodpeckers. We have 
also the woodcock, kingbird, blackbird, cuckoo, kingfisher, snipe, whip- 
poorwill, nighthawk, crossbill, hummingbird and many others. The 

Gallitp, Jlf. D. President of the Vermont Medical Society, His remark» 
on pidnwnary consumption are pariicularly recopimended to the alterUiq 
of physicians and others. 





bat, a mammillnry biped^ is i^ery common, and forms the connecting 
link between beasta and birds. 

3. FlSHES*-^The variety of fishes in Vermont, is not very great. 
The following are the names of those of most consequence. The etur'- 
geon, salmon, salmon trout, shad, ba-'^s^ pike or pickerel^ aleWife, eel, 
perch, trout, pouti sucker |knd dacew The trout, perch and sucker were 
formerly very abundant in the streams in this state. But on account of 
great numbers b^ing taken, and more particularly on account of the 
streams being iwept out by violent freshets sinc^ the country has been 
cleared, ^hes have become m':re scfirce. The obstructions, which for- 
merly existed in our streams^ rendered the waters deep, and afforded 
shelter to the fishes. They were consequently very numerous and grew 
lo a great size. But these obstructions are now removed, and the ac- 
commodations in a great measure destrcyied. 

4. SERPENTS. — These are the rattlesnake^ blacksnake, greensnake^ 
striped snake and addef ^ Serpents are not numerous in Verfiaont. ' The 
striped snake is the most common, and is perfectly harmless. The black- 
snake and rattlesnake are generally believed to possess the power of 
fascination. The fangs of the rattlesnake contain a most deadly poison. 
Common salt, if applied immediately, is, however, said to be a sovereign 
remedy for the bite of this animal. Rattlesnakes infest but very few 
places in thid state. 

5. AMPHIBIOUS REPTILES.— Ottr largest and most common am- 
phibious reptiles are, turtles, or tortoises^ two kinds, toads and frogs, 
six kinds, and lizards. Natural history related many instances of living 
frogs being taken from the heart of trees, solid rocks and the bowels of 
the earth, where they must have lain in a torpid state from time imme- 
morial, and Vermont could add a long list to the catalogue. In the 
towns of Windsor, Castleton, Turlington and Bridgewater, living frogs 
have been found in the solid earth, at different depths, from 6 to 30 feet, 
below the surface. 

6. INSECTS.^— These are so numerous that we cannot attempt a cat* 
fclogue, or description, of them. The mofft common are the grasshopper, 
cricket, spider, ant, butterfly, bumble bee, honey bee, beetle^ hornet, 
wasp, firefly, black fly, musqueto, snowflea, moth, and a tnultiplicity of 
bugs and worms. 

7. BOTANY. — Previous to the settlement of Vermont, the whole 
tract of country like the other parts of New England, was one continu- 
ed forest, consisting of loily trees intermingled with a great variety of 
shrubs and plants. Since clearing the country maiiy more have sprung 
up. The following is a tolerably complete list of our indigenous plants, 
together with the most common exotics. 

Botanical Names, 

Acalypha virgin. 

Acer rubrum, 
„ saccharinum, 
„ striatum, 
„ spicatum, 

Common Names, 

3 seeded mercury 
Red maple. 
Sugar muple. 
Striped maple^ 
Mountain maple. 

Hotanieal Names, 

Achillea millefo. 
Acorus dalamus, 
Actaeii rubra, 

„ alba, 
Adiantum pedat. 

Common Names, 

Sweet flag.* 
Necklace- weed 4 


* Those plants having this mark, are used more ot less medicinally. 



Botanical Names. 

Common frames. 

Ag^rimonia cupat. 

Ag^ostem. g^itha. 

Ag^ostis vulgaris, 
„ alba, 
M tenuiflora 

Aira flexuosa, 

Alisma plaatago, 

Allium cepa, 
„ sativum, 
,, tricoccum, 

Alnus serrulata, 

Alsine media, 

Althaea rosea, 
„ officioalia, 

Amaranthus oler. 
„ mclancholicus 

Ambrosia elatior, 

Ampelopsis quiu. 

Amygfdalus persi. 

Anemone virgini. 
„ aconitifolia, 
„ nemorosa, 
„ dichotoma, 

Angelica triquin. 
„ archang^elica, 

Anthemis cotula, 
„ nobilis, 

Anthoxantli. odo. 

Apium petrosel. 

Apoc. androsa. 

Red top. 
White top. 

Hair grass. 

Water plantain.* 

Garden onion. 


Wild leek. 





Pot amaranth. 

Love lies bleed^g. 


False grape. 


Wind flower. 

Low anemone. 





Sweet vernal gr. 



Botanical J^ames, 

Asclepias obtos. 
Aspidium marg. 

„ acrostichoides 
jAspIenium eben. 
„ angustiUblium, 
„ rhizophyllum, 
Asparagus offiein.jAsparagas 
Aster chinensis, 

Common Names. 

Ebo. spleen wort. 
Spleen wort. 
Walking leaf. 

„ connabinum, Indian hemp. 

Aquilegia canad. 
• „ vulgaris^ 
Aralia hispida, 
.,, racemosa, 
„ nudicaulis, 
Arenar^a stricta, . 
Arctium lappa, 
Aronia botryap. 

„ melanecari)a, 
Artemisia abrota. 
Arum triphyllum 
Asarem canaden. 
Asclepias sjrriaca, 




Wild columbixke. f 
Garden „ 
Bris. stem sarsap. 
Wild Sarsapar.* 

Blk. chokeberry. 
Southern wood. 
Wild wormwood.! 
Wormwood,* 1 
Mug- wort,* 
Indian turnip.* 
Wild ginger.* 
Common miikw. 
Slender milkw. 
Swamp milkw. 



„ novae angliae, 
„ cordifolius, 
„ corymbosus, 
„ puniceus, 
Averna sativa, 
Azalea viscose, 
„ nudiflora^ 
Bellis perennis, 
Beta vulgfarisy 

^ eicla, 
Betula excelsa, 
„ lenta, 
Bidens cermea, 
„ frondosa, 
„ connata, 
Botrych. fumar. 
Brassica rapa, 
„ oleracea, 
„ napus, 
Bromus secalinus, 

„ ciliatus, 
Calla palustris, 
Callitriche vcma, 
Caltha palustris. 
Campanula crin. 
^ rotundifolia 
„ perfoliata. 
Cannabis sativa, 
Capsicum annu^m 
Cardamiae penn. 
Carduufi pectin. 
Carex retroflexa, 

Chma aster. 
Star flower. 


Wh. honeysuckle 
Eearly ^ 
Tall birch. 
Poplar birch. 
Canoe birch. 
Spicy birch. 
Wat. beggar ticks 
Burr marygold. 

Grape fern. 


Common cabbage 

Water arum> 
Star wort. 

Am^. c6W slip. 
Prickly bell flo w'r 
Hair bell. 
Clasp, bell flow'r. 

Guinea pepper.''' 
Water cress. 
Comb thistle. 
Sedge grass. 




GAZCTTren op vEiiifoi^r. 


Botanical names. 


Carex vestita, 

Carpinus ameri. 

Carum carui, 

Castanea amen. 

Caulophyl. thai. 

Ceanothus ameri. 

Celastrus scand. 

Cerastium valg^. 

Chaerop. clayt. 

Chelidon. majus, 

Cfielone glabra, 

Chenop. album, 

Chlmap. macul. 
n corymboaa, 

Chrysan. leucan. 

Chrysosp. oppos. 

Cicuta macalata, 
yt bulbifera, 

Cimlcifuga serp. 

Circaea lutetiana, 
^ alpina, 

Claytonia virgpui. 

Clematis virgin. 

Cnicas lonceola, 




Common Names, \\Botanical Names. 

V, arvensia, 
Coohlearia offici. 
„ armoracia, 
Collins, canaden. 
Compto asplenif. 
Convala. canali. 
^ multifiora, 
^ ^ racemosa^ 

„ bifolla, 
Coptis trifolia, 
Coriand. sativum, 
Comus canaden. 
Comas panicul. 
Corjda. cucalla 



Blue beech» 
Blue cohosh. 
New-Jersey tea. 
Staff tree. 
Mouse ear chick. 
Poison cicily. 
Snake head. 

Spot., wintergr'n. 
Bit. wintergreen. 
Ox-eyed daisy. 
Warter carpet. 


Blk. snake root.* 
Ench^t. ni^t ^hade. 
Dw'f night shade. 
Spring beauty. 
Virgin's bower. 
Common thistle. 
Tall thistle. 
Canada thistle 
Scurvy grass 
Horse radish 
Horse balm* 
Sweet fern* 
Clasp, solo, seal 
Giant solo, seal 
Spiked solo, seal 
Dwarf solo, seal 
Low cornel 
Red osier 
White do^ wood 
Blue ber. a. wood 

Panicled d. wood 
Yellow breeches 


Oommon J^ames, 

ICoryda. glauca, 

Corj'lus ameri. 
„ rostrata, 
Crataegus ooccin. 
„ crus-galli, 
Crocus officinalis, 
Cuscuta america. 
Cucumis sativua, 

Cucurbita pepo, 
Cymb. hyemale, 
Cynara scoljrmus 
Cynoofloss. officin. 

,, amplexic. 
Cyperus poaefor. 
„ uncinatus, 
„ fiavescens, 
Cypripe. pubes. 
„ humile, 
„ spectabOe, 
Dalibarda fraga. 
„ violaoides. 
Datura stramoni. 
Daucus carota, 
Dentaria diphyl. 
Dianth. barbatus, 
„ cariophyll. 
„ plumarius, 
Diervilla humili. 
Digitaria sangui. 
Dipsacus fuUon. 
Dirca palush*is, 
Dracaena boreal. 
Dulich. spathace. 
Elodea campam 
Elymus striatus, 

„ hystrix, 
Epigaea repens, 
Epilobium spicat. 

Colic weed 
Clim'g colic weed 
Swamp hazlenut 
Beaked hazlenut 
Thorn bush 
Pear-leaf thorn 
Yel. berr'd thorn 
Thorn tre« 
Musk melon 
Egg squash 
Club squash 
Flat squash 
Water melloa 

Adam and eve 
Carol root 
Toothed coral 
Grass pink 
Garden artichoke 
Hound tongue* 

Bog grass 

Yellow grass 
Yel. lad[ies' slip. 
Low ladies' slip. 
Gay ladies' slip. 
Dry strawberry 
False violet 
Thorn appl« 

Tooth root; trick. 
Sweet willjam 
Single pink 
Bush honey suck* 
Finger grass 
Moose wood 
Dr&goness planC 
Swamp John's wt 
Wild rye 
Hedge hog grass 
Trailing arbutus 
Great wil. hferb 

• 22 


Botanical Names, 


Epilobium lineu. 
„ pulustrc, 
„ tetragonum 
Equisctum arven. 
^ hyemale, 
„ sylvaticum, 
£rigGron canad. 
Eriopho. ang^sti. 
Erysimutad officiu. 

^ barbarea, 
Erythr. dens can. 
Eupator. purpu. 
Fagus ferrug^inea, 
Festuca elatior, 
Fluvialis frag^lis, 
Fragaria virgini. 
Fragaria vesca 
Fraxinus acumin. 
,, pubescens, 
^, sambucifo. 
Qaieopiis tetrahit 
Galium trifidum, 
Oentiana sapona. 
Geranium macul. 
Geiim yirg^an. 
Gteohoma heder, 
Gl joine comosa, 

Common AVwnc*. 1 1 Botanical Karnes. 

Horte tail 
Scouring^ rush 

Pride weed 

Gnapbu mamrit. Everlasting 


^^^ «iiguio 

Cotton gfrass 
Hedge mustard 
Water radish 
Adder's tongue 
Joe pye 
Canker root* 
Boneset; thorVt* 


Fescue grass 
River nymph 
Wild strawberry 
Eng. strawberry 
White ash 
Black ash 
Water ash 
Flowering nettle 
Bed straw 
Dyer's cleavers 
Rough bed straw 

Spidy Wintergr'n 
Soap wt. gentian 
Crow, geranium 
Herb robert 

Upright aveng 
Purple avens 
Ground ivy 
Slend. wild bean 

Sweet cent* ever. 
Early everlasting 
Mud e^*crlasting 
Hedge hyssop 
Witdk haile 

Pledeoma puleg. 

Hedys. glutinos. 

Hedys. arjuminit. 

Helianthiis trach. 

Helianth. tubero. 

Hepatica triloba, 

Heraclenm lanat. 

Hieracium venos. 

Hord'm vulgare 

Houstonia coeru. 

Hamulus lupulus 

Hydroc. america. 

Hyoseris amples. 

Hypericum cana. 

Hossopus nepet. 

Hyss. officinalis. 

Modes ffletida, 

Ile:s Canadensis, 

Impatiens nolitan 

Impatiens balsam. 

Inula helenium, 

Iris virginica, 

Iris pumila 

Juglans cinerea, 

J uncus effusus, 

Junipenis virgin, 

Kalmia an^stifo. 

I latifolia. 

Common Js'^ames, 

Penny royal 
Bush trefoil 

Bush trefoil 
Rough sunflower 
Small sunflower 

Liver leaf 
Cow parsley 
Vein rf. hawkwd. 
Small hawkweed 
Panicl. hawkwd. 
Gr't tooth, hkwd. 
Rough hawkwd. 


Venus' pride 


Water navel wort 

Sq.stmd.St. J's.w 
Com. St. J's wort 
Small St. J'swort 

Giant hyssop 
Sknnk cabbage 
Mountain holly 
Jewel weed 
Balsam weed 
Blue flag; wild iris 
Flower* de-luce 
Yellow iris 
Shagbark walnut 
Rush grass . 

Red cedar 
American sarin 
J uniper 
Sheep poison 



Botanical Barnes, 

Kalmia g;lauca, 
Lactuca elongata, 

Lapath. acetosel. 

Lech^ea major, 

Leersia oryzoidea 
Lemna polyrhiza, 
Leontodon tarax. 
Leonu. car^aca, 
Jjepidium eativ. 

Jjeptanth. gram. 
Li§^ustieam levis. 
Lilium canadense 

Lindemia dilata. 
Linnsea borealis, 
Linum usitatissi. 
}jobelia cardina. 


Lonicera parviflo. 


XiOcopodi. clavat. 



Ijycopua europsB. 

X^ysimach. racem. 

ciliata, ' 

Malaxis liliifolia, 

>Ialva rotundifo. 
Medeola virgixii. 
Melilotus officin. 
Al elissa officinal is, 
Menisperm. cana. 
Mentha borealis, 


Mimulus ringens, 
Mirabilis jalapa, 
Mitchella rcpens, 
IkliteUa diphylla, 


Common ^ama. \ \Botanieal Barnes. 

Swamp laurel 
Wild lettuce 
Field sorrel 
Garden sorrel 
Pin weed 

Cut grass 
Water flaxseed 
Wild peppergrass 
Water stargrass 
Meadow lily 
Red lily 
Twin flower 

Cardinal flower 
Indian tobacco* 

Rough wood vine 
Club moss 
Ground pine 
Tree moss 
Mood fruit pine 
Water horeho und 

Bulb bear. lo.strf. 
Com. loose strife 
Whorled lo. strife 
Tway blade 
Snake mouth 
Low mallows* 
Indian cucumber 
Moon seed 
Meadow mint 
Spear mint* 
Monkey flower 
Four o clock 
Currant leaf 

Common Barnes, 

Monarda oblong. 
Monotropa lanug. 

' uniflora, 
Muhlenber. erec. 
Myosotis lappula, 
Myrrhis duleis, 
Neottia cernua, 

Nepeta oataria, 
Nicotiana rustica, 
Nuphar advena, 

Nymphaea odora. 
(Enothera bienn. 

Onoelea sensibilis 

Orchis ciliari^s 





Orobanche virg, 

Osmunda cinna. 


Ostrya virginica 
Oxalis acetoaella, 


Oxycoccus macr. 
Paconia ofl^cina. 
Panax quinquefo. 

Panicum crus gal. 




Pamassia carolin. 
Pastinaca sativa, 
Pedicularis cana. 
Penthorum sedoi. 
Pents1;emon pub. 
Phased us vulga. 

Phleum pratense^ 

High balm* 
BirdV nest 
Beech dropt* 
Wood grasi 

Sweet cicily 
Ladies* tressei 
Bloodveinla. tret. 

Yellow pond lily 
Lit. yel. pond lily 
White pond lily 
Dwarf scabiah 
Sensitive fern 
B uck^s horn brake 
Yellow orchis 
Ragg'd lip'd orch. 
Showy orchis 
RVid leav'd orch. 
Giant orchis 
Purple orchis 
Cancer root* 
Squaw root 
Flowering fern 

Iron wood 
Wood sorrel 
Ladies* sorrel 
Yel. wood sorrel 
Peony* ' 

Dwarf groundnut 
Bam grass 
Fextail pam« 

Grass of parnass. 
Wild parsnip 
Louse wort 
Virginian orpine 
Beard tongue 
Pole bean 
Scarlet runner 
Bush bean 
Timothy grasa 



Botanixsal Names, 

Phalari* arundin. 
Phryma leptosta. 
Phytolacca deca. 
Piiias balsamea, 









Pisum satiyum^ 

Plaotagp major, 

Plantauus occid. 

Poa pratensis, 

Polygala paucifo. 

Polygonum pimc. 

Poly podium vuL 

jPopulus tremuU 

Portulacca olera. 

Potamogeton nat, 

Poteutilla norw. 


Common JVawi«*. 

Ribbon grass 
Poke weed 
Fir tree* 
Double spruce 
Single spruce 
White pine 
Red larch 
Yellow Pine 
Pitch pine 


Button half tree. 
Meadow grass 
Blue grass 
Giant puead. grass 
Carpet gras» 
Flow'ring winter. 
Sen. snake root 
Water pepper 
Ladies' thumb 
Knee knot weed 
Prickly knot wd. 
Halbert knot wd. 
Bind knot weed 
Climb^buck whH. 
Sorrel knot weed 

White poplar 
Tree poplar 
Balm of Gilead 
Balsam poplar 
Lombardy poplar 
L'g IVd pond wd. 
Clasp, pond weed 
Grass lyd p'd wd. 
Shin, pond weed 
Brit. Ivd pond wd 
Flat stmd p'd wd. 
Cinque foil 
Goose cinque foil 
Mt. cinque foil 
Com. five ftngper 

Botanical J^am>es. 

Preuanthes alba, 
cor data, 

Prinos verticilla. 

Proserpinaca pal. 

Prunella pennsyl. 

Prunus Virginian, 
pad us, 

Pteris aquilina, 

Pyrola rotundifo. 

Pyrus communis, 

Quei*cus tinctoria 
olivae formis, 

Ranunculus acris 
abortivus, * 

Raphanus sativus 

Rheum tataricum 

Rlius typhinum, . 

Ribes floridum, 

Robina pseudo-a. 

Rosa corymbosa, 

Rubus villosus, 

Common JSTames. 

White lettuce 

Mermaid weed 
Heal all* 
Wild cherry 
Choke cherry 
Garden cherry 
Bird cherry 
Small bird cherry 

Common brake 
Shin leaf 
One sided sh. leaf 
Black oak 
False red oak 
Scarlet oak 
Red oak 
Mossy cup oak 
White oak 
Mountain oak 
Swamp white oak 
Com. crowfoot 
River crowfoot 

Small flowr'dcr'ft 
Rough crowfoot 
Bulbous crowfoot 
Celery crowfoot 
Garden radish 
Pie rhubarb* 
Sleek sumach 
Poison sumach 
Mount, sumach* 
Poison ash 
Wild blk currant 
Smooth gooseber. 
Locust tree 
Swamp rose 
Wild rose 
Sweet briar 
High blackberry 
Red raspberry 



Botanical J^amet^ 

Rubus occidenta. 

Humex crispus, 

Ruta g^raveolens, 

Sa^taria s^g^t. 

Salix coDifera, 


Salvia officinalis, 
Sambucus canad. 

Samolas yaleran. 
Sangainaria can. 
Sanicula marilan. 
Satureja horteus. 
Satyrium bracte. 
Saxifra^ nivalis, 

Scirpus tenuis, 

Scropularia mari. 
Scutellaria g^ler. 

. lateriflora, 
Secale cereale, 
Senecio hieracif. 

aureus, . 
JSerpicuia occid. 
Sinapis nig^a, 

Sison candeose, 
Sisymbrium amp. 
Sium latifolium, 
Smilax rotundiib. 


Smyrnum aure. 

Solanum dulcam. 

Solidago ciliaris, 

* arguta, 


Common JSTamei, \\Botanical J^ames. 

Black raspberry 
Rock blackberry 
Flowering rasp. 


Cone-gall willow 

Brittle joint „ 

Shining willow 

Yellow willow 


BJack, elder* 

Red elder 




Summer savory 


Early saxifrage 

Water saxifrage 


Com. bullrush 


ScuUcap . 

Mad dog so, cap* 




Little snakeweed 


Yeh seed mustard 


Water radish 

Water parsnip 

Green briar 

Jucob's ladder 


Deadly nightsha. 
Fringed gold, rod 
Variable gld. rod 
Sharp notch „ 
White golden rod 


f Solicago lanceol. 


Sonchus leucoph. 

Sorbus americana 
Sorghum saccha. 
Sparganium ram 


natans ? 
Spiraea salicifolia, 

Staphylea trifolia 
Streptop. rose us, 
Symphitum offici. 
Tanacetum vulg. 
Taxus candensis, 
Thalictrum dioi. 


Thesium umbell. 
Thlaspi bursa-pa. 

Thuja occidenta. 
Tiarella cordifo. 
Tilia glabra, 

Trichodium lax. 
Trichoph. cyperi. 
Trientalis ameri. 
Trifolium praten. 


Trillium erect. 



Triticum repens, 


Turritis hursuta, 
Tussilago farfara, 
Typha latifolia, 
Ulmus america. 

Urtica dioica, 





Common J^amet, 

GriLss leaf gld.rd. 
Broad leaf 
Sow thistle 


Mountain ash 
Broom corn 
Bur reed 
Flag bur reed 
Slender bur reed 
Meadow sweet 
Steeple bush 
Bladder nut 
Rose bell flower, 
Dwarf yew 
Meadow rue 

False toad flax 
Shepherd's purse 
Yellow seed 
Amer. abor-vitsa 
Miter wort 
Basswood _ 
Crop ear bassw'd. 
Light hair 
Clump grass 
Chick wint. greeQ 
Red clover 
White clover 
Rab't foot^cloyer 
Wake robin* 
Nodding wake ,, 
SmUing „ „ 

Couch grass 
Winter wheat 
Spring wheat 
Tower mustard 
Colt's foot* 
Cat tail flag. 
White elm 
Red elm 
Common nettla 
Great nettle 

Clear weed 
Canuda aettle 




Mafite sudd, rose 
U fnsiswn yafaiL .Clasp, befl v-ict ;? ,f.w»if»r:i», Afrov wimmI 

tWHttbtay jf5eas.k:VdUIvt.^ pjriaaiicsi, [Pear-rfilKepbyy 
Vaoanni IjimI JPae wbortieb it ; pai«s9ceas, ^ 

rcMHMM, Elk.wborfle!>VT. Vksask^ira. fTar« 

Veratnok Tiriffe,^Wliite bdkbcn 

Verbcm bsHtala,rPai74€ 

Ver&r/iJft.c«rrelioJFlat top 
VerMuea. beeca. tBrook Ubm 

ftriata. . 

^Twisted Tiolet 
[Blac TMlet 
;G round violet 
[Woods Tiolet 
ptriped Tiolet 
'UeaJced Tiolet 
|! pabescens, [Yellow Tiolet 
■SefiI]eap.sp'dwell!|Vitis labrnaca, tFox gT^pe 
2^.^^....^ Piirdaiie ^>ecdwl|' coidilblia, i^rast grape. 
Vibfimoia oxjco. flig^ CFUkberrr JXanthivm stram.jciott bor 

•Xylosteom cfliat-jTwinberry. 
^ZantboxT.fraxin.: Prickly ash 

MtryjUiSuiiaL, rFanri betottj 



lentago, 'Sheepbeirj 
laota&oides, (Hobble biMh 
chains, iSnowball 



e. FOREST TREES. — Oar lowest meadow land*, or intervals, along^ 
oar larg^est rivers, were ibrnierly timbered with oak, butternut, elm, 
walnot and some cbesnat« The higher flats were, in g^eral, covered 
with pine. The timber on the m«liam uplands, is principally sugar 
maple, beech and bireh, interspersed with ash, bass, elm, butternut, 
cherry, hornbeam, spruce and hemlock. The sides and summits of our 
bills and motmtains are covered with evergreens, of which, hemlock, 
fpruee and fir, are the most abundant, la the north part of the state, 
are many swamps, which afford a plentiful supply of the best of cedar. 
The white pine g^ows to the greatest height ; and, for lumber, is our 
most valuable (brest tree. It was formerly very abundant along the 
shore of lake Champlain, and along the banks of the Connecticut and 
nost of our smaller rivers, but that which is good is becoming scarce. 
The sugar maple is one of the most common trees in almost eVery part 
ti( the state, and is undoubtedly one of the first importance to the culti- 
vator of tlie soil, as it annually yields him a supply of wholesome sugar 
for his table, and an abundance of the best of fuel for his fire. 

9. MEDICINAL PLANTS.— In the preceding catalogue, only those 
plants whose medicinal virtues are well known, are distinguished by a 
star. There are many others, which are used in medicine, and proba- 
bly many, which are as valuable as those we have noticed. It is hoped 
that the researches, which are now making in this interesting depart- 
ment of' science, will place this subject in a more perspicuous point of 
view. Wo have at present no good work on the medical botany of this 
stato. The ginseng, panax quinquefolia^ was discovered in this part of 
the country, about the year 1750. It is a valuble medicine, but it is 
boliovod that its virtues have been overrated. It grows to great perfec- 
tion in tho north part of the state, and has been a considerable article of 
Mif«lUtiua. The ladian turnip, arum triphyllum, is a valuable &ad 


harmless medicine when dried, but taken g^reen is a most violent poison, 
producing spasmodic affections and sometimes immediate death. The 
balsam obtained from the bark of the fir tree, pinus haUamea^ which a- 
bounds on our mountains, possesses healing virtues, which, we believe, 
have not been duly appreciated by physicians generally, in this part of 
the country. The extract obtained from the bark of the butternut, /wg- 
lant cinerea^ is a very good cathartic. 

10. MINERALOGY.— This subject, has, till lately, received very lit- 
tle attention in Vermont. It is, however, increasing in popularity, and 
the labours bestowed upon it, are in general, crowned with success. 
Iron is very abundant in many parts, and some lead, zinc, copper, &c. 
have been discovered. The following is a ca|;^logu» of the minerals 
found in the state, with the names of the towns which contain the*most 
important localities. A further account of most of these localities and 
of some others will be given in describiug the several towns.* 

Actynolite, — Windham, Grafton, Newfene, Brattleborough. 

Agaric Mineral. — Lyndon, Groton. 

Aluminous Slate, — Pownal, Rockingham. 

Amethyst, — Westminster, Ludlow. 

Amianthus. — Weybridge, Mount-Holly, Kellyvale, Barton. 

ArgiUaceaus Slate. — Dummerston, BratUeborougli, Guilford, Vernon, 
Rockingham, Castleton, Pawlet, Berlin. 

Asbestus, — Mount-Holly, Kellyvale, Troy. 

Augite. — Charlotte. 

BUter Spar, — Grafton, Bridgewater, Kellyvale. 

JBlende^ or Sulphuret of Zinc. — Orwell. 

Calcareous Spar. — Vergennes, Shoreham, Cornwall, Craftsbury. 

Cakareous Tufa. — Clarendon, Middlebury, Burlington. 

Carbonate of Lime. — In all the western parts of the state, and in Ply- 
mouth, Pcacham, and other towns in the eastern parts. 

Chlorite. — Grafton, Windham, Castleton, Bethel, BridgeWater, Stock- 
bridge, &c. 

Clay, — In most of the towns in the state. 

Compact Limestone. — Middlebury, Weybridge, and most of the towns 
in the western part of the state, east of lake Cham plain. 

Copper^ (jGreen Carbonate,) — Bellows' Falls. 

Copperas, (Sulphate of Iron.) — Strafford, Shrewsbury, Bridgewater. 

Ci/anite, or Sappare. — Grafton, Bellows' Falls, Norwich. 

DiaUage, or <S'wiaragrfi/e.— New-Haven. 

Dolomite, — Jamaica. 

Epidote, — Middlebury, Chester, Berkshire. 

Feldspar. — Townshend, Thetford, Monkton, &c. 

Fetid Limestone, — Shoreham, Bridport, &c. 

/'/in/.— Orwell. 

Fluate of Lime, — Putney, Rockingham. 

Garnet. — Bethel, Bridgewater, Woodstock, Grafton, Marlborough, 

* This list of rmtierals is principally derived from a catalogue of the 
minerals in Fcnnont^ lately published by Professor Hall, of Aiddlebury 


Granular Limestone. — In most of the towns west of the Green Moun- 

Graphite^ Plumbago^ or Black Lead. — Hancock. 

Hornblende,-^ J erico^ Acton, Ludlow, Royalton, Chester, Grafl(m,&c. 

Homstdne. Middlebury, Cornwall, Shoreham, Bridport« Orwell, 

West-Haven, Salisbury, Bennington, &c. 

Indicoliie — Bellows' Falls. 

Iron^ (Brown Oxyde.) — Monkton, Pittsford, Ripton, Highg;ate, &c. 

Iron^ IChrormate.) — Kellyvale. 

Iron^ {Magnetic Oxyde^ — Somerset, Addison, Richmond, Middlebury. 

Iron^ {Micaceous Oxyde.) — Jamaica, Newfane, Somerset 

Iron^ U^odular Argilla^ous Oxyde.) — Putney. 

Jron^ {^Red Oxyde.) — Monkton, Brandon. 

Iron<i {Specular.) — Newfane, Rutland, Wardsboro', Somerset, TowtM- 

Iron^ (Sulphuret.) — Shrewsbury, Strafford, Middlebury, Tixunouth, 
Poultney, &c. 

Jaspef, — Middlebury. 

Kaolin^ or Porcelain earth. — Monkton, Brookline. 

Lcrtrf, (Sulphuret) or Galena. — Thetford, Sunderland. 

Made, or Hollow Spar. — Near Bellows' Falls. 

Magnesian Limestone. — Bennington. 

Manganese Oxyde^ — Bennington, Monkton, Brandon, Pittsford, Wil- 
lifiton, Goshen. 

Jfcrar6Zc.— Shaftsbury, Pittsford, Middlebury, Swanton, Somerset, &c. 

Marl. — Peacham, Barnard, Benson. 

Mka. — Chester, Orange, Townshend, Grafton, and nearly all the 
towns in the state. 

JN'ovaculite^ or Oil Stone. — ^Memphremagog lake.- 

Pinite. — Bellows' Falls.— i — Potstone. — G rafton. 

Potters Clay. — ^In most of the towns. Prehnite. — Bellows' Falls. 

Quartz. — In all parts. Quartz^ (Teiid.) — Shrewsbury. 

Quartz, (Granular.) — Vernon, Middlebury. 

Quartz, (Greasy.) — Grafton, Hancock, Stockbridge, New-Ha^en, 

Quartz, (Limpid) or Rock Crystal, — Castleton, Waitsfield, St. Johns- 
bury, Grafton, Athens, Newfane, Rockingham. 

Quarts, (Milky.) — Stockbridge, Grafton, Middlebury. 

Quartz, (Radiatu.) — Thetfbrd. 

Quartz, (Smoky.)< — Shrewsbury, Wardsborough. 

Quartz, (Ta^wtor.)— Windham. 

Scapeiite. — Brattleborough. 

Schorl. — Grafton, Brattleboro', Strafford, Bridgewater, Ditrnmerston, 
Rockingham, Newfane. 

Serpentine. — Kellyvale, Troy, Grafton, Cavendish, Lndlow, Wind- 
ham, Newfane. 

Silicious Carbonate of Lime. — Middlebury, Swanton- 

Stelactite. — Bennington, Dorset, Weybridge, Plymouth. 

Staurstide — Chester, Putney, Pittsfield. 

Steatite. — Bethel, Grafton, Bridgewater, Plymouth, Troy,- Stock- 
bridge, Fletcher, Newfane, Westminster, &c. 


71i/f . — Grafton, Windham, Newfane, Bridgewater, Ludlow, Cayen- 
dish, Athens, Hancock, Montpelier, Fletcher, &c. 

TVemolile, — Bellows' Falls, Wardsborough. 

Zaisile, — Wardsborough. 

11. GEOLOGY. — The rocks east of lake Champlain belong to the 
transition class for the distance of ten or fifteen miles from the shore, 
and along our rivers are many considerable tracts of alluvial deposits ; 
but the general geological character of the state, is decidedly primitive. 
The ranges of rocks like the ranges of mountains, extend throu^ the 
state from north to south. The ranges on the west side of the mountains 
are much more regular, and are better known than those on the eastern. 
Beginning at the lake and proceeding easterly, they are nearly as fol- 
lows ; — 1. Old Red Sandstone, in an interrupted range, — 2. Graywacke, 
—^3. Transition, or Metaliferous Limestone, alternating with Transition 
Argillite, — 4. Transition, or Caciferous Sandstone, — ^5. Transition Ar- 
gilUte, — 6. Primitive Argillite, — 7. Sparry Limestone, — 8. Granular 
Limestone, — 9. Granular Quartz, containing hematitic iron ore and 
manganese, and lying at the foot of the Green Mountains on the west 
side, — 10. Hornblende Rock, — 11. Gneiss, with alternating layers of 
Granite, — 12. Micha Slate, constituting the middle ridge of the Green 
Mountain range, and extending in many places a considerable distance 
down the eastern side. These ranges of rocks extend from Ci^iada to 
New-Jersey, crossing the Hudson obliquely between the highlands and 
Albany. East of the ranges above named, the geological features are 
not so well defined, nor so well known. The ranges are frequently in- 
terrupted, and the rocks, which are primitive, are often in alternating 
layers. Mica Slate and Gneiss are the most common rocks for a consid- 
erable distance dow the eastern side of the mountains. Primitive Lime- 
stone is found in Londonderry, Weston, Ludlow, Plymouth, and in the 
southeastern part of Caledonia county. In Plymouth and some other 
places, it is extensively manufactured into lime. An interrupted range 
of Serpentin*5, appears in Whitingham, Halifax, Dover, Newfane, Ath- 
ens, Windham, Chester, Cavendish, and again towards the north part of 
the state in Kellyvale, and Troy. In connexion with the Serpentine, are 
extensive beds of Steatite, Talc, and Chlorite. Further east are found 
Hornblende Rock, Gneiss, Granite, and Argillaceous Slate in interrupt- 
ed ranges. A range of Granite extends through Windham county, pass- 
ing Connecticut river at Bellows' Falls into New-Hampshire. Granite 
appears again in Chester, Baltimore, and Weathersfield in connexion 
with Gneiss, and in the north part of Weatherfield, and the south part 
of Windsor, constitutes Ascutney mountain. This mountain afibrds in- 
exhaustible quarries of the best of building stone, millstones, &c. Gran- 
ite is also the principal rock in the central and western parts of Orange 
.county, and the eastern part of Washington county, and, in rolled mass- 
es, is very abundant in the southern part of Essex county. Along Con- 
necticut river, is an interrupted range of Argillaceous Slate. It is ex- 
tensively quarried in Vernon, Guilford, Brattleborough, Dummerston, 
Putney, and Rockingham, and is used for roof and writing slate. Ar- 
gillaceous Slate is also found in Northfield, Berlin, and several other 
places in the interior. But very little is yet known of the geology of 
the northeastern part of the state, and the other parts have not been QiSr 
fiaiaed with the xmnuteness the subject deserve?. 



1. GOVERNMENT.— By tlie ConstitntioH of Vermont, adopt- 
ed in 1793, the supreme Legislative jwwer is vested in a House of Rep* 
tesentatives, chosen annually by the freemen, on the first Tuesday of 
September. Each organised town has a right to choose one representa- 
tive. The representatives meet on the second Thursday of the October, 
succeeding their election, and are styled ^^ This: General Assembly 
«p THE STATE OF Vermqnt." They have power to choose their owni 
officers ; to sit on their own adjournments ; prepare bills and enact them 
into laws ; they may expel members, but not for causes known to their 
constituents antecedent to tkeir electioil ; impeach state criminals ; grant 
charters of incorporation ; constitute towns, boroughs, cities, and coun- 
ties. In conjunction with the council, they are annually to elect judges 
of the supreme, county and probate courts, sheriffs and J4istices of Uie 
peace, and also, as often as there shall be occasion, elect major generals 
and brigadier generals. The General Astemhly have all the powers nec« 
essary for the Legislature of a free and sovereign state ; but can neither 
add to, alter, abolish, or infringe any part of the constitutioB. The su- 
preme Exe&utive power is vested in a Governor, Lieutenant Governor, 
and a Council of twelve persons, who are also chosen annually by the 
freemen on the first Tuesday of September, and meet with the General 
Assembly in October. They are to commission all officers ; prepare and 
lay before the Assembly such business as shall appear to them necessa- 
ry ; sit as judges, to hear and determine on impeachments. They have 
power to grant pardons and remit fines, except in cases of treason and 
murder, in which they Have power to grant repi^ievcs, but not pardon 
until after the next session of the Legislature ; and in cases of impeach- 
ment, in which there is no remission or mitigation of punishment but 
by act of legislation. In the recess of the House of Representatives, 
they may lay embargoes, or prohibit exportation for any time not ex- 
ceeding thirty days, and may call a special meeting of the General As- 
sembly, whenever they shall deem it necessary. The Governor is Cap- 
tain-General and Commander in Chief of all the forces of the state, but 
cannot command in person, unless advised thereto by the Council, and 
then only so long as they shall approve ; and the Lieutenant Governor 
is, by virtue of his office. Lieutenant General of all the forces of the state. 
To prevent the evil consequences, which might result from hasty deter- 
minations, all bills which originate in the Asseinbly, are laid before the 
Governor and Council, for their revision and concurrence, or proposals 
of amendment. The Governor and Council have no negative upon the 
House ; but they have power to suspend the passing of any bill until 
the next session of the Legislature. The constitutfon provides for the 
appointment of a Council of Censors^ consisting of thirteta i.erFous, to be 
chosen by the people every sevdbth year on the last Wednesday in 
Mi»rqh, and who are to meet on the first Wednesday in June folio win|^. 


It is their basinesa to inquire whether the constitution has been preeenr- ' 
ed inviolate ; whether the Legislative and Executive branches of gov- 
ernment have performed their duty ; whether public taxes have been 
justly laid* and collected ; and whether the laws have been duly execut- 
ed. They also have power to pass public censures, order impeachments 
and recommend the repeal of such laws as they may deem contrary to 
the principles of the constitution ; and, should they judge it necessary, 
they may propose amendments to the constitution and call a convention 
to act upon thc^m. These powers they may exercise for the space of 
one 3rear from the day of their election and no longer. 

2. LAWS. — So much of the common law of Knglapd as is applicable 
to oar situation and circumstances, and is not repugnant to the constitu- 
tion, or any act of the Legislature, is adopted as law within this state. 
AH the acts of the Legislature are annually published at the close of 
each session, producing a yearly volume of from 100 to 200 octavo pages. 
The statute laws of the state previous to 181 y, have been digested and 
pablished in three volumes. Provision was made during the last ses- 
sion of the Legislature, for compiling and arranging all th6 public stat- 
utes of this state now in force with brief notices of the repealed and pri- 
vate acts, the whole of which are soon to be reprinted in one, or more, 
convenient volume, or volumes. A reporter of the decisions of the su- 
preme court of tlie state was also appointed, and we hope, soon to be, 
in a measure, relieved from the ^glorious uncertainty of the law J" 

3. CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS.— Treason, murder, perjury, in 
consequence of which some person's life is taken away, and arson, by 
fildans of which some person's hfe is destroyed, or his, or her body, or 
members, injured, are at present the only crimes punished with death by 
oar laws. Manslaughter, the second conviction for burglary, and cutting 
oat the tongue, 'putting out the eyes, &c. are punished by imprisonment 
at ^ard labour in the state prison for life, or for a term of years in no 
cate less than 8e\%n,'and in that of manslaughter not less than ten. The 
jyanishment for perjury where life is not taken in consequence may be the 
kame as for manslaughter. Arson, without death, burglary, rape, rob- 
bery, perjury, forgery, theft, adultery, polygamy, incest, counterfeiting, 
And swindling, are punished by imprisonment at hard labour, and by fine, 
in no case exceeding $1,000, or eiUier of said punishments, in the discre- 
tion of the court. Only three executions have taken place in this state, 
•by sentettoe of a eourt of law, since the assumption of the government in 
1777. The first was Dean, who was executed at Burlington in 1 808, the 
-second was Godfrey, executed at Woodstock in 1818, and the third was 
-Yirginia, a man of colour, executed at St. Albans in 18S0. There was 
iin execution at Bennington before the present form of government was 
•established, and several have suffered, in time of war, by sentence of 
^eoort martials. Since the establishment of the state prison at Windsor, 
IHe average number of convicts confined there, has been about 100. 
"These have been sentenced for various crimes, and for different terms of 
'service, but the greatest part for theft and counterfeiting. 

4. COURTS. — ^The judiciary powers of this state, are vested in a su- 
preme courts consisting of tliree judges ; a county court in each eounty, 
consisting of the same number of juc^es ; a probate court, in each pro- 
'bate-fiU^ct, oonsistiag of one judge, and justicei of the peace in eaok 


town, all appointed annually by the Legislature. The Supreme C<mrt 
annually holds one session in each of the several counties, except that of 
Grand Isle. Causes orig^inating in this county proper for the supreme 
court, are entered and tried in the county of Franklin. As a court of 
law, the supreme court has original jurisdiction in actions of a criminal 
nature, and in causes relating to the conservation of the peace, or the pun- 
ishment of offenders, and in civil causes and actions in which the state 
is a party. They also have appellate jurisdiction in causes original- 
ly tried in the county court. The judges of the supreme court are con- 
stituted a Court of Chancery^ and have all the powers usually exercised 
by that court in Great Britain, and the neighbouring states, which are 
not repugnant to the constitution. The County Court has -original ju- 
risdiction in causes of a criminal nature, except the higher crimes, and 
in all civil ^^uses, except where the state is a party, and where justices 
have exclusive jurisdiction. The county court, in each county annual- 
ly holds two sessions. Justices of the P-eace have original and exclusive 
jurisdiction in all civil causes where the matter in demand does not ex- 
ceed $100, except in actions for slanderous words, false imprisonment, 
replevin above the sum of -$7, trespass upon the freehold, and where the 
title of land is concerned. They may bring actions on book account, 
where the debit side of the plaintiff's does not exceed $100, and on note 
where it shall appear that the sum due does not exceed $100. 

5. STATE PRISON.— The Vermont State Prison is a handsome 
ibuilding, situated in the town of Windsor. It was begun in 1808, and 
was nearly completed in 1 809. The prison is built entirely of stone ; 
is 84 feet long, 36 feet wide and three stories high. It is divided into 
rooms of various sizes, sufficient for containing with convenience and 
safety, 170 prisoners. The outside walls of the prison are three feet 
thick and the pajrtitions 18 inches. The doors of the lower story are 
wholly of bar and sheet iron, strongly riveted together. Adjoining the 
prison at the east is the keeper's, or warden's house. It is a building of 
stone and brick, 54 feet long, 24 wide, and four stories high. The low- 
er, or basement story is occupied as a cookery and victualing room for 
the prisoners. The yard cc»nmences at the noirthwest corner of the 
prison, extends west 24 feet, thence south 12 rods, thence east 16 rods, 
thence north 12 rods, thence west to the east end of the keeper's house. 
The walls of the yard, are four feet thick at the base, ai)d 20 feet in 
height above the surface of the ground ; 14 of which are of hewn stone, 
the remainder of brick. The parts of the prison and the keeper's house 
next the street, are secured by 9l piquet. In 1809, a workshop, princi- 
pally of brick, was erected wiUiin the yard, 100 feet long, 24 wide and 
three stories high ; and since that time, several other buildings have 
been erected. The whole sum expended vk building the state prison, 
was $39,312 78, and since that time several thousand dollars have been 
• laid out in repairs and improvements. The first commitments to the 
' state prison, were made in 1809. This>year 24 convicts were commit- 
ted, . and the same number in each of the two succeeding years. The 
pMsoners were at first generally employed in nailing and shoemakingf. 
These emplojrments have since been mostly given up, and the greatest 
.part of the convicts are now engaged in weaving. For several years 
■«fttr the eetablishmeat of the state prison from 5 to |7,000 were an- 


cually drawn from the treasury of the state for its support. But under 
its present regulations and the prudent tnanagement of its officers, it has 
become able to support itself, with a small but increasing profit to the 
state. 7*he ballancc in favour of the prison for 1823, after defraying; all 
th6 incidental expenses, was f 868,16. The immediate government of 
the prison is vested in a superintendent and warden, who are appointed 
annually by the Legislature, and who appoint overseers, servants and 

6. B ANK&. — Tliere was no bank in this state previous to the year 1806. 
jThis year the Legfislature established a state bank, consisting of two 
branches, one at Middlebury, and the other at Woodstock. The next 
^ear, they established two additional branches, one at Burlington, and 
the other at Westminster. This bank was under the management of 
13 directors, who were appointed annually by the Legislature, and who 
«hose one of their number president. All the property of this bank, 
«nd all the profits of it, were to belong exclusively to the state. It 
went into operation with high expectations of its general utility, but the 
experiment did not answer the expectations which had been indulged. 
The bills have consequently been withdrawn from circulation, and the 
concerns of the bank nearly brought to a close. There are, at present, 
three banks in the state ; the bills of which are in general circulation, 
and in high cr^t. 7Vo of them were established by act of the I^egis- 
iature, November 9, 1818 ; one at Burlington, with a capital of |150,&0, 
and the other at Windsor, with a capital of 1 100,000. The other bank 
^as established at Brattleborough, November 5, 1821, with a capital of 
f lOO/KX). Six per cent of all the profits of those banks is to be paid 
into the treasury of the state, and the proceedings of the directors of 
each bank, are annually subject to examination by a committee appoint- 
ed for that purpose by the Legislature. 

7. REVENUE. — The revenue of Vermont is almost wholly derived 
from direct taxation. The law designates the kinds of property, which 
are ratable, or subject to taxation, and the rates at which they shall be 
assessed, and an inventory is annually made out in the^onth of Jane, 
i^hioh is called the General, or Grand List. Upon this list the Legis* 
latore vote a tax of so mueh per cent for the support oT government. 
The General List of the whole state for 1823, was |2,632^14. Upon 
this som the Legislature voted a tax of one- cent and five mills on the 
dollar, equal to ^7,987,71. The sum annually paid into *he treasury for 
taxes, after deducting the expense of coUectiug, is about |35,00O, and 
from other sources four or five thousand more, making the total receipts 
about ^40,000. The annual expense of government is usually something 
less. The following are the receipts and expenditures of the treasury de- 
partment for the political year ending September 30, 1823. 


Ballance in the treasury 
at the end of the last 
year, ... |8,^84 15 

Interest received on ar- 
rearages, ... 499 38 


Debentures of the Gen- '^ 

eral Assfimbly, . |1 3,372 86 
Paid orders drawn by the 

S. Court, . . 9,447 91 


From the foreg^oing^ table it appears that, fur gome years past, the po{^ 
ulation of the slate has not advaDceU so rapidly as it formerly did, BiHi 
the reason is obvious. While there was good vacant land in thisitmte, 
great numbers were annually flocking into it from other parts of Nenr- 
£n;3^1and. But before the year 1810, the course of emigration hid J 
changed to the southwest, and the cold seasons commenciog about thii % 
time, Vermont not only ceased to receive accessions from other stateii \ 
but great numbers removed out of this state, in hopes of finding a more ' 
congenial clime on the banks of the Ohio. This spirit of emigration 
continued till the year 1817, when the seasons became warmer and more 
productive. Since that period emigration has almost ceased. Content- 
ed with such crops as crown the airy bills and fertile vales of Vermont, 
and with such flocks and herds as graze upon our. verdant mountains, 
the people of this state have ceased to listen to the siren praises of other 
climes, and no longer sigh to exchange tlieir present competency for a ■,. 
fairy land of milk and honey. 

2. LITERATUllE.— There is scarcely a state in tlio Union in which 1 
useful knowledge is more generally diffused tlian in Vermont. Eveiy « 
town is divided into school districts in wliich schools are supported dur- ^ 
ing t!ie greatest part of the year. A part, and in many cases all of the 
)i;oney for the support of these schools is raised upon the Grand List, in 
consequence of which our schools are open to the poor as well as the 
rich, and equal privileges are enjoyed by all. Possessing such advan- 
tages, a man, or a woman, who is unable to read and write, is a prodigy * 
indeed. Besides our common schools, we have one, or more, academy 
established in most of the counties in the state, where our vouth can ac- 
quire a good English education, or prepare for admission into college. 
We have aho four higher institutions, viz. The Vermont University, 
Middlebury College, The Vermont Academy of Medicine, and The A* 
mcrican Literary, Scientific and Military Academy, all of which are 
flourishing seminaries. 

The University of Vermont was established at Burlington by an act of 
the Legislature passed November 3, 1791. The act of incorporation 
was £0 altered in 1810, as to increase the number of Trustees to 15 be* 
sides the ex officio members, and in 1823 the number was increased in 
the whole to 28. The ex officio members of the corporation are the 
Governor of the state, the Speaker of the House of Representatives and 
the President of the University. The Trustees are appointed by the 
Legislature. This seminary went into operation in the year 1800 under 
the Prisidency of the Rev. Daniel C. Sanders. The College edifice, 
completed in 1801, was an elegant briek building four stories high, 160 
feet long, 75 feet wide in the central part, and 45 on the wings, contain- 
ing a Chapel, a Philosophical Hall, a Medical Hall, a Chemical Hall, a 
Library, a Museum with a Cabinet for Minerals, two Society Halls, a 
Recitation Hall, and 46 rooms for students. This spacious and valuable 
edifice was accidentally consumed by fire on the 27th of May, 1824. 

Middltbury College was established by the Legislature, November 1, 
1800 ; and by the name of " The President and Fellows of Middlebnry 
College," the Trustees have all the powers of an independent Corpora- 
tion and may elect or remove the memliers of their own body. The 
number of Trustees is not limited by the act of incorporatiqn. The 

M, JXCADBJHT . ei STIJIHWMMHlg': -i'l^' 

I ■ 



present number is about thirty. Instruction was commenced in this in- 
stitution in the year 1800, under the Presidency of the Rev. Jeremiah 
Atwater. There are two College edifices ; one of wood, containing the 
public rooms and erected before the College was incorporated ; the pth- 
«r has been built since, is of granular limestone, four stories high, 106 
feet long and 40 wide, containing 48 rooms. 

7%« Venrumt Academy of Medicine was incorporated by the Legisla- 
ture, October 29, 1818, and established at Castleton. In October, 1819> 
the Legislature, by an additional act, gave to the President and Profes- 
sors power to give and confer those honors and degrees usually given in 
such seminaries. Public Lectures were first given in this seminary in 
the fall of 1818. Convenient buildings are erected, containing rooms for 
giving lectures and for the accommodation of students. 

TAe American Literary^ Scientijic and Military Academy was estab- 
lished at Norwich by a number of liberal and enterprising gentlemen of 
that town, in 1820. A commodious and elegant brick edifice, four sto- 
ries high, has been erected for the accommodation of the Cadets, and 
several small buildings for public uses.* This Seminary is under the 
immediate superintendence and principal instruction of Captain A. Par* 
tridge, a man distinguished for his military, scientific and literary ac- 
quirements, and its success is without a parallel in our country. 

Further particulars respecting these institutions, will be found under 
the names of the towns in which they are situated. 

3. RELIGION The constitution of Vermont, secures to every per- 
son the freedom of religiou^s opinion and worship, and declares " Uiat no 
man can be compelled to erect or support any place oi' worship, or main- 
tain any minister contrary to the dictates of his own conscience.'* No 
person can be deprived of any civil right as a citizen, on accouj;it of his 
religious sentiments or peculiar mode of worship. Tet all denomina- 
tions are enjoined by the constitution " to observe the Sabbath, and to 
keep up some sort of religious worship, which to them shall seem most 
agreeable to the revealed will of Grtd." The denominations of Chris- 
tiaos in this state are Congregationalists and Presbyterians, Methodists* 
Baptists, Freewill Baptists, Christians, Episcopalians and Universalists. 
By the minutes of the general convention of Congregational and Pres- 
byterian ministers in this state in September, 1823, it appears that there 
were at that time 166 churches in their connexion, 73 settled ministers, 
and 17 unsettled. The whole number of Congregational and Presbyte- 
rian ministers is at present about 100. The number of Methodist 
preachers, travelling and local, in this state is about 100 ; the number of 
societies of this order is much greater. The number of Baptist preach- 
ers is not far from 60. The Freewill Baptists and Christians are con- 
siderably numerous in some parts of the state, but the number of their 
psoaobers, or churches, is not known. The Episcopalians and Univer- 
S^tis^ or Restorationers, have also a number of churches organized in 
the different parts of this state. The whole number of preachers of all 
4snmninntifmi is upwards of 300. 

• lUfsrenctf to tiie plate^ .Vo. 1, Commissary Store and ReeUation Rooms^ 
jM^Si Ordinance Rooms^ Armory and Rccilotitm RoomSv^-'^^jtMiw^ 

PC ^ 


4. SOCIETIES. — The societies, which have been formed in this state 
for literary, scientific, religious, benevolent and humane purposes, ex- 
hibit a pleasing^ view of the character of the inhabitants. Most of our 
towns are furnished with well reg^ulated social libraries, and there are 
but few in which there is not one, or more, society for moral and reli- 
gious improvement. Of our larger societies the following are among 
the most respectable and useful. 

The Vermont Medical Society was incorporated November 6, 1813. Its 
object is ^ to regulate the uniform mode of examination and admission 
of students to practice.'^ In subordination to this society are County 
Medical Societies in most of the counties in the state. The annual 
meeting of the Vermont Medical Society is held at Montpelier on the 
second Thursday of October. 

jQgricuUural Societies have lately been formed in several of the 
counties in the state, which bid fair to awaken a spirit of emulation 
among our farmers, friendly to our agricultural interests. It is con- 
fidently believed that these societies will be instrumental in introducing 
many valuable improvements. 

The Vermont Bible Society was organized October 28, 1812. It is 
composed of men of the highest respectability and of every religious 
denomination. Its object is the distribution of the scriptures without 
note or comment among the poor and destitute. In subordination to this 
are a considerable number of auxiliary societies. The Vermont Bible 
Society meets annually at Montpelier, on the Wednesday succeeding the 
second Thursday in October. 

The Vermont Colonization Society was formed for the laudable and 
humane object of assisting the free blacks, in the United States, to return 
to their native country. This society meets, annually, at Montpelier, on 
the second Thursday in October. 

The Vermont Juvenile Missionary Society was organized at Castleton, 
September 16, 1818, by delegates from the societies in various towns in 
this state. Its object is to supply the destitute towns and churches iu 
the state, with the preaching of the gospel. 

There are many other societies, which do honour to the state, but 
which our prescribed limits will not permit us in this place to notice. 

5. CHx\RACT-ER. — Vermont was first settled by emigrants from the 
other New-England states, and the people are almost wholly of English 
descent. Before the settlement by the Europeans, the whole tract of 
country was an immense wilderness, exposed to the depredations of a 
merciless Indian foe. It could not, Uierefore, be expected that any but 
the most enterprising and adventurous would expose themselves to the 
dangers and hardships of establishing themselves here ; and the labours 
which were necessary to subdue the forests, cultivate the soil, and' pro- 
vide a comfortable subsistence for their families, occupied the time of the 
settlers, and left them little leisure for cultivating their minds, or im- 
proving their manners. Hence, they, in their characters, partook of the 
boldness and roughness of the mountains among which they resided ; 
and being accustomed to face dangers of various kinds, and Ux surmount 
difficulties by their personal exertions, they acquired the highest con- 
fidence in their own abilities, and imbibed lofty notions of liberty and 
independenoe. These traits of their general character were fall/ 


played in the several controversies, in which it was their misfortune to 
l>e, for some years, involved, and have ever marked their proceeding's in 
the council and in the field. The first settlers were men of the finest 
talents and most brilliant intellect, but, like the diamond in its native 
quarry, they were rough and unpolished. Without education them- 
selves, they felt its need, and were determined that their posterity should 
inherit the blessing. Hence, in their legislative proceedings, the estab- 
lishment of schools for the instruction of youth was a primary object. 

Among the inhabitants of this state an equality in point of rank and 
property, and a mutual dependance have, very generally, prevailed^ 
which have been highly favourable to the exercise of the social virtues 
and the friendly feelings of the heart. They have been distinguished 
-for their beue volence among themselves, and their hospitality to strangers, 
and it is to be regretted that the growing inequalities and distinctions in 
society, afford indications of a change from this state of things to a 
worse. The people, generally, are agriculturalists, gaining their sub- 
sistance by the sweat of the brow, and with few exceptions, industrious, 
temperate and frugal. The female sex, in Vermont, may be recommend- 
ed as patterns of industry and economy. Being habituated to business 
from their youth, the ladies, generally, pride themselves much on the 
management of their domestic affairs. They consider the family the 
sphere in which they are designed to move, and, here, they, generally, 
appear to the best advantage. Like the males, Uiey all possess the ad- 
vantages of a common' school education, and many of them are not 
destitute of the higher accomplishments. They are distinguished by 
freshness of countenance, and are, in general, strangers to idleness and 
dissipation. But we are sorry to observe a propensity among those in 
ordinary circumstances, to ape the rich, and also a false taste, by which 
some of our country misses attempt to heighten the charms of their 
persons by excessive ornament in dress. An elegant simplicity and easy 
manners are, however, the predominating traits in their general 

6. HISTORY. — Our limits will permit us to notice only a few of the 
most important particulars relating to the history of Vermont. It ap- 
pears that the first discoveries, in this part of the interior of North 
America, were made by Samuel Champlain, a French nobleman. After 
having established a colony at Quebec, in the spring of 1609, he pro- 
ceeded up the St. Lawrence and river Sorell, and explored and gave his 
own name to lake Champlain, which washes the western borders of 
Vermont. He was the first European, who ever visited this territory. 
But notwithstanding this part of the country was thus early explored, a 
long period elapsed before any settlements were made. The first Eu- 
ropean settlements were commenced along the sea shore, and gradually 
extended into the interior. The French began a colony at Quebec, in 
1608; the Dutch began one at New-York, in 1614, and the British one 
-at Plymouth, in 1620. These settlements continued slowly to advance 
towards the territory of Vermont, but no settlement was made within 
the present limits of the state, previous to the year 1724. This year the 
provincial government of Massachusetts built fort Dummer on Connec- 
ticut river, in the county of Windham. The French were, in the mean 
time, makini^ the2r«dyaiice8apUieSt.Lawreace. la 1731, they built 


a fort at Crown Point, and, at tne same time, commenced a settlement 
nearly opposite to it on the east side of lake Champlain. This was 
the first European settlement within the state on the west side of' the 
mountains, as that at fort Dummcr was on the east. , ' 

This tract of country lying between the provinces of Great Britain 
and France, which, with their Indian allies, were eng^ag^ed in almost 
perpetual warefare, its settlement became hig:hly dan§^erous, and 
the progress of population was consequently, for some years, extremely 
flow. In 1760, Canada foil into the hands of Great Britain, which put 
an end to hostilities in this quarter, and to the danger of settling the 
country. From this period the settlement of the state began to advance 
with great rapidity. 

The tract of country situated ♦west of Connecticut river, and now 
known by the name of Vermont, was originally claimed both by New 
Haa>pshire and New- York. New Hampshire began to make grants of 
townships within this tract in 1649, at which time commenced a violent 
-controversy between the two provinces, which continued till the year 
1764, when the matter was decided by the king and council in favjour of 
New- York, and the western banks of Connecticut river declared to be 
the western boundary of New Hampshire. The grants wHich had been 
made by the governor of New Hampshire, during this period, had 
amounteid to 138. These grants, the government of New- York, by a 
forced construction of the royal decree, declared to be void, and called 
upon the settlers to surrender their charters, and purchase new titles to 
their lands of the governor of New- York, at very exorbitant prices. 
Some of the towns complied with this unjust requisition, and took out 
jiew charters, but they generally refused. Upon this commenced the 
celebrated controversy between Vermont, then called the" New Hamp- 
shire grants," and New-York, which was continued with g^eat violence 
during a period of 26 years. Those lands which the settlers refused to 
repurchase, were granted to others by the governor of New- York, and 
actions of ejectment brought, and judgement-obtained against the sejt- 
tlers in the courts at Albany. The settlers soon found that they had 
* nothing to hope from the customary forms of law, and, therefore, de- 
termined upon resistance to the arbitrary and cruel decisions of the 
court till his majesty's pleasure should be further known. Having fairly 
purchased their lands of one royal governor, they were determined, not 
willingly, to submit and repurchase them of another, and when the 
•executive officers of New- York came to eject the inhabitants from their 
possessions, they met With avowed opposition, and were not suffered te 
proceed in the execution of their offices. The settlers, who resisted, 
were consequently indict '^d as rioters, but the court at Albany found it 
impracticable to carry any of its decisions against the settlers into exe- 
42ution. The sheriffs were openly resisted, and, in some cases, cruellj 
handled, and the New- York militia could not be prevailed upon to em- 
ploy arxsas in compelling the submission of their neighbours to such 
cruel mandates. 

At the head of the opposition were Ethan Allen and Seth Warner ; 
bold, enterprising, independent and undaunted spirits, alike unmoved bj" 
thr^ts, or flattery. By their writings and other means, they stirred up» 
the xoiuds of the people, who met in the several towns, appointed comr 


mitteea of safety, and concerted measures for the common welfare. It 
is a matter of regret that the record of the proceedings of these com- 
mittees, is now loist. Their principal object was, however, resistance to 
the high claims of New-York. In 1774, the government of New- York 
passed an act which put an end to all prospect of reconciliation. Tt de- 
clared that, unless the offenders surrendered themselves to the authority 
of New- York within the space of 70 days, they should, if indicted for a 
capital offence, in a court of that colony, be convicted of felony, and 
suffer death without benefit of clergy. At the same time, a proclama- 
tion was issued by the governor, offering a reward of 50 pounds for the 
apprehension of Ethan All«n, Seth Warner and six others, who had db- 
tingoished themselves in the opposition. These measures only served 
to unite the settlers, and render them more resolute, and the Controversy 
was continued without any abatement till the war commenced between 
Great Britain and her colonies, which, probably, prevented the parties 
from proceeding to open hostilities. 

The internal condition of Vermont was still unsettled. She remain- 
ed without any regularly organized government, controlled by the ar- 
bitrary measures of her Council of Safely. In January, 1770, they for- 
warded a petition to Congress, setting forth their disagreeable situation 
and embarrassments. In answer to this petition. Congress only recom- 
mended that they should continue peaceably under tihe government of 
New-Tork till the contest with Great Britain should be ended. With 
this resolution of Congress, some of the people were disposed to comply, 
others preferred a union with New Hampshire, but the more resolute 
were determined upon establishing a government for themselves. To 
ascertain the public sentiment upon this subject, a convention of dele- 
gates from the several towns was called, which met at Dorset, July :24, 
1776, and adjourned to the 25th of September following, when rt again 
met at the same place. At this convention it was determined not to 
unite either with New- York or New Hampshire, but to form an asso- 
ciation for their common defence and welfare. In January, 1777, a 
g^eneral convention of delegates from the towns on both sides of the 
Green Mountains met at Westminster, and on the^6th day of this month 
formally declared the tract of country, usually denominated the J^ew- 
Hampshire grants^ a free and independent state by the name of Ver- 
moni. The first constitution of Vermont was established July 2, 1777, 
by a convention met at Windsor, and at the same time, a Council of 
Safety'*' appointed to acjt until the organization of the government, 
which took place on the 13th of March, 1778. 

At the first meeting of the Vermont Assembly, application was made 
by 16 towns, in New Hampshire, to be admitted to a union with Ver- 
mont, and at the next meeting of the Assembly, which took place in 
June following, a vote was carried in favour of the union. These 
measures being likely to produce a serious controversy with the govern- 
ment of New-Hampshire, at their sesssion in Februar}', 1779, the Asscm- 

♦ A Journal of the proceedings of this council is preserved in an inter- 
tiling collection of Vermont State Papers^ lately published by the Hon > 
Wm. Slade^Jr. of Middlehury, It breathes the genuine spirit of the timea^ 
and ^ffbrd9 a true portrait of our patriotic sirrs. 


bly found it expedient to dissolve the union. New- York still claimed 
jurisdiction over the territory of Vermont, and the same claim was now 
again set up by New-Hampshire ; and while Vermont was petitioning^ 
Cong^ress to be admitted into the unicm, both these states were enforcing' 
that body to a consideration of their respective claims, and the British 
were, at the same time, endeavouring^ to persuade the Vermonters from 
joining the confederacy, and to induce them to place themselves under 
the royal protection. But Vermont paid very little attention to these 
transactions, being now determined to be independent in the manage- 
ment of her internal affairs. 

The people of Vermont have ever manifested a determined appositioe 
to tyranny and oppression, and evinced an unshaken attachment to tiie 
cause of fre^om and the rights of men. The news of the commence- 
ment of hostilities at Lexington, on the 19th of April, 1775, had no 
sooner reached this part of the country than the Green Mountains Bojfs* 
were in arms under the command of Col. £. Allen. At the head of 
these Allen surprised and took the British fort at Ticonderoga, on the 
loth of May, 1775, without the loss of a man. The same day a party, 
under the command of Col. Seth Wariler, took Crown Point, and an- 
other party surprised and took Skeensborough. In the forts they found 
more than 200 pieces of cannon, some mortars, howitzers, and a larga 
quantity of ammunition and military stores. These events, tegether 
with the capture of an armed sloop in the. harbour of St. Johns, secar* 
ed to the Americans the complete command of lake Champlain. During 
the whole revolutionary war, the Vermonters acted, in proportion to 
their numbers, a very conspicuous and distinguished part. Allen was 
taken prisoner on the 25th of September, in making a rash attempt up- 
om Montreal, loaded with irons, and sent to England. Qn the 31st of 
October, Col. Warner, with 300 Green Mountain Boys, attacked and 
defeated Gen. Carlton, in an attempt to cross the St. Lawrence, at the 
head of 800 Canadians and regulars. Carlton was obb'ged to retreat 
yrifh precipitation to Montreal, and with the loss of a great number of 
his men. Many of the Green Mountain Boys served during^ the two 
campaigns in Canada, and signalized themselves, in several important en- 
^gements. On the 16th of August, 1777, in conjunction with the New 
Hampshire militia, under the command of Gen. Stark and Col. Warner, 
they fought and completely defeated a detachment of British troops at 
Bennington, under the command of Col. Baum. In its consequences, 
the *■ Bennington Battle^ may be regarded as one of the most important 
engagements during the revolutionary war. The continental army was 
retreating before the victorious Burgoyne, and the stoutest hearts 
among the Americans were beginning to despond. But this event in- 
fused new hope and new courage into the American bosom. The people 
immediately revived from the paralysis into which they had been thrown 
by a succession of defeats, and hastened to the standard of Gen. Gates, 
who was now in a condition to dispute the progress of the British army, 
and to whom on the l7th of October, the proud Burgoyne was willing 
%9 surrender his sword and the remnant of his 10,000 invincibles. 

'• * The Vermonters^ are so called^ on account of their residing among the 
Qrem Mountaim* 


After the termiaation of the war with Great Britain in 1783, the in- 
raal affairs of the state being in a prosperous condition, Vermont felt 
it little solicitude about an admission into the union. I'hey chose 
.ther to wait until they should ascertam what was likely to be the fu- 
re policy of the federal government. The controversy with New 
ork was still continued, but the parties were becoming more disposed 

a reconciliation. In 1786, Vermont revised her constitution and form 
* government, and in 17^0, the differences with New- York were 
oicably adjusted. It was mutually agreed that Vermont should pay 
) the treasury of New- York the sum of {(30,000, in the consideration 
' mrhich New'York should relinquish all claim to the territory com- 
rehended within the present limits of Vermont. Early the next year, 
convention was called to consider the Expediency of joining the federal 
lion. The convention met at Bennington, on the 6th of January, and, 
1 the question being taken, a majority was in fayour of a union. The 
ermont Assembly met, at the same place, on the lOthi ^^^ on the 18th 
le Hon. Nathaniel Chipman and Lewis R. Morris, £sq. were appoint- 
1 commissioners to rejmir to Congress, to negociate concerning their ad- 
lission ; and, on the 18lh of I'ebruary, 1791, Vermont was formally ad- 
litted into the union, upon the same footing with the other states, with- 
at a disseutmg vote. The constitution of the state was again revised 
y the Council of Censors, in 1792, and adopted in its present form by a 
onvention holden at Windsor, on the 4th of July, 1793. For some 
ears after Vermont was admitted, a great degree of unanimity in po- 
itical sentiment prevailed among the inhabitants. In 1797, two political 
raurties had become so distinctly formed as to adopt for their rallying 
>oint8, the iermafederal and republican. The federal party in the state 
K>ntinued to constitute a considerable majority of the inhabitants for a 
preat number of years. In 1806, the parties had become nearly equa^ 
EUid so continued, the republican party, generally, having the ascendency, 
from this time until the close of the war with Great Britain, in 1814. 
Since that time the violence of party spirit has continued to subside, UU'- 
til party distinction is entirely swallowed up. The people are now 
united in appointing to office our best men, without any regard to the 
parties which they espoused in the former unhappy division of public 
seotiment. The old questions, ' Is he a federalist ? is he a republican ?* 
«re now exchanged for the more rational inquiry, is he a good man ? 
it he competent to discharge the duties of the office ? 

List of the Governors^ Lieutenant Governors^ Treasurers and Secretaries 
ofSiate^ in Vermont^ since the organization of the Government. 






Thomas Chittenden Joseph Marsh 





• 11 



Benj. Carpenter 







Elisha Payne 

CharlestowjiiVr. H« 



Paul Spooner 

























Thomas Chittenden Joseph Marsh 







Moses Robinson 




Thomas Chittenden Peter Olcott 















Jonathan Hmit 








Paul Brigham 



Isaac Tidienor 




































Isaac Tiehenor 

Paul Brigham 



Israel Smith 




Isaac Tiehenor 




Jonas Gaiusha 
















Mart. Chittend^i Wm. Chamberlain 

11 • 






Jonas Gaiusha 

Paul Brigham 









" ft. 









Richard Skinner Wm. Cahoon 








Aaron Leland 



G. P. Van Ness 







Ira Allen 

Thomas Chandler 



Joseph Fay 



Mictdi Townsend 


Samuel Mattocks 




Roswell Hopkins 


Benjamin ^wan 




David Wing^, jun. 



Thomas I^everett 



Josiah Dunham 



Wm. Slade, 




Norman Williams. 

* When the sofM ytar is repeated there were ttca^^esHans ; and whxn th 
dates are omiUed, anfrom 1781 to 86* the incumbenti w^recointimbed inj^ 







Acton, a small township in the 
northern part of Windham county 
in latitude 43° T north, and longi- 
tude 4° 20' east,* is bounded on the 
north by Grafton, on the east by 
Athens, on the south by Townshend, 
and on the west by Windham and 
Jamaica. It is 32 miles northeast 
from Bennington, 18 northwesterly 
from Brattleborough, and was for 
merly known by the name of John- 
son's Gore. It was g;ranted to Moses 
Johnson and 33 others, and charter- 
ed Feb. 23, 1782, and contained 
5045 acres. It was erected into a 
township by the name of Acton, 
Nov. 6, 1800, The town was organ- 
ized Mar6h 3, 1801, and Waitstill 
Scott was first town clerk. It has 
never been represented, except in 
connexion with Townshend. The 
surface of the town is uneven, and 
well watered with springs and 

* As the whole Mlate of Vermont is 
Mituated in north latitude and in east 
longitude from the capital at Wash 
ington^ ii^ giving the lat. and long. 
the words north and east will here- 
after be omitted, 


brooks ; but has no good mill privi- 
leges. There is one saw mill and 
one grist mill, but they have not a 
supply of water for doing any con- 
siderable business. There is no or- 
ganized church here or minister. 
There are however a fcfw Congrega- 
tionalists, Baptists and Methodists. 
The town is divided into ^ school 
districts, 2 of which are furnished 
with school houses. The epidemic 
of 1812 prevailed here and carried 
off 10 or 12 of the inhabitants i^ 
the spring of that year. The settle- 
ment, of the town was commenced 
in 1781 by Noah and Timothy 
Fisher, Ebenezer Bivens and Ri- 
verius Hooker. Timothy Fisher 
cut the first tree with a view of 
clearing. The first settlers had no 
hardships to endure which are not 
^common in new townships. Popu- 
lation, 1820, ^04.— June, 1824. 

Addison, a post town in the 
jwestem part of Addison county, 
in lat. 44° 4', and long. 3^ 38', is 
bounded north by Panton^ east by 
jWeybridge and New-Haven, south 
iby Bridport, and west by lake 
Champlain, which separates it from 





Moriah and Crown Point, N. Y. 
It lies 83 miles north from Benning- 
ton, 62 west from Newbury, and 40 
from Montpelier ; was chartered 
Oct. 14, 1761, and contains 28,800 
acres. The first settlement in Ver- 
mont, on the west side of the moun- 
tain, was, probably, made in this 
town, in the year 1731, by the 
French, who, this year, erected a 
fort at Crown Point, and began a 
settlement on the east side of the 
lake. Crown Point Fort is situated 
n^lirly opposite to Chimney Point, 
in the south west comer of this 
town. (See Champlain lake.) The 
settlement of this town by the En- 
glish was made about the year 1770 
by Mr. Ward and others* The sur- 
face of this township is low and 
generally level. Snake mountain, 
in the south east comer, is the most 
considerable elevation. It is very 
poorly watered and has no valuable 
mill privileges. Otter creek runs 
through the north ftast corner, and 
a dead branch of Otter creek runs 
through the town, from south to 
north, a little west of the centre, 
and unites with Otter creek in Fer- 
risburgh. Mill river and Pike river 
are two small streams, which fall 
into lake Champlain nearly oppo- 
site to Crown Point. The town is 
divided into 1^ school districts. The 
magpietic oxyde of iron is found 
here in small octsedrice crystals in 
argillite, and also the sulphuret of 
iron. The Rev. Justus S. Hough 
is settled over the Congregationalist 
church in this town. Pop. 1210. 

Addison County is on the west 
side of the Green Mountains, at 
nearly an equal distance from the 
northern and southern extremities 
of the state. It lies between 43° 
60' and 44° 18' north lat. and be- 
tween 3° 34' and 4° 14' east long., 
being about 30 miles wide from 
north to south, and 33 miles from 

east to west, containing about 700 
square miles. This county was in- 
corporated Feb. 27, 1 787. Middle- 
bury, a thriving town on Otter 
Creek, is the shire town, and is sit- 
uated nearly in the centre of the 
county. The Supreme Court sits 
here annually on the third Tuesday 
of January, and the County Court 
on the first Monday of June, and 
second Monday of December. Ver- 
gennes, situated on Otter Creek 12 
miles below Middlebury, is a place 
of considerable business. The prin- 
cipal stream is Otter Creek. It en- 
ters the county from the south, 
crossing about the middle of the 
southern Doundary, and falls into 
lake Champlain near the northwest 
comer. Mad river and White river 
have their sources among the moun- 
tains in the eastern part, of the 
county. Granular limestone is vei-y 
abundant here. It is extensively 
quarried in many places and is used 
as a building stone. It receives a 
good polish, is beautifully varie- 
gated and large quantities of it are 
annually manufactured, particular- 
ly at Middlebury, and the marble 
transported to Albany, New- York 
and other places. The western 
part of this county is a rich farming 
country, and the soil is well adapted 
ta the production of grain. The 
eastern part is mountainous and 

Albany, a township, 6 miles 
square, in the central parts of Or-i 
leans county, 34 miles north from 
Montpelier, in lat. 44° 43'. It is 
bounded northerly by Irasburgh, 
easterly by Glover, southerly by 
Craftsbury and westerly by Kelly- 
vale, and a small part of Eden. 
This township is watered by Black 
river, v/^hich is formed in Crafts- 
bury, and passes through Albany 
in a northeasterly direction and by 
a number of its branches. There 





are likewise several considerable 
.ponds, the largest of which is g;reat 
Hosmer^B pond, lyisg: partly in this 
town and partly in Craftsbury. 
Much of this town is suitable for 
tillage and very easy to cultivate. 
The market road from Boston to 
Montreal through Peacham, Crafts- 
bury, &c. passes through the south- 
'west corner of the town, and there 
is a pretty good road, nearly through 
the centre of the town, from Crafts- 
bury to Irasburgh. This township 
was granted June 27, 1781, by the 
name of Lutterloh and its charter 
is dated June 26, A. D. 1782. The 
name was altered to Albany, by 
act of the Legislature, October 13, 
1815. This township was but little 
settled previous to the year 1800 ; 
and the return of the census of that 
year gave only 12 inhabitants. The 
town was organized March 27, 1806, 
and Benjamin Neal was first town 
clerk. Population 1820, 253. 

September, 1823. 

Alburgh, a post township in 
Grand Isle county, lies in the south 
•west corner of the state and is sur- 
rounded by water on all aides, ex- 
cept the north, where it is bounded 
by Canada, or the 45th degree of 
north latitude. It is bounded east 
by Missisque bay, west by lake 
Champlain, and runs to a point at 
the south, beiu^ of a triangular 
form. The length of the town from 
north to south is about 10 miles and 
its average width about 3 1-2 miles. 
It is 33 miles north of Burlington, 
and its charter is dated February 23, 
178 1. The settlement of this town 
was commenced by emigrants from 
St. Johns in Lower-Canada about 
the year 1782. The settlers w^re 
originally from the states, but being 
loyalists, they found it necessary, 
during the revolutionary war, ta 
shelter themselves in Canada. For 

fiome years after the settlement was and sulphur. Doctors Ransoms 

commenced, they were much har- 
rassed and perplexed by the diversity 
of claiitiants to the lands. Ira Allen 
claimed the town and obtained a 
grant of it from the state after the 
settlement was begun,and 5 or 6 years 
after brought actions of ejectment a- 
gainst the settlers, which terminated 
in their favour. In their defence the 
people expended about f 3000. It 
was also claimed by Sir George 
Young as a grant from the Duke of 
York, and by some others ; but the 
settlers were determined to hold 
the lands tliemselves, and all the 
actions of ejectment brought against 
them have hitherto been decided 
in their favour. The town was or- 
ganized in 1792, and Thomas C, 
Reynolds was the first town clerk, 
and David Staunton, the first repre- 
sentative. The religious denomina- 
tions are Methodists, Congregalion- 
alists and Baptists. The Methodist 
society is considerable large ; the 
others are small. There is no set- 
tled minister, but they are occasion- 
ally supplied by itinerant preachers. 
There are some instances of longev- 
ity, viz. Patrick Carigan, who was 
99 years and 3 months old, and 4 
others who were between 95 and 
98. Epidemics have frequently pre- 
vailed here, but there have been no 
very remarkable seasons of mortal- 
ity. The surface of the town is 
very level. There are no moun- 
tains or streams of any consequence. 
The soil is very rich and productive. 
The timber is principally cedar, 
elm, maple and beech. There is a 
mineral spring which is some cele- 
brated for its efficacy in chronical 
complaints, and is a place o'f ''con- 
siderable resort. It is undoubtedly 
useful in cases of scrofula and cu- 
taneous eruptions. The water h^ • 
not been analyzed, but is suppo- 
sed to be impregnated with iron 





Goodenough and Berry are the 
practicing; physicians ; and Truman 
A. Barber, the only attorney. 
There are 8schooldistricts,78chool 
houses, 3 stores, 3 taverns, 2 tanne- 
ries and a windmill which does con- 
siderable business. Pop. 1 172. 

May^ 1824. J. 8. B. 

AifDOVER, a post town in the 
eouth west part ol* Windsor county, 
is 20 miles south west from Wind- 
sor, G8 south from Montpelier, and 
37 north east from Bennington, and 
liesinlat. 43° 17'. It is bounded 
north by Ludlow, east by Chester, 
south by Windham, and west by 
Weston, and contains about 18000 
^cres. The charter of Andover is 
dated Oct. 16, .1761, and was given 
to Nathaniel House and his asso- 
<uates. Weston was formerly a 
part of this town, and is included in 
the charter. It was set hff and con- 
stituted a separate town, by the Le- 
gislature, Oct. 26, 1799. Shubal 
<jieerc and Amos Babcock came into 
this town about the year 1768, and 
made a beginning, but soon aban 
doned it. In 1776, Moses Warner, 
John Simons, John Simons, jr. Eli 
Pease, Jacob Pease, and James 
Keyes, emigrants from Enfield, Con. 
made the first permanent settle- 
ment. William, sou of Shubal Geere, 
iiras the first child bom in town. 
John Simons erected the first saw 
and grist mill about the year 1780. 
The town was organized in March, 
1781. Moses Warner was first town 
clerk, and John Simons first repre- 
sentative. The religious societies, 
in this town are Baptist, Universal- 
ist and Congregationalist. The 
Baptist church was organized Au- 
gust 31, 1803, and at present con- 
sists of 54 members. The Rev. 
Joel Maning was ordained over this 
church Oct. 2, 1806, and still con- 
tinues their pastor. The Baptist 
meetinghouse is in th,e northeast 
comer of the town, is 30 b^ 40 feet 

on the ground, and was erected in 
1809. The Universalist church was 
constituted in 1807. The Rev. 
Cornelius G. Persons preached to 
this church and society four or five 
years. The Congregationalist meet- 
inghouse stands near the centre of 
the town, is 44 by 52 feet on the 
ground, and was built in 1820. The 
spotted fever appeared in one neigh- 
bourhood in this town in the spring 
of 1812, and in eight days carri^ 
off eight persons. The surface of 
the town is uneven and the soil and 
timber similar to that of the other 
towns lying along the eastern side 
of the Green Mountains. Mark- 
hum's Mountain and Mount Ter- 
rible lie along the western part of 
the town. These mountains occa- 
sioned the division of the town, and 
render the communication between 
this town and Weston somewhat 
difficult. There are -no consider- 
able streams. The town is watered 
principally by the head branches of 
William's river. There is one phy- 
sician, Charles W. Chandler. The 
town is divided into • eight school 
districts with a school house in each. 
There are three grist mills, three 
saw mills, one fulling mill, one car- 
ding machine, two stores,two taverns 
and one tannery. Pop. 1820, 1000. 

Jpril, 1824. J. B. 

Arlington, a post town in Ben- 
nington county, lies in lat. 43° 4' and 
long. 3° 50', and contains 39 square 
miles. It is bounded north by Sand- 
gate, east by Sunderland, south by 
^aftsbury, and west by Salem, N. 
T., and is situated 40 miles from 
Troy, 40 miles from Saratoga 
Springs, 40 from Whitehall and 40- 
from Rutland. • It was chartered 
July 28, 1761, to a number of per- 
sons mostly belonging to Litchfield 
county, Connecticut. . The first 
settlement was made, in the year 
1763, by Doctor Simon Burton, 
William Scarls and Ebenezer Wal- 





lis. In 1764, Jehial Hawley, Josiah 
Hawley, Remember Barker and 
Thomas Peck, removed into this 
town. The former was a principal 
land owner, and has left in this 
place a noroerous and respectable 
posterity. The early records of 
this town were lost or destroyed in 
the year 1777, by Isaac Bisco, then 
town clerk, who became a tory and 
fled to Canada. Hence the precise 
time the town was organized, is not 
known. It was about the year 1768, 
and Remember Barker, an active 
and distinguished leader in the con- 
troversy between the N. Hampshire 
grants and New-Tork, was the fiist 
town clerk. Thomas Chittenden 
was the first lepresentative, who 
was the same year elected governor, 
and was succeeded as representative 
by Ethan Allen. 

^ Therearetwo Episcopal churches 
in this town of about 80 communi- 
cants, and one Baptist church, be- 
sides a considerable number of pro- 
fessors of other denominations. The 
Rev. Abraham Bronson has been 
settled 9ver the Episcopal churches 
for more than 20 years. The prac- 
ticing physicians are Aaron McKee, 
Simeon Littlefield and Abel Ayls- 
worth, jr. Arlington, lying lower 
than the surrounding towns, has the 
principal streams in the county, 
passing through it. Roaring branch 
enters the eastern part of the town 
from Sunderland, Mill brook the 
south east part from Glastonbury, 
Warm brook, the south part from 
Shaflsbury and Green river, the 
north part from Sandgate. These 
streams all fall into the Battenkill, 
which enters the town near the 
northeast comer, runs southwester- 
ly about 3 miles, th«nce nearly west 
about 6 miles fdrther, and crosses 
the west line of the town into 
Washington county, N. Y. These 

mill privileges, and along theii^ 
banks are considerable tracts of the 
finest interval land. The principal 
elevations are West Mountain and 
Red Mountain, which extend from 
south to north through the west 
part of the town. These mountains 
are separated by the Battenkill, in 
its westerly course through the 
town. They are covered with a 
considerable variety of timber, con- 
sisting of white, red, and black oak, 
white and black birch, chesnut, 
hickory, &c. The soil is rich 
and very productive of English 
g^ain. The soil in the eastern part 
of the town is chiefly loam, and the 
timber principally beech, maple, 
ash, birch, elm, bass and butternut. 
A glade of land, 3 miles in length, 
and one in breadth, extending from 
north to south, near the foot of West 
mountain, was formerly covered 
with an extraordinary growth of 
white pine. The soil of this tract 
is sandy. Several extensive quar* 
ries of granular limestone, or white 
marble, have been opened here, 
from which large quantities are an- 
nually taken and wrought into 
tombstones and for other purposes. 
There is also an abundance of com« 
pact limestone from which lime, of 
a superior quaUty, is manufactured. 
Near Aylsworth's mills in the east 
part of the town, is a medicinal 
spring, which is resorted to by the 
inhabitants of the vicinity as a rem- 
edy for cutaneous diseases, oph« 
thalmies, &c. The water is strongly 
impregnated with ferrugenous mat- 
ter, and rather unpleasant to the 
taste. It contains a minute portion 
of hydrogen gas, but no carbonio 
acid. Its temperature is about the 
same as that of the springs in the 
neighborhood. Near the north east 
corner of the town is a cavem" 
which is much visited as a curiosity. 

streams afibrd many very excellex2t|jlts entrance is on the east side of a 



gazettebu op Vermont, 



steep hill, and of a capacity suffi- 
cient for one person only to enter at 
« time. From the. entrance to the 
bottom it is about 20 feet, and the 
passage makes, with the horizon, an 
angle of about 45°. The cavern 
then extends westerly in a horizon- 
tal direction 13 rods. Its other 
dimensions are somewhat various in 
different parts of its course. Its 
medium width is about eight feet, 
and its height about tlie same. In 
some places, it contracts so as barely 
to admit a, person to pass along, and 
in others expands into capacious 
rooms or vaults. Near the western 
extremity is a large room of a con- 
ical form, the sides of which are 
very regular. Its height from the 
bate to the apex is more than 50 
feet, and its sides are limerock in- 
crusted with stelactities. The bot- 
tom of the cavern is mostly a fine 
i^hite clay, and a stream of very 
pure water runs through its whole 
length. The road from Bennington 
to Rutland passes through this town. 
*rhe town is divided into nine school 
■districts, in which are about 500 
scholars. The public money ap- 
propriated to the support of schools, 
amounts to 67 cents per scholar. 
There are two houses for public 
worship, three grist and sfx saw 
mills, one woollen factory, two mills 
for sawing marble, one forge, two 
«tores, three taverns, two distilleries 
ahd three tanneries. Pop. 1820, 
1354 ; 697 males and 657 females. 

April, 1024. A. A. JR. 

AsctJTKET Mountain, is situat- 
ed nearly on the line between 
Windsor and Weathersfield. The 
altitude of this mountain, according 
to Capt. A. Partridge, is 3,320 feet 
above tide water, and 3116 feet 
above Connecticut river at Wind- 
sor. There is but very little tim- 
ber on the mountain, and particu- 
larly on the southeastern sidet a9d 

the rocks, which constitute the ele- 
vation, are principally granite, 
which is excellent for building and 
millstones. From the summit of 
this mountain the prospect is exten- 
sive and beautiful. The Connecti- 
cut, winding its way through the 
rich and highly cultivated nreadows, 
delights the eye and adds much to 
the richly variegated scenery. 

Athf.n s, a small township in the 
north eastern part of Windham 
county, is in latitude 43° 7', and is 
bounded north by Grafton, east by 
Westminster and ^ockingbam,south 
by Brookline and Townshend, and 
west by Townshend and Acton. It 
is ten miles from Bellows-Falls, and 
25 miles northerly from Brattlebo- 
reugh. It was granted March 11, 
and chartered May 3, 1780, to Sol- 
omon Harvey, John Moore, Jona- 
than Perham and their associates, 
and contains about 7628 acres. The 
first beginnings towards a settlement 
in this to^wn were made in the fall of 
1779^, by Jonathan Perham, Setl^ 
Oaks, Joseph Rasier, James Shafler 
and Jonathan Foster. They chop- 
ped a few acres, erected a log-hut, 
and then all left the town. Feb. 25, 
1780, Jonathan Perham and Ephra- 
im Holden removed their families 
into the town from Rindge, N. H., 
and were soon followed by Setk 
Oaks and ikmily, irom Winchendon. 
The first settlers had many priva* 
tions and hardships to encounter. 
The snow was four feet deep when 
they came into town, and they had 
to beat their own path for eight 

les through the woods. A smaU 
yoke jof oxen were the only domes- 
tic animals of any kind that th«y 
took with them. The families 
all moved into iJajs hut above men- 
tioned. In May ibllowing, Mrs. 
Oaks was delivered of a daughter, 
the first child born in town. The 
same month, Samuel Bayley, from 





Sterling, Maas., aad Micah Reed, 
from Westmoreland, N. U. came 
into town, and during; the following 
summer, they, in company, erected 
a saw mill, and the next year a g^rist 
miU, for -which they received 168 
acres of land, situated near the 
centre, upon a part of which, S. 
Bayley, who is the oldest person in 
town, now resides. This year, Si- 
meon Evans, Ezra Chaife and Jere- 
miah Tinkham began improve- 
ments, and on the 18th of Sept. 
Isaac, son of Jonathan Perham died, 
and was the first person who de- 
ceased in town. On the 25th of 
Nov. following, two men, at work 
in a remote part of the town, were 
alarmed by the whoops and yells oi 
Indians. They quit their work an^ 
spread the alarm as fast as possible. 
The people, affrighted almost out 
of their senses, hurried away with 
their women and children with all 
possible dispatch, expecting from 
each tree that they passed to be sa- 
luted by an Indian tomahawk or 
scalping knife. J. Perham and fam- 
ily decamped in such haste that 
they left their oven heating and 
their oxen chained to a tree. The 
alarm was spread with the'greatest 
rapidity through the neighbouring 
towns, that Athens was destroyed 
by the Indians. The whole country 
was immediately in arms to defend 
thcmselFes and property from the 
merciless foe. Some spent tlie 
inrhole night in preparing their guns 
and ammunition, and th^ fearful 
itpprehension of impending destruc- 
tion, chased sleep from every eye. 
**• Lo, the mountain laboured and 
l>rought forth a mouse." The hal- 
loaing of a hunter, aided by imagi 
nations rendered susceptible by fear, 
amounted in the coiyse of a few 
hours tp the destruction of a fine 
settlement and the massacre of its 
iohabit»Ats. At^«^ was oi]g;am^d 

March 4,1 781, and VVilliani Beal was 
first town clerk. It was represented 
the same year by Abel Mattoon. 
The religious denominations are 
Methodists,Congregationalists, Bap- 
tists, Universalists and Christians. 
These several denominations unite d 
in 1818, and erected a very fine 
brick meeting-house, which is finish- 
ed in good style. The surface of 
tliis town is uneven, but the eleva- 
tions are not generally abrupt. The 
soil is good and produces well. It 
is, however, much better adapted to 
grazing than tillage. The npple 
tree flourishes and produces as well 
here as in any part of the state. 
The natural growth of timber is 
beech, birch, maple, ash, basswood, 
hemlock and spruce. There is but 
one stream of consequence in town. 
It originates in a pond of about 30 
acres area in the westerly part and 
falls into Sexton's river in Rock- 
ingham, affording several mill priv- 
ileges. Lily pond is small, lies in 
the south west part of the town, 
and derives its name from the great 
quantities of white lilies growing in 
it. The town is divided into three 
school districts with a school house 
in each. There are a saw and grist 
mill standing on the site where the 
first mills were erected and one 
store. Pop. 507. 

Jtt/y, 1924. J. B. 

AvicRiLL, a township six miles 
square in the north part of Essex 
county, is bounded north east by 
Canaan, south east by Lemington, 
south west by Lewis and north west 
by Norton. This town was char-, 
tered June 23, 1762» This town is 
watered by a considerable branch 
of Nolhegan river, several streams 
which fall inte Connecticut river, 
and some which pass off northerly 
into Canada. There are likewise 
several considerable ponds in this 
town. It is iokabited by twi)«r 





three families only. The surface 
of the town is broken, and the soil 
cold and unfavorable for cultiva- 

Avery's GoRE.—l.^feryV Gore 
in Addison county, 8744 acres, and 
was panted to Samuel Avery, Jan. 
27, 1791. It is bounded north by 
Lincoln, east by Kingston, south by 
Hancock and west by Ripton. It 
lies nearly on the summit of the 
Green Mountain, and contained in 
1820, 29 inhabitants. Avery s Gore 
in Chittenden county, was granted 
January 7, 1791, and originally con- 
tained 5970 acres, but a part of it 
has since been annexed to Hun- 
tington. It is of a triangular form 
and lies south of Huntington, and 
west of Fayston. Avery's Gore^ in 
Essex county, is bounded north by 
Norton, east by Lewis, south by 
Wenlock,and west by Warren Gore. 
It was granted January 27. 1791, and 
contains 10,685 acres. It is moun- 
tainous and uninhabited. Avery^s 
Gore^ in Franklin county, is bound- 
ed north by Montgomery, east by 
Kelly vale,* south by Belvidere, and 
west by Bakersfield. It was grant- 
ed June 28, 1796, and contains 9723 
acres. This Gore lies on the west- 
em range of the Green Mountains, 
and is the source of two branches of 
Missisque river. In 1820, it con- 
tained eleven inhabitants. There 
have been other Gores of this name, 
but they are now annexed to town- 

BAKSRSFiELD,a post town, in the 
central part of Franklin county, in 
lat. 44° 47' and long. 4° 9', is bound- 
ed north by Enosburgh, "east by 
« Avery's and Coit's Gore, south by 
Coit's Gore and Fletcher, and west 
by Fairfield. It is 30 miles north 
east from Burlington, was granted 
Feb. 27, f787, and chartered to 
Luke Knowlton, Jan. 25, 1791, and 
«riguially contained bat 10,000 

acres. Additions have since been 
made, and it now contains about 
26,000. The settlement of this town 
was commenced about the year 
1789. In 1791, there were but 13 
inhabitants. ' Population 1820, 945. 
This township is somewhat brok- 
en, but not mountainous. It is tim- 
bered principally with hard wood, 
and the soil is in general warm and 
productive. It is watered by Black 
creek, which crosses the southwest 
corner and several other branches 
of Missisque river. The streams 
are however small and the mill priv- 
ileges not numerous. 

Baltimore, a small township of 
a triangular form, lying in the south 
eastern ])art of Windsor county, in 
lat. 43° 21', and bounded east by 
Weathersfield and Springfield, south 
by Chester, and northwest by Ca- 
vendish. It is 11 miles northwest 
from Windsor and 64 south from 
Montpelier . It was set off from Ca- 
vendish by act of the Legislature, 
Oct. 19, 1793, and constituted ja sep- 
arate township. The town was 
organized March 12, 1794, and Jo- 
seph Atherton was first town clerk. 
It has never been represented in the 
General' Assembly. The religious 
denominations are Congregational- 
ists and Baptists. There is no meet- 
inghouse in town, but the inhabit- 
ants own a third part of a good brick 
meetinghouse, which is situated 
near the line of this town, in the 
northwest part of Springfield. The 
town is well watered with springs 
and brooks, but has no good mill 
privileges or streams of much con- 
sequence. Hawk mountain lies be- 
tween this town and Cavendish, 
renders the communication between 
the two towns difficult, and was the 
occasion of the division . The sum- 
mit of this mountain is for the great- 
er part of the distance the boundary 
line. The rocks are almost wholly 





Gneiss and Graaite ; the soil warm 
but stoney. The town has always 
been healthy. There was not a 
case of the spotted fever at the time 
it was epidemic in other parts of 
the state. There are two school 
districts with school houses in each. 
No mills in town. Pop. 1820, 204. 

Juru^ 1824. 

BARNAjaD, a post town in Wind- 
sor county, 21 miles northwest from 
Windsor, and 37 south from Mont- 
pelier, is in lat. 43° 44', and long^. 
4° 20'. It is bounded northerly by 
Royalton and Bethel, east by Pom- 
fret, south by Bridg^ewater and west 
by Stockbrid^e. The town was 
chartered July 17, 1761, to William 
Story, Francis Barnard and their 
associates. In 1774, the first per- 
manent settlement was made by 
Asa and Lot Whitcomb, Thomas 
W. White and others, emigrants 
from Massachusetts and Conoecti- 
cnt. At the time of the battle, of 
Banker's hill, (properly Breed's 
hill,) which took place on the 17th 
of July, 1775, the firino; was dis- 
tinctly heard in this town by Thom- 
as Freeman and others, a distance 
of more than lOO miles. On the 
9th of August, 1780, this town was 
visited'by a party of 21 Indians, who 
made prisoners of Thomas M. 
Wright, Prince Haskell and John 
Neiyton, and carried them to Can- 
ada. Newton and Wright made 
their escape the spring following, 
and Haskell was exchanged the 
succeeding fall. They suffered many 
"irdships while prisoners and on 
^heir return, but they all arrived 
safely at Barnard, and are how all 
*J^ng upon the farms from which 
^ey were taken. They were all 
P'*i«OQers in Canada at the time 
^^yalton was burnt, and were not 
^*n taken, as has been stated in the. 
J^*Tative of that event. During 
"^^ years 1783 and 4, canine mad- 

ness was very common in this part 
of the state. l>ogs, wolves, foxes, 
cats, &c. were affected by it. On 
the 17th of March, 1784, a Mr. 
Stewart of this town was bitter, in 
his finger by a ftiad wolf. Twenty 
seven days from that time symptoms 
of hydrophobia appeared, and he 
died of the disease three days after. 
Barnard was organized as a town, 
April 4, 1778, and Thomas W. 
White was first town clerk. Tho- 
mas Freeman, Asa Whitcomb and 
Solomon Aikens were the first se- 
lect men, and Asa Whitcomb was 
first representative and first justice 
of the peace. The religious denom- 
inations are Congregationalists, 
Methodists and Universalists, each 
of which have a convenient meet- 
ing house. The Rev. Joseph Bow- 
man was ordained over the Congre- 
gational church in Sept. 1784, and 
continued their pastor till his death, 
which happened April 27, 1806. 
The Rev. Joel Davis was ordained 
over this church in August, 1807, 
and was dismissed in 1 822. The Rev. 
Hosea Ballon was ordained over the 
Universalist church and society 
about the year 1804, and three or 
four years after removed to Ports- 
mouth, N. H. and from that place to 
Boston where he now resides. The 
Rev. K. Haven is their present 
preacher. The Methodist society 
is very numerous, and is principally 
supplied by the several preachers of 
♦bat order, who reside in town, and 
by circuit preachers. The most re- 
markable revivals of religion were 
in 1801 and 1822, both of which 
were very general. The hopeful 
subjects of the latter amounted to 
nearly 300, about 200 of whom 
united with the Methodist church, 
and 67 with the Congregutional 
cliurch. There are four physicians. 
Doctors Danforths, Swift and Rich- 
ardson. There are no considerable 





streams. The town lies between 
Queechy and White river, and con- 
tributes to both. Locust creek rises 
in the'southwest part of the town and 
running northerly- falls into "White 
river in Bethel. Near the centre of 
the town is a natural pond which 
covers about 100 acres. It dis- 
charges its waters to the northwest 
into Locust creek. The outlet of 
this pond affords some very fine 
mill seats. A branch of Queechy 
river rises in the south part on which 
is one saw mill in this town. In the 
eastern part of the town is a bog of 
marl. There is a small village sit- 
uated in the centre of the town, 
about the outlet of the pond, in 
which are two meetinghouses, two 
stores, two taverns And a variety of 
water machinery and mechanic 
shops. The town is divided into 
13 school districts. There are three 
stores, seven taverns, two grist mills, 
nine saw mills, three clothier's 
works, two carding machines, two 
tanneries and one distillery. 

^pril, 1824. A. w. 

Baritet, a post town in. Cale- 
donia county, lying on Connecticut 
river, opposite to Lyman, N. II. in 
lat 44° 19', and long 4° 51' east, and 
containing about 40 square miles. 
It is bounded north by Waterford, 
east by Connecticut river, south by 
Ryegate, and west by Peacham and 
Danville, and is 35 miles east of 
from Montpelier, and 65 miles north 
from Windsor, as the roads are trav- 
elled. The charter of Barnet is 
dated Sept. 15, 1763. The princi- 
pal proprietors were Enos, Samuel 
and Willard. Stevens, sons of Capt. 
Phineas Stevens, who so nobly de- 
fended the fort at Charleston, N. 
H., April 4, 1747, against a large 
party of French and Indians, under 
the command of M. pebeline.* 

^fe WiUianCs History of Ver- 
' L page 336. 

March 4, 1770, the first settlement 
was commenced in this town by Ja- 
cob, Eliza and Daniel Hall and Jon« 
athan Fowler. Sarah, daughter 
of Elizah Hall, was the first child, 
and Barnet, son of Jonathan Fowler, 
the first male child born in town. 
The latter was presented by Enos 
Stevens, Esq. with 100 acres of land. 
The town was subsequently settled 
mostly with emigrants from Scot- 
land. A part of the township wai 
purchased in 1774 by the late Alex- 
ander Harvey, Esq., and another 
gentleman, for a company in Scot- 
land. A considerable proportion of 
the people are of Scotch descent. In 
the summer of 1772^ Enos Stevens, 
Esq. erected a grist millon Stevens' 
river about 150 rods from its junc- 
tion with the Connecticut. The 
first town meeting was held and the 
town organized March 18, 1783. 
Walter Brock, Esq. was first town 
clerk, and Col. Alexander Harvey, 
the first representative. In 17^, 
there were in this town 89 ratable 
polls, 723 acres of improved land, 
21 horses, 97 oxen and 148 cows. 
The same year were produced 1781 
lb. of wool, and 5367 yards of woolen 
and linen cloth Were manufactured. 
In 1822, there were 259 polls, 7200 
acres of improved land, 243 oxen 
and 844 cows. Major Rogers, on 
his return from an expedition* a- 
gainst St. Francois, in 1759, encamp- 
ed near the mouth of the Passump- 
sic river in this town, where he ex- 
pected to meet a supply of provi- 
sions to be sent on from Charleston, 
N. H., by order of Gen. Amherst. 
The order of the General was com- 
plied with. Samuel Stevens and 
three others proceeded up Connecti- 
cut river with two canoes, to the 

* For an account of this expedi-^ 
tion see WillianCs history of Vt, vol^ 
I. page 428^ 





d island opposite the mouth of 
Fassumpsic, where they en- 
ped for the night. In the morn- 
hearings the report of guns, they 
J so terrified that they reloaded 
.''provisions and hastened back 
harleston. In the mean time 
sr Rodgers with 156 men were 
i at hand. They ^ceme to the 
th of the Passumpsic, about 
I discovered fire on the island, 
e a raft and passed over to it ; 
to their surprise and mortifica- 
they found no provisions had 
I left. The men, already re- 
!d to a state of starvation, were 
lisheartened at this discovery 
36 of them died before the 
day. An Indian was cut to 
es and divided among the eur- 
rs. The second day Rogers 
i Up the command of his men, 
them to take care of them- 
38, and proceeded down the 
r. Some were lost in the woods, 
Rogers and most of his men 
Bvered and arrived at Charles- 
Mr. David Wood, who has re- 
ly lived in this town, was one of 
era' sergeants, and stated the 
re account to be correct. The 
ibyterian church and society is 
most numerous in town. The 
. David Goodwillie was settled 
* it in 1787, and still continues. 
! first meetinghouse was built 
789. There is a Baptist church 
posed of members in Barnet, 
terford and St. Johnsbury, and a 
igregational church consisting of 
nbers in Bar net and Lyman, N. 
There are in this town 21 per- 
i over 80 years of age, 25 over 
and 48 over 60. In 1811, the 
tted fever occasioned great mor- 
ty in this and the neighbouring 
ns. The typhus fever prevailed 
^815, 16 and 17, and carried off a 
Biderabje number. The princi- 
streams are the fassumpsic. 

which falls into the Connecticut just 
below the foot of the 15 mile falls, 
and Stevens' river,which unites with 
the Connecticut about 2 miles be<* 
low the mouth of the Passumpsic. 
On these streams are several va- 
luable mill privileges, the most re- 
markable of which is at Stevens' 
mills on Stevens' river. At this 
place the river, which is three rods 
wide, falls about 100 feet in the dis- 
tance of ten rods. At the foot of the 
15 mile falls in Connecticut river, is 
a cluster of 21 islands, the largest of 
which is said to contain 90 acres. 
There are several other fertile is- 
lands of considerable size between 
Barnet and Lyman. Some parts of 
the town are broken and hilly, but 
the soil is in general rich and ex- 
cellent for pastup and tillage. 
Tl^ere is some handsome interval 
along the Connecticut and Passump- 
sic in this town, the ascent from 
which to the upland is precipitous 
and rocky. TTie rocks which form • 
the precipice are principally argil- 
laceous slate, and, just below the 
mouth of the Passumpsic, they rise 
from 100 to 300 feet nearly perpen- 
dicular. Iron ore has recently been 
discovered near the mouth of the 
I Passumpsic, which is thought to be 
extensive. There are three natural 
ponds in this town, viz. Harvey's 
pond covering about 300 acres, 
Ross' pond about 100, Morse's pond 
about 15 acres. Hie present head 
of boat navigation on Connecticut 
river is at the lower village in this 
town at Mclndoe's falls The prin- 
cipal places of business are at this 
village, at the village at Stevens' 
mills, and the village at Ranuals' 
mills on the Passumpsic river. The 
practicing physicians in this town are 
Doctors McNabb, Fuller, Stevens 
and Davis. Charles Storey, Esq. 
is the only practicing attorney. Tlfte 
town at present co^tains 12 school 





houses, four stores, four taverns, six 
grist mills, seven saw mills, three 
carding machines, two clothiers'' 
works, three tanneries and onje pot- 

March^ 1824. j. M. ir. 

Barre, a post town in the south- 
east part of Washington county, liiBs 
in lat. 44° 11' and long. 4° 27', and 
contains 31 square miles, or 19,900 
acres. It is bounded north by Mont- 
pelier and Plainiield,cast by Orange, 
south by WiUiamstown and w«st 
by Berlin, and lies about 50 miles 
northwesterly from Windsor. This 
township was granted Nov. 6,'i780, 
to Willlt^m Williams and his asso- 
ciates, and chartered 
by the name of Wildcrsbui-gh. It 
retained this name till the vear 1793, 
when it was altered, by act of the 
Legislature, to that of Barre. In 
1788, Samuel Rogers and John 
Goldsborough, one from Bradford, 
the other from Hartland, Vt. with 
their families, moved into this town 
and began converting the wilder- 
ness into farms. Tlie next year a 
number of other families came in, 
and from this time the town settled 
rapidly by emigrants from Worces- 
ter county, Mass. and from New- 
Hampshire and Connecticut. The 
town was organized, March 11,1793, 
and Joseph Dwight was first town 
clerk. It was first represented in 
the General Assembly, in 1796 by 
Asaph Sherman. The religious so- 
tieties are Congregationalist, Meth- 
odist, Universalist and Baptist. The 
three former have each a large and 
commodious meetinghouse. The 
Congregational meetinghouse is 60 
by 50 feet and was built in 1808. 
It stands on an elevation one fourth 
of a mile east of the north, or 
lower village, on the turnpike lead- 
ing to Chelsea. The finishing of 
the interior of this building does 
honour to the Eociety to which it 

belongs. The Rev. Aaron Palmer 
was ordained to^the pastoral care 6f 
the Congregational church, Feb. 23, 

1807. He was a pious and faithful 
minister of Christ ; but possessing 
a delicate constitution, he fell a vic- 
tim to a quick consumption, which 
terminated his earthly career on 
the 7th of February, 1821. Hefiv- 
ed beloved and died lamented. The 
next year the Rev. Justus W. 
French received a call by said 
church and society, to settle as their 
minister, and was ordained May 23, 
1822. The Methodist meeting- 
house stands in the lower village. 
In 1820, it was removed from 3ie 
west to the north side of the com- 
mon, and finished anew with the 
addition of a handsome cupola. 
This was done partly by the town, 
voting to give the Methodise socie« 
ty |500 dollars towards the finish- 
ing, for which the town is to have 
the use of said building for a town 
house. The society is usually sup- 
plied by circuit preachers, whose 
term of service is commonly two 
years. A Universalist society was 
organized here soon after the com- 
mencement of the settlement. In 

1808, the Rev. Paul Dean, (now of 
Boston,) was ordained over said so- 
cietv, but soon left the town. From 
that time, they had Yiot regular 
preaching, till the year 1821, when 
they settled the Rev. John E. Pal- 
mer. In 1822, they erected a brick 
meetinghouse in the south or upper 
village. The number of Baptists is 
small, and they have till lately been 
mostly blended with the other de- 
nominations. Tliey now have a 
regular church, and occasionally 
have preaching. The inhabitants 
of this town were remarkably 
healthy till the year 1795, when the 
scarlet fever, or canker ;*ash made 
its appearance, as an epidemic, and. 
prevailed for about a year, during 





Mrbich time almost every child, some 
young people, apd several, who 
"were 30 or 40 years old, had the 
disease ; but it proved fulal to none 
but children. Fi\)m this time it 
"Was generally healthy, till Februa- 
ry, 1811, when the spotted fever 
made its appearance and soon be- 
came alarming. Those, who did 
not recover, seldom lived over 36 
hours, and some died within three 
or four hours from the time they 
were attacked l^y the disease. The 
•approach of warm weather put a 
stop to its ravages. In the winter 
■of 1812, the inhabitants were visit- 
ed by much the most fatal epidemic 
disease, that, has ever prevailed in 
the town. It was an inflamation 
of the lungs, with a fever of the ty- 
phoid kind, commonly called pneu- 
monieui typhxndet. The subjects of 
this disease were mostly people of 
middle age, and many who were 
heads of families were swept ofif by 
it. It was much more fatal to males 
than to females. Warm weather 
put a stop to its progress, -and the 
people have since, with few excep- 
tions, been remarkably healthy. 
Doct. Robert Paddock, from Con- 
necticut, moved into this town in 
August 1794, and has till lately been 
the principal physician. There are 
at present two others, viz. Lyman 
Paddock and James Van Sicklen. 
SThe soil is, in general, a dry warm 
loam, free from stone, and as well 
adapted to agricultural pursuits, in 
which most of the inhabitants are 
engaged, as any township in the 
<x>unty. The surface is uneven, but 
there are no elevations of much 
consequence, except Cobble and 
Millstone hills, in the southeast part, 
"which afford inexhaustible quarries 
of excellent granite, which is used 
ms buildiiig stone, and wrought into 
millstones, which are transported 
to different parts of this state, and 


to New- York and Canada. By 
means of drills the granite is split 
into any shape required. Spanish 
brown and allum are found here, 
which might be wrought to advan- 
tage. Near jail branch is a mlncf 
ral spring which has been a place 
of some resort for valetudinarians, 
but has never had the fame of ef- 
fecting any wonderful cures. The 
principal streams are Stevens* and 
fail branches. Stevens* branch 
rises in WiUiamstown, runs Qorth 
into Barre, and then takes a north- 
westerly course through the corner 
of Berlin, and unites with Onion 
river between Berlin and Montpe- 
lier. Previous to the settlement of 
this town, a hunter by the name of 
Stevens was found dead in his camp, . 
near the mouth of this stream, ly- 
ing on a bed of beaver skins, with 
a tin kettle, containing herbs, prob- 
ably for medicine, hanging over the 
place where he had built a fire. He 
was buried near the spot, and from 
him the branch deri\red its name. 
Jail branch, (see Washington,) rises 
in Washington, runs northerly into 
Orange, thence westerly into Barre, 
and unites with Stevens' branch 
between the two villages, near the 
centre of the town. These streams, 
in their passage through the town, 
afford many excellent mill and oth- 
er water privileges. There are two 
considerable villages, one a little 
north, the other a little south of 
the centre of the town, each con- 
taining^ about 250 inhabitants. Tlie 
town 18 divided into 14 school dis- 
tricts. Tlicre are four stores, two 
taverns, three grist mills, two of 
which may be reckoned among the 
best in the state, one having three, 
the other four run of stones, five 
saw mills, three clover mills, two 
woollen factories, two clothiers' 
works, two cabinet shops, two tan- 





neries, sevcu blacksmith shops and jthis town. Frederick W. Adams is 

one pottery. Population 1955. 
June^ 1824. J. R* 

Bartow, a po«t town in Orleans 
county, situated in lat. 44° 45' north 
and long. 4°, 45' east, containing 36 
square miles. It is bounded north 
fty Brownington, east by Westmore 
and Sheffield, south by Glover, and 
west by Irasburgh and Albany, lying 
40 mil^s northeast from Montpelier. 
October 23, 1781, it was granted to 
Gen. William Barton, of Rhode- 
Island, and his associates ; and from 
him the town derives its name. Its 
€fcarter is dated Oct. 20, 1789. The 
first settlement of this town was 
commenced about the year 1796, by 
Jonathan AUyne, Asa Kimball, 
James May and John Kimball. 7*he 
first settlers were from Rhode Island 
mad New-Hampshire. QThe town 
was organized March 20, 1798, and 
Abner Allyne was first town clerk. 
At the time of its organization there 
•were 19 legal voters in town. WU- 
hu^hhy*s river runs a short distance 
in this town, and falls into Barton 
river. Barton river runs through 
the town frpm south to north. The 
pond in Glover, which broke its 
northern bound and rtm entirely out 
on the 6th of June, 1810, passed 
down this river, making very des- 
tructive ravages ; the traces of 
which are still to be seen. There 
are several ponds in Barton of which 
Bell -water pond is much the lar- 
gest. 7^e outlet of this pond, trhidi 
is one of the head branches of Bar- 
ton river, affords some of the finest 
miil seats in the country. Around | 
these is a thriving little village. The 
soil of this township is generally 
-very good. There is a Congrega- 
tional church and society here who 
have a g^ood meeting-house, which 
tras erected in 1820, and principally 
gftrliie expense and through the in-l 
fMtality of Col. EUis Cobb of 


the principal physician. Tliere are 
three saw mills, tWo grain mills, and 
one fulling mill. Pop. 872. 

Sept. 1823. J. M. K. 

Barton River, one of the head 
brandies of this river, originates in 
Glover from the fountains of /2tm- 
away pond, and runs northerly into 
Barton ; the other rises in Sutton, 
runs through the north comer of 
Sheffield, and after passing through 
Bell-water pond, unites with the. 
stream from Glover. Their united 
waters take a northerly direction, 
and, just before they reach the north 
line of Barton, receive Willougb- 
by's river, a considerable stream 
which arises from a large pond of 
the same name in Wesimore, and 
runs westerly eight or nine miles 
through the soutli part of Brown- 
ington and north part of Barton. 
From Barton, Barton river contin- 
ues a north course, passing through 
the northeast comer of Irasburgh 
and eastern part of Coventry, into 
Memphremagog lake. This river 
waters about 160 square miles. 

Batteneill River, is ibrlned 
in Dorset near the head waters of 
Otter creek^ and runs south into 
Manchester, where it receives sev- 
eral branches ; thence southwest-' 
erly across the northwest -comer of 
Sunderland into Arlington, where 
it receives Roaring brook, a eonsid'' 
erable stream, which arises in Sun- 
derland & several othei tributaries. 
It thence takes a westerly directioB 
through Washington, N. Y., receiv- 
ing in its course White creek, which 
originates in Rupert and Pawlet in 
Vermont, and falls into Hudson riy- 
cr, three or four miles below Fort 
xMiller. The whole length of this 
stream is about 43 miles, and about 
one half the length of it lies within 
this "State. It waterr, in Vermont, 
about 225 square miles, and adfoitb 





a number of very good mill priv- 
ileg^es. Along this river are coniid- 
erable tracts of valuable interval. 

Bjelviders, a township in the 
eastern part of Franklin county, 
lying on the western range of the 
Green Mountains, about 32 miles 
northeast from Burlington, and 
about the same distance north from 
Montpelier. It is bounded north 
by Avery's Gore and Kelljrvale, 
east by Eden, south by Johnson, and 
west by Coit's Gore, and contains 
30100 acres. It was granted to 
John Kelly^ March 5, 1787, and was 
chartered by the name of Belvidcre, 
November 4, 179 1 . A considerable 
part of this town is mountainous and 
unfit for cultivation, and, notwith- 
standing some time has elapsed 
sinoe the settlement of the town 
was comntenced, the number of 
fanrii]i4^ here, is yet small. The 
township is watered by two bnuaches 
of the river Lamoile, on one of 
which are a saw and grist mill. 
Population 198. ' 

ojBSfJiiVGTOBr, a post and half 
shire town of Bennington county,i 
lying near the southwest comer of 
the state in lat. 42<^ 52^ and long. 3° 
49'. It is bounded north by Shafls- 
bury, east * by Woodford, south by 
Pownal and west by Hoosac in 
Washington county, N. Y. and is 
100 miles southwesterly from Mont- 
]>elier, 110 west by north from Bos- 
ton, S3 northeast from Albany, 160 
northeasterlv from New-Yoi-k and 
375 east by north from Washington. 
Bennington contains about39 square 
miles, and was the first towuship 
granted within this state. It was 
chartered by Benning Wentworth, 
governor of N. H. Jan. 3, 1749, and 
was called Bennington in allusion 
to his own name. Samuel Robin- 
fiou, who served as captain five 
yean during what is called the 
*» Old French war," on his return j 

from lake George to J[Ioosac fort, 
while proceeding up Hoosac river, 
mistook the Waloomsack for that 
stream and followed it up to the 
tract of country now called Ben- 
nington, liere he found he had 
missed his way and directed his 
course to the fort. He was much 
pleased with the country, and, when 
he returned to his family, he was 
determined, if possible, to begin a 
settlement upon it. He repaired to 
N. H. completed his contracts and 
then sought ibr settlers. He found 
a number of persecuted and despis- 
ed people called separatists ; who 
agreed to accompany him^ and in 
the summer and fall of 17G1, they 
removed their families into this 
town and began a settlement. Sam- 
uel Robinson was appointed a jus- 
tice of the peace by the government 
of N. H. and was the first civil offi- 
cer in town : All the subsequent 
appointments were made under the 
authority of Vermont. John Fasset 
was the first town clerk ; he was 
also the first captain, and James 
Brackenridge and Elisha Field, the 
first lieutenant and ensign. Moses 
Robinson of this town was the first 
colonel in the county of Bennington. 
In the early settlement of this town 
a Capt. Campbell attempted to sur- 
ivey what was called the * Old Pat- 
|ten,* and crossing the farm of Sam- 
uel Robmson was attacked by him 
with his hoe and driven ofi*. Rob- 
inson was apprehended, confined 
two months in Albany jail and fin- 
ed 40 shillings. This was the com- 
meocemcnt of the celebrated con- 
troversy with New- York, which we 
have briefly noticed in our Gener- 
al View. Samuel Robinson was 
sent to England as an agent during 
this controversy, where ho spent 
more than ten months, and at length 
took the small pox and died. Ben- 
nin^on has ever been one of thp 





most importaut towns in the state. 
The inhabitants have been distin- 
guished for tlieir firmness and 
enterprise, and this "was the scene 
of many important 'events in the 
early history of our state. Among 
these we shall briefly notice the 
*'Bennin^on battle,' which took 
place on the 16th of August, 1777. 
The American forces had retreated 
before the British army, had suffer- 
ed severely in the loss of men and 
Btores, and Gen. Burgoyne was en- 
camped on the bank of the Hudson. 
Here he received information of a 
quantity of pronsions, at Benning- 
ton, guarded only by a few militja, 
anjl immediately detaeJied colonel 
Baum, with a select body of troops 
to surprise the place and take pos- 
sesssion of them. His force consist- 
ed of 500 regulars, a few Canadians 
and more tJian 100 Indians, with 
two pieces of artillery. For the 
purpose of supporting Baum, if nec- 
essary, Lieut. Col. Breyman was 
podlcd at Dattenkill with a detach- 
ment of grenadiers, light infaotry 
and chassieurs. On the 13th of Au- 
gust, Gen. Stark, who commanded 
at Bennington, received information 
that there was a party of Indians at 
Cambridge, N. Y. and sent Col. 
Greg to stop their progress. Stark 
soon had intelligence that there was 
a body of regulars in tlie rear of the 
Indians, and immediately sent an ex- 
press to Col. Seth Warner, who was 
at Manchester with his regiment, and 
to the neighbouring militia, to join 
him with the utmost speed. He 
drew out Iiis brigade, and on the 
morning of the 14th, marched out 
six or 7 miles and met Greg on his 
retreat, with the enemy about a 
mile in his rear. Stark drew up bis 
men iu order of battle, and the ene- 
my, coming in sight, halted and sent 
an express to Burgoyne to have the 
rnnforcement advance. During 


ithis, and the succeeding day, there 
I were frequent skirmishings, in which 
the enemy suffered considerably, 
witli little loss to the Americans. 
I On the morning of the 16th, Stark 
was joined by a body of militia from 
Berkshire, and proceeded to attack 
the enemy, who had in the mean 
time formed entrenchments and ren- 
dered his post as strong as circum- 
stances would admit. Col. Nichols 
with 200 men, and Col. Herrick witli 
300, were ordered to attack the en- 
emy in the rear, and while they 
were bringing their troops to their 
position the Indians become alarm- 
and withdrew, but were fired 
upon while passing off and lost three 
killed and two wounded. About 
three o'clock P. M. the attack was 
begun by Nichols, who was follow- 
ed by the other divisions, and the 
action in a few minutes became gen- 
erai. It continued with great obsti- 
nacy about two hours, when the 
enemy's works were carried, their 
cannon taken and Col. Baum him:- 
self mortally wounded and a pris- 
oner and all his men, except a fe-vr 
who had escaped into the woods, 
either slain or taken. The victory 
was but just completed, when Stark 
received information that the rein- 
forcement under Breyman, was ap- 
proaching and but two miles dis- 
tant. Fortunately at this moment 
Col. Warner arrived wjtli his regi- 
ment of Green Mountain Boys from 
Manchester. Disappointed that he 
had not arrived in season to take 
part in the first engagement, he led 
on his men against Breyman and 
commenced the attack. Stark fol- 
lowed with the militia, and the ac- 
tion soon became general and was 
maintained with great bravery on 
both sides till sunset, when the en- 
emy gave way and were pursued 
till dark. In these actions the A- 
mericans took four brass field pieees. 



- ^ — 



13 brass drums, i50 dragoon swords,! ;ity. Stelactites are suspended from 


fourammunitionwaggons,andabout<|the roof^ and also incrust the sides 
700 prisoners with their arms and 
accoutrements. The number found 

dead on the field was S07 ; the 
number of wounded unknown. 
jThe Americans lost only 30 killed 
aud about 40 wounded . ' These ac- 

lof the cave. Iron ore is found hero 
in several places in abundance; 
also marble, magncsian limestone, 
aro^llacious slate, honistone, and the 
oxyde of manganese, 'i'he man- 
g^ne-e is of the variety called the 

tions took place hear the west line ,carthy oxyde, and is found in con- 
of Bennington and in Washingftonln ex ion with a bed of brown hematite, 
county N. Y. where there nro someiilts colour is a brownish black, lla- 
remaiuF of the entrenchments still* -diatcd and compact varieties also 
to be seen. Meetings for relip;io us; 'occur. It is very abundant. The 
worship were held in this town from ivillage, in this town, contains about 
the commencement of the settle-J'oOO inhabitants, a meetinghouse, 
ment. la the winter of 1762, a; courthouse, juil, and a number of 
church was organized and meetings' 'ftorcs, taverns and mechanic shops, 
for conference and prayer held eve- Tlie town is diviiiod into ten school 
ry week on Friday, which have Idistricts. There have been two 
been continued to this day, Thej 'academics incoriwralod here. There 
next year, 1763, the Rev. Jedediahjinre five saw mills, .'i gi-ist mills, one 
Dewey was settled over this chureh.||cottou factory, three woollen fac- 
He was called a ^^eparalist, but he 
and his church consider rd them- 
selves congregatioiialistH. T^hc 
ministers who have suc<'(»odod Mr. 
Dewey in the pastoral cure of this 
ohiirch, are David Avery, Job Swift, 
Amos Marsh and Absalom Peter?. 
Mr. Peters was ordained July 5, 
1 820, and is the pretrnt ])a5tor. A 
church of the same order wns form- 
ed in the south part of tho town by 
JVlr. J. Hibbard who become their 

toric«r, two paper mills and one fur« 
nncG. D. R. 

Bkivkinotow Coditty lies in the 
Foiithwest corner of ^he state, and 
lis bounded north by Rutland county, 
least by Windham county, south by 
I Berkshire county, Mass. and west 
:by Washington and Rensselaer 
counties, N. Y. It is situated be- 
|tween 42^^ 44', and 43' 18', north 
lat. and between 3' 46' and 4° 10', 
least long., and is 39 miles long and 20 
teacher. There are some Baptists jwide nt the nortli end. It contains 
in town, who meet with those of ;about 610 square miles. The ear- 

that order in the adjoining towns. 
T^ere have been six or seven con- 
siderable revivals of religion since 
the town has been settled. Ben> 
nfagton is an excellent fUrmiug 
township and is watered by the 
Waloomeaek and its numerous 
bfan<:hes, which afford many val- 
QaUe mill privileges. Mount An- 
thony, in the soothwost part of the 
town, if a considerable elevation. 
On the east side of this moontain, 
in sight of the court house, is a cav- 
^Hk, which 11 a oonsiderablo ourios- 


liest pcrmanout settlements, on the 
Iwest side of the mountain, in Ver- 
I'raont, were made in this county. 
During the revolution, most of the 
settler?; jnts, north of the county of 
Rutland, were abandoned, and the 
inhabitants retreated into these two 
counties. It was in Bennington 
county tliat the council of si&ty 
held mo?t of their meetings. A 
considerable part of the county is 
mountainous and broken. The 
waters flow from it in all directions. 
From the loatheast part they fidi 





into Deerfield river, and from thej 
southwest into Hoosac river. The] 
Battenkill receives most of the' 
waters from the north part, butj 
some fall into West river, some into 

jjf relational church was org^anized 
liere, over which the Rev. Dan 
Kent was ordained September 5, 
179^. Since tliat time, besides sev- 
eral partial awakenings there have 

Otter creek, and some into Wood; been three very general revivals of 

creek. The land, except on the: 

mountain?, is excellent for tillage, 

religion. The first began in 1804, 
and during this and the succeeding 
year, 1 60 were added to this churcli ; 

several places. Its colour is usually; 

white. Iron ore is' abundant, and 

lead has been found in small quan-| some building, €6 

and produces fine crops. The streams 

afford many valuable mill and other; the ucxt was in 1816, when 130 
water privileges. There is a raugej were added to the church, and the 
of g^ranular limestone or marble: third in 1821, when there was an 
extending through the county from I addition of 160 members. The 
south to north, which is wrought i;i' number belonging to this church is, 

at present, about 400. The con- 
gregational meetinghouse is a hand- 
feet long, 4:^ 
wide, standing in a small, but pleas- 
ant village near the centre of the 
town, and was completed about the 
year 1800. There is a Baptist 
church here consisting o£ about 70 
members. The canker rash pre- 
vailed in this town about the year 
I71J6, and was very mortal. The 
epidemic of 1812 was also very dis- 
tressing. It carried off 60, nearly 
all heads of families, in the space* 
of 60 days. The practicing physi- 
cians are Doctors Cooley, Ransom 
and Lewis. Hubbardton river runs 
through the easterly part of the 
town, affording several good mill 
privileges. In the N. E. corner is 
a considerable pond of clear water, 
which abounds with trout, and dis-. 
charges its waters into Hubbardton 
river. The town is poorly watered, 
and the waters, generally, brackish 
and disagreeable. The timber is 
mostly pine, with hemlock, beech, 
maple, walnut, oak, &c. About 
1-4 of a mile N. E. from the meet- 
inghouse is a bog of marl, which 
might be mistaken for fuller's earth. 
In the S. W. part of the town is a 
swamp, from which a stream issues, 
and, after running a short distance, 
passes under a considerable hill. It 

titles. The principal towns are' 
Bennington and Manchester, which, 
are the shire towns. The Supreme' 
Court sits alternately at these j 
places on the 4th Tuesday of Jan.| 
The County Court sits at Man-! 
Chester, on the first Monday of June,! 
and at Bennington, on the first; 
Monday of December. The Grand i 
List of the county, for 1823, was 
$192,169. Population, 16,125. 

Bexson, a post town, in the west 
em part of Rutland county, in lat.j 
43^ 42', and long. 3^ 42'. It is! 
bounded north by Orwell, east by| 
H'lbbardton, and a small part of 
Sud^pury and Castleton, south byj 
Fair Haven and West Haven, andj 
west by lak* Champlain, being op-i 
posite Putnam, in Washington! 
county, N. Y. Benson contains 
25214 acres, was granted October 
27, 1779, and chartered to James 
Mf acham and Ezekiel Blair, May 5, 
1780. The settlempnt of the town 
was commenced 1783, by Messrs. 
Barbers, Durfee and Noble. Mr. 
D"rfe.> came into town and made 
some improvements before the re- 
volution, but was driven off. The 
town was organized about the y«ar 
l*f J:<6, and Allen Goodrich was the 
&-st towa clerk. la 17^, a cou-j ruus completely through the biuo 





ol' the bill, a distance of more thau| 
httli a mile. . The mean width of 
the lake, on the west line of the 
town, is about half a mile. The 
widest place ia one mile and a half, 
nud ifl just nortli of Stouey Point 
landin;^, which ia situated about tliej 

settlement of this town was com- 
menced in 1792 by Job Barber. 
Stephen Roycc, who was also one 
of the first settlers of Franklin, 
Daniel Adams, Jonathan Carpenter, 
and Phinehas Heath, moved their 
families here in 1703, and from this 

mid'lle of the west side of the town.j time the settlement advanced wi(h 
Atthe landing,alar^storo house has; iconsiderable rapidity. Eiihu M., 

been erected, and it is becoming a: 
place of some business. The town* 

son of Stephen Reyce, was bom in 
1793, and was the first child born 

ia divided into 13 school district.>,ijin town. The town was organized 

in 1791, and David Nutting was 
first town clerk. The town was first 
representcii, in 1796, by Stephen 
Rovce. There are four churches 

and has tliree grist mills, nine saw 
mills, two fulling mills, two cardingl 
machines, two diftilleries, threcj 
blores, five taverns, three tanneries; 

and one woollen factory. Pupula- iin this town, viz : a Methodist 

church, consisting of 40 members, a 
i iCongregationali^'t church, consisting 

tinn 14»1. 

Jultf, l«24 

B£NTOK'a GoR£ is a tract oftjof 33 members, and a Baptist and 
5000 acres, lying in the south west- 1 Episcopal church, each consisting 

em part of Windsor county, 20> 
miles Fouthwest from Windsor, and; 
the aame distance southeast from! 
Rutlapd. It was grtintc^l to Samuel' 

of about 15 members. In ISxit', 
there was a revival of religion, in 
consequence of which a consider- 
able number was added to the 

Bcutoii and 23 n»«jcialCH, October! jMelhodist and Congrcgationalist 
^JO, 1781, and is bounded north byj churches'. 7'hore are a Congrega- 
!VIount lIuUv, east by Weston, south; jtioualist meetinghouse and Episuo- 
fcy Laudgrove, and wost by Mount-.ipal church, both situateil on the 
Tabor. This gore lies upon thejj.Mississque river, and erected in 
Green Mountain, and has but few' 1 18^21 and 1«)22. The Episcopal 
inhabitants. There are no streams' jchureh was consecrated October!, 
of consequence. One of the head. ,1823. The practicing phyi>icians 
branches of West river originates are Wm. C. Ellsworth and Friend 
here. M. Hall. Missis quo river runs 

Berkshire, a post town in the through the southeast part of the 
northeast part of Franklin county,i 'town, and receives Trout river near 
in lat. 44*^ 58' and long. 4° 12*, coo-j-the line of Enoaburgh. On these 
toining 36 square miles. It is 50; .streams is some fine interval. Pike 
miles northwesterly from Mont-j 'river enters the town from Canadn, 
pelier, and 31 northeasterly fromijand, after taking a circuit of several 
Barling^OD, and is bounded north] -miles and alFording here some of 
by Dun^s patent in Canada, cast byjlthe finest mill scats in the country^ 
JUchford, south by Enosbiirgh, and. 'returns again into Canada. On 
wwi by Franklin. Thia township! Pike river, in this to^Ti, are two 
WW granted to Wm. Goodrich, Lgrist mills, two saw mills, a full> 
.Barnlla Hudson, Charles Dibble,' ing mill and carding machine. The 
udtheir associates, Marcli 13,1780,1 soil is vi.rious, but generally good. 
and was chartered by the name ot^'Its surface is diveisified with gentle 
Btftohire, June S% 1781. ThejlswclLi and vale?, but does not rise 



■ ■ ■■ Ai 



into mountains. It is well watered 
with brooks. The timber is mostly 
beech, maple, bass, elm and hem- 
lock. The rocks abound with 
epidote. There are nine school dis- 
tricts, six school houses, three stores, 
four taverns, two grist and two saw 
mills, one fulling mill, one cardinal 
machine and three tanneries. Popu- 
lation 831. P. L. 

June, 1824. 

Berlin, a township in Washing- 
ton county, lying nearly in the centre j 
of the state, in lat. 44" lo and long.; 
4° 21*. It is bounded north byi 
Montpelier, east by Barre, south by| 
Nortlifield and a small part of; 
Williamstown, and west by More-, 
town. It was rhartered June 7,1 
1763, to Chauncey Gray ham and' 
others, and contains 21855 acres j 
The settlement was commenced by 
emigrants from the other New-Eng- 
land states about the year 1786. 
The town was organized in 1791. 
David Nye was first town clerk and 
.lohu Tiiplin first representative. 
The Congregational church, in this 
town, consists of about 90 members.! 
The Rev. James Hobart was settled' 
over it in 1798, and still continues 
their pastor. They have a hand- 
soiue meetinghouse, erected in 1801, 
near the centre of the town. There 
are some Methodists and Universal- 
ists, but the above is the only or- 
ganized church. The physicians 
are Gersbom Heaton and John 
Winslow. The town is, somewhat, 
broken, yet it contains much very] 
good and handsome tillage land. It' 
is watered by Onion river, whichj 
forms a considerable part of the 
northern boundary, Dog rjver, 
which runs nearly north through 
the western part of the town, Stev- 
ens' branch, which runs across the 
noi^east corner, and pond-brook; 
near the centre. These streams'; 

very good mill privileges. B 
pond is a little south of the ce 
and is about two miles long 
half a mile wide. This pond abo 
with fish. The town, like m< 
those in its vicinity, has a mil 
spring, in the N. E. corner, whi 
a place of some resort. It is dii 
into 13 school districts, in nu 
which are school houses. T 
are four grist mills, eight saw i 
one paper mill, one tavern, one 
tiller y, two tanneries and one 
tery. Population 1455. A. 
Bkthel, a post town in the i 
ern part of Windsor county, ii 
43° 50' and long. 4° 17'. 
bounded northerly by Rand< 
easterly by Royalton, soatherl 
and a small pa 
Barnard, and westerly by Roche 
and is 30 miles south from INd 
pelier, and the same distance n 
west from Windsor. It was g^ 
ed October 27, 1779, and chart 
to John Payne, J^hn House, Du 
Chase and others, December 
1779, and contains 23060 a 
This was the first charter undei 
government of Vermont, 
settlement of tliis town was c 
menced about the year 178( 
Joel Marsh, Samuel Peek, Benjs 
Smith, who was father of the 
child born in town, Seth CI: 
Willard Smith and David St 
7^e latter was taken by the 
dians and carried to Canada, 
first settlers were mostly from ( 
necticut. A small fort was 1 
and garrisoned here about the 
the settlement was commeo 
The garrison was commandei 
Capt. Saffbrd. The town wai 
ganized in l782,v and Barn 
Strong was first town clerk, 
religious denominations are var 
Tht Rev. Thomas Russell wa: 
first settled minister. He was 

afibnl a ooniadeiabla aunber of |tled ia 1790, aad diuoisaed in 1 




7*Fiere has been none settled since. 
There is a handsome brick meeting 
house, built in 1816, in which the 
several denominations have a share, 
and in which there is preaching of 
some kind almost every Sabbath. 
It stands in the principal village 
which is situated at tlie mouth of 
the third branch of White river. 
The Episcopalians have a very neat 
church near the same branch, in 
the north part of the town. It was 
built in 1823, and consecrated June 
23, 1824. The practicing physicians 
are Alfred Paige and Richard Bloss. 
The surface of the town is bl-oken 
and mountainous, but the soil is in 
g-eneral, very warm and productive. 
Mica slate, homblends in acicular 
crystals ; chlorite and steatite or 
soapstone, are very common. Gar- 
net, in small but very perfect crys- 
tals, is common. 'The steatite is 
in the west village near the branch 
on wlfich ifl erected a mill for saw- 
ing it. The quarry is inexhaustible, 
the steatite of superior quality and 
large quantities are annually man- 
^i&ctured into fire places, stoves, &c. 
^e principal streams are White 
river, which runs across the south 
^t comer and its second and thircp 
branches. The second branch but 


JQst toQches upon the northeast 
corner. The third branch rises in 
Roxbury, runs through Braintree 
^ the corner of Randolph into 
^ town, and after running about 
^r miles within the town, joins 
"^te river. Near its mouth are 
*oie very fine mill privileges. Lo- 
^ creek falls .into White river, 
^rty on the line between this 
^yn and Barnard. There are two 
^Uages, called the East and fVest 
T^age. The wesi village is the 
^5wt and is situated near the 
*o«th of the third branch. It is 
•••place of . considerable business, 

jone woollen factory, one clothier's 
jworky, one carding machine, one oil 
jiiill, on J tannery, one tavern, and 
one blat k.^niith shop. Marshes mills. 

,in this villa're, are 


the best 

in the county. They consist of a 
grist mill with three run of stones, 
!a smutt mill, winnowing mill, Szc, 
jand a saw mill lor sawing timber 
;and soapstone. The brick meeting 
jhouse stands in the western part of 
jthe village. The east village is iii 
[the northtast corner of the town on 
the second branch. There arc here 
one store, one tannery, one clothier's 
works, one carding machine, one 
tavern and one blacksmith shop. 
Also Davis' gi-ist mill, with smutt 
mill, &c. and a saw will. There 
are in town eleven school districts, 
ten school houses, three grist mills, 
and eight saw mills. Population, 
1318. A. R. 

June, 1824. 

BILLTMEA.D. — Name altered to 
Sutton, October 19, 1812. See 

Black Creek, a considerable 
branch of Missisque river in Frank- 
lin county. See Fairfield, 

Black River. — There are two 
rivers of this name in Vermont, one 
in Windsor county, the other in 
Orleans county. Black river in 
WirhdstiP county, rises in Plymouth, 
and runs south 12 miles into Lud- 
low ; thence east 11 miles through 
the centre of Cavendish into 
Weathersfield, and thence southeast 
12 miles further, and joins Connec- 
ticut river in the lower part of 
Springfield. This river is remark- 
able for the number of natural 
ponds, through which it passes. It 
affords a great number of good mill 
privileges, and waters about 16Q 
square miles. Length 35 miles. 
I Black river, in Orleans county, ia 
formed in Craftsbury by the united 

ITSI ^?inj; three stores, three agheries,j!waters of Ellago and Hosmer^ 





pondSf Trout branch, &c. and taking- 
a northeasterly course through Al- 
bany, Irasburgh and Coventry, fall 
into the South bay of lake Mem- 
phremagog; in Salem. Its length is 
30 miles, and it waters about 150 
square miles. 

Bolton, a post town in the east- 
ern part of Chittenden county, in 
lat. 44^ 25' and long. 4° 5'. It is 
bounded north by Mansfield, east 
by Waterbury and a part of Dux- 
bury, south by Huntington and 
west by Richmond and Jerico. |i 
was chartered June 7, 1763, and 
originally contained 36 square 
miles. On the 27th of Oct. 1794, 
the northeast part of Huntington 
was annexed to it. It lies between 
Montpelier and Burlington, and is 
equally distant, (being 17 miles) 
from each» The town is very moun- 
tainous and broken, and but a small 
part of it capable of being settled. 
Onion river runs through the town 
from east to west, and along the banks 
ef this stream nearly all the inhab- 
itants reside. The river receives 
several branches in this town, both 
from the north and south. There 
are one or two saw mills, but no oth- 
er mills, o^ machinery. The town- 
ship lies on the western range of 
the Green Mountains. The Win- 
ooski turnpike passes through the 
town, along the north side of Onion 
river. The town contains two tav- 
erns, and is divided into two, or 
three, school districts. Pop. 306. 

Bra-Dletvali:, an unsettled 
township in the eastern part of Cal 
edonia county having Victory on the 
northeast. Concord on the southeast 
and Kirby on the west. It was 
chartered to Thomas Fearsall, Jan. 
27, 1791, and contains 3,936 acres. 
It is watered by Moose river 
which passes through it, near the 
centre, from northeast to southwest, 
and joins the Fassu^npsick «t St. 

Brakooit, a post to^ 
north part of Rutland < 
miles northwest from W 
southwest from Montpel: 
north from Bennington, 
48' and long. 3® 55'. It i 
north by Leicester, eastei 
jshen and Chittenden, so 
Pittsford and westerly by 
and a small part of W 
jwas chartered by the nan: 
olee, October 20, 1762 ai 
22,756 acres. The name 
ed to Brandon, Octobei 
The settlement of the 
commenced in the yeai 
|john Whelan, Noah Stro 
June, Jedediah Winslc 
Cutler and others. Mr. C 
however, the only perso: 
mained in town during 1 
ing winter. He lived 
winter here entirely alon 
being visited by a hun 
In 1777, the town was 
the Indians, who killed 
Georg« and Aaron Rol 
prisoners of most of the ot 
itants and set fire to theii 
and to a saw mill which t 
rected. Joseph Barker 
and a child eighteen n 
were among the prison* 

Barker, not being in a 
to traverse the wildei 
set at liberty with her el 
next night, with no otl: 
than the trees of the fore 
canopy of heaven, and wi 
company than the infi 
named, she had another c 
was found the following 
removed with her childr* 
ford. Mr. Baker was < 
Middlebury, where, feig 
self sick, he succeeded ii 
in making his escape, ai 
safely at Pittsford. The 
organized about the year 
Gideon HortQA was ^rst t 





be religious denominations are, and arc not surpassed in fertility by 
3iptists, Cong^cgationalists and |any in New-England. Tiie town 
ethodbts. The first settled min-|j produces every variety of timber 
jer was Elder Isaac Webb. He | common to the country. White 
as settled over the Baptist church; and yellow pine, white and red oak, 
>ont the year 1788. About theljcherry, sugar and red maple, ash 
5ar 1793, the Rev. Mr. Bliss was' 

ittlcd over the Congregational 
larch. The present minister of 
le former is Elder Isaac Sawyer, 

and cedar are found in abundance. 
A bed of bog iron ore was discover- 
ed in this town about 14 years ago, 
which is inexhaustible, and which 
id of the latter the Rev. Bariahjjhas been extensively wrought for 
frecn. Mr. Green was settled in ; some years past into bar and cast 
B23. The Baptist church consists iron. From seven to nine tons of 
f 165 members, the Congregation- this ore can be melted in a quarter 

[ church about the same number, 
nd the Methodist 20 or 30. The 
laptists and Cong^egationalists 
are each a meetinghouse standing 
1 the -village. The Congregation- 
lista had a fine meetihghouse burnt 
1 this town on the day it was to have 
leen finished. The surface of this 
own is generally level. The Green 
domitains lie along the east line of 
35c town and present ^me lofty 
rammits. The principal streams 
arc Otter Creek, which runs through 
the town from south to north, and 
Slill river, which rises among the 
mountains and enters this town from 
the east. At the foot of the moun- 
tain, Mill river receives the waters 
Qif a small pond, called Spring pond, 
^ becomes a considerable mill 
streanu In tliis stream are severall' 
•Wftideraible falls, which afford ex- 
tent sites for mills and other ma- 
^ioery. It runs about 10 miles 
Uttl falls into Otter Creek in this 
*jwn. The soil of the town is va- 
(ious, but generally a light loam, 
Jpily tilled and very productive. 
l%e eastern part is an extensive 
phe plain and is considered poor 
hod, yet, by proper attention, it is 
tonvcrted into good farms. The 
Wettem part is a mixture of clay 
ind loam. The alluvial flats, or 
^nral, along Otter creek in this 
loim, ire extensire and beautif al^ 

furnace, in 24 hours, yielding 3;^ 
per cent, of soft grey iron, which is 
not liable to crack from the effects 
of heat, and, consequently, makes 
the best of stoves. Small cannon 
have been made from it, which are 
bored with facility and answer a 
good purpose. The bar iron, which 
is made from the ore, is of an excel- 
lent quality, and it will probably 
hereafter be manufactured into 
steel. The ore is found by digging 
five or six feet, and is covered by . 
strata of sand and ocher. The bed 
has been penetrated 80 or 90 feet, 
but its depth is not known. On the 
side of the Green Mountain is a rich 
bed of coperas, or the sulphate of 
iron. It serves as a mordant and 
produces a very good colour with- 
out the usual process of manufac- 
turing. It is, however, improved 
by leacliing, &c. The situation of 
the bed, at present, prevents its be- 
ing worked. Quarries of marble 
of various qualities have been open- 
ed in several places, and it was 
formerly sawed and manufactured 
here to considerable extent. Some 
of the quarries are of a slaty struc- 
ture, where any thickness can be 
obtained without the expense of 
sawing, and no others are at pres^ 
ent wrought. About one and an 
half mile east of the village are two 
caverns in limestone ledges and a- 





bout half a mile apart. The de- 
scent into the largest is about 18 
fefet perpendicular, into a room 16 
or 18 feet square -i^rom this room 
is a pai^saj^e, barely sufficient to ad- 
mit a middlings sized person to pass 
along^ in a creeping posture, into an- 
other room still larger. From the 
last, an opening has been recently 
discovered, but it has not yet been 
explored. Brhndon village is situ- 
ated in the centre of the town, and 
is divided nearly equally by Mill 
river. It is 16 miles from JVliddle- 
bury, 1€ from Rochester, 16 from 
Rutland and 16 from lake Cham- 
plain. It contains 54 dwellinghouses, 
two meetinghouses, an academy, 
and a variety of other buildings, and 
is a place of considerable business. 
On Mill river, in this village, are 
situated most of the manufactories, 
mills and machinery in town. The 
academy was incorporated in 1816. 
It flourished for a while, but in- 
struction in it is now suspended for 
want of funds. There are in town 
10 school districts and school houses, 
three grist mills, eight saw mills, 2 
fulling mills, two carding machines, 
one blast "furnace, two pocket fur- 
naces, two forges, two tanneries, 
one distillery, one shovel fectory, 
four stores and five taverns, Popu 
lation 1,415. 
July 1824. 
Brattleborotjgh, a post town 
in the southeastern part of Wind 
ham county, is in lat. 42° 52^ and 
long. 4° 21'. K is the principal 
town in the county and is bounded 
north by Dummerston, east by Con- 
necticut river, which separates it 
from Chesterfield, N. H. south by 
Vernon and Guilford and west by 
Marlborough. The town was char- 
tered, December 26, 1753, and con- 
tains about 34 square miles. It is 
about 100 miles south from Mont- 
pelier, 30 east from Bennfbgton, 75| 

west from Boston, 60 from A\ 

and 390 from Washington. 

town derives its name from cc 

Brattle, of Mas. one of the pi 

pal proprietors. The first civi 

establishment in Vermont, was 

in the southeast corner of this 

in 1724, and was -called *• 

Dummer-" Henry and Sa 

Wells, John Arms, Nathan W 

and John and Thomas Sarj 

were among the first settlers o 

town. They all emigrated 

Massachusetts, except the tw 

ter, who were born at Fort 1 

mer« Col. John Sargeant wa 

first known white person born : 

state of Vermont. The tim 

town was organized is not ascei 

ed. It appears however, that '. 

Henry Wells was the first 

clerk. Col. Samuel Wells wi 

first representative for the c« 

of Cumberland, under the 

province of New-York. A 

transactions, during the celeb 

oontroversy with New- York, 

somewhat similar in several <, 

old towns in this vicinity, the 

er is referred to the accou 

Guilford for a specimen. 

Congregationalists are the moi 

merous denomination of Chris 

Their first minister was the 

Abner Rieve from Long Island 

He was settled bv covenant i 

year 1770, and preached aboi 

years, when by his own conse 

was succeeded by the Rev. 

iam Wells, from Great-Br 

whose salary was yearly grant 

the town. He preached abo 

years and was succeeded b^ 

Rev. Caleb Burge, who cont 

about five years and w^as disn 

by mutual consent. The to 

at present divided into two pi 

es. East and West, in each of i 

are a village, a meeting and a 

gyman of the Congregational < 





.ev. Jonathaa McGee, is pas* 
the east parish, and was or- 

January 13, 1B19. The 
edediah L. Stark is the suc- 
of Mr. Burgee, in the west 

and was ordained January 
^ There are a few Episco- 
1, Baptists, Methodists, Qua- 
id Universalists. There are 
30 persons in town who are 
ds of 80 years of age. The 
kic, which prevailed in Ver- 
iuring; the late war, proved 

in many cases here. The 
ing ph3^icians are Lemuel 
ohn L. Dickerman, Russel 
ind Artemas Robbins. This 
las had its full share of able 
istinguished men. Amon 
who have been eminent for 
aamlng and their public ser- 
lay be reckoned the venera- 
id Rev. William Wells, the 
/hief Justices, Samuel Knight 
>yal Tyler, and their honors, 

Townshend, John Noyes, 
unes Elliot. There is an a- 
Y in the west village now in 
iful operation under the di- 
I of a board of trustees and 
tion of Mr. Jareb Smith, Pre- 
. The area of the academy 
y 40 feet, and the upper sto- 
nproved as a townhouse. It 
corporated for the first time 
4th of November, 1801, and 
October 22, 1821. A litUe 
f the centre of the town are 
Duntains known by the names 
he Great" and ** The Little 
. Mountain." Tliere are 
)ther eminences, but none of 
note. The mountains are 
ble and most of the land ca- 
of cultivation. The soil is 
' to that of the towns in gen- 
ong Connecticut jiver, com- 
iding interval, sandy, loamy 
rd soils, with such timber as 
Fftlfy adapted to them. The 

principal streams arc West river 
and Whitstone brook. The form- 
er runs but a short distance in town, 
entering it from Dummerston and 
falling into Connecticut river near 
the northeast comer. Whitstone 
brook rises in Marlborough and 
runs through Brattleborough very 
near the centre. This affords ma- 
ny excellent water privileges, whic& 
are already occupied by a great 
variety of mills and other machine- 
ry. Connecticut river forms the east- 
em boundary for about six miles. It 
runs in several places with a strong 
current, denominated ^The swift 
water" by the boatmen. The river 
is crossed, at the lower part of the 
east village, by a handsome bridge, 
built in 1804, and connecting this 
town with Hinsdale, N. H. A few 
rods above the bridge is the gener- 
al landing place for merchandise, 
the amount of which, brought into 
town by boats aad other convey- 
ances, by the enterprising merchants 
of the village alone, during the year 
ending March 1, 1824, was |96,963. 
Of this sum, the merchants of the 
east village own^ ^79,963 ; the re- 
maining 1 17,000 belonged to those 
of the west village. There are but 
few minerals worthy of notice. 
Aotynolite is found here in steatite. 
It is in very perfect capillary crjrs- 
tals which are grouped together in 
different forms and sometimes radi- 
cated. Argillaceous slate is very 
abundant, and is qr;irried to consid- 
erable extent. Mica is found of 
rose red colour with schorl in 
qUIulz, an abundance of schorl in 
beautiful crystals, and also the red 
oxyde of titanium. There are two 
considerable villages, one standing 
at the mouth of Whitstone brook, 
called the East Village, and the 
other near the centre of the town, 
called the West Village. The east 
village is a place of jnuch business, 





and is said tu be the richest village 
of its siae in New-England. Paper 
is manufactured here, in Holbrookes 
paper mill, to the amount of 1 or 
12,000 dollars, and in his printing 
and bookbinding establishment bu- 
siness is done to the amount of 
from 20 to 25,000 dollars annually. 
At thedistillery of Francis Goodhue, 
9000 bushels of rye are distilled, 
and at his cotton factory 18000! 
pounds of wool is manufactured! 
yearly. Stephen Greenleaf, the first 
merchant in the cast village, was 
from Boston, and opened the first 
store in 1771. At the tin factory of 
'Willard and Dickinson, ware has 
been manufactured the year past to 
the amount of $10,000. At the dis- 
tillery of Phineas Steward, in the 
west village, about 1800 barrels of 
cider have been distilled, and more 
than 700 barrels at the distillery of 
Levi Goodenough, within eight 
months. At the factory of Edward 
"Woodman 6000 yards of cloth have 
been dressed, and 14000 pounds of 
wool carded the past year. At the 
east village, there are an * Aqueduct 
Corporation', an 'Engine Company,' 
and a ' Royal ArcH Chapter of 
Freemasons.' Four stages, can*} ing 
mails, arrive at Smith's tavern, three 
times a week ; one from Boston, 
one from Hartford, Connecticut, one 
from Albany, and one from Hanover, 
and they all reach here the same 
day they leave the above places. 
A mail arrives here, once a week, 
from Portamouth,N. H.,from North- 
field, Mass. and from Townshend, in 
this state. There are three military 
companies in town, one of Li^ 
Infantry, one of Artillery, and one 
of Infantry. There are two ' Female 
Cent Societies,' and two * Juvenile 
Missionary Societies,' one of each 
in each village. There are eleven 
school districts and school houses, 
one printing «ifice, issuing a weekly 

paper, ' The Brattleboro' Messen- 
;' one paper mill and one book 
store, connected with, perhaps, the 
largest printing and bookbinding 
establishment in the&:ate ; one post 
office, one bank, ^The Bank of 
Brattleboro' ;" five grist mills, aerm 
saw mills, one cotton and one wool- 
len factory, one aqueduct lead pipe 
factory, three clothier's works, three 
carding machines, nine mercliants, 
four taverns, four distilleries, one 
apothecary's shop, two tanneries, 
six blacksmiths, two goldsmiths, asd 
a variety of other shops. Popula- 
lion 2017. s. c. 

^priU 1824. 

Bridge WATER, a township in 
the western part of Windsor coootyt 
situated in lat. 43<* 37' and long. 4^ 
18' east, and bounded north by 
Barnard, east by Woodstock, south 
by Plymouth and west by SherbunL 
The length of the western boondaiy 
is, by the charter, eight miles, tfast 
of the eastern seven miles and i 
half, and of the northern and sooth- 
em six miles each, giving' an aret ' 
of 46 1-2 square miles. Barnard, 
however, claims and is now in actual 
possession of a strip of land abont 
half a mile in breadth, extendini; 
across the north end of the tows, 
and this too under a charter derived 
from the same source, and dated ■ 
seven days later than that of Bridge- 
water. Bridgewater is 46 JdSm 
south from Montpelier, 17 north 
west from Windsor, and 60 nodh 
east from Pennington. Its cbalror 
is dated July 10, 1761. PopulatioB 
in 18:20, 1125. Dea. Asa Jonei 
surveyed a lot of land in Bridge- 
water, in September, 1779. TT» 
next winter, Dea. Jones removed 
his family into this town firoB 
Woodstock, a distance of three milei, 
upon liandsleds. This was the fint 
family in town. Mr. Amos Mes- 
dallcame in the spring followiagi 






May, 1780, aod wad married to u | 
daug^hter of Dea. Jones. This was; 
the first couple married, and was| 
the second family in town. Theirj 
daughter, Lucy, was the first child 
bom. In 1783, Messrs. Isaiah Shaw 
and Cephas Sheldon moved their 
families into the north part of the 
town, they having commenced im- 
provemonts the year before. Capt.j 
James Fletcher came in with his 
family about the same time. luj 
1784, settlements were commencedj 
along the river in the south part of 
the town by Messrs. Southgates, 
Hawkinses and Toplifl*, and from 
this time the settlement procecdedj 
rapidly for a number of year^.J 
The fiirst saw mill was erected inj 
the north part of the town, in 1781, 
by Mr. George Boyce. The Messrs. 
Hawkins built one which went in- 
to operation, in 1785, and the Messrs. 
Soathgates another which went in- 
to operation soon after. The latter 
fentlemen also built, in 1786, the 
est grist mill. Mr. Joseph Boyce 
had the first framed house. I'hej 
first town meeting was held and thc| 
town organized, March 30, 1785, at 
which time John Hawkins was 
chosen town clerk, Richard South- 
gate, Isaiah Shaw and James 
Fletcher, selectmen, and Joseph; 
Hawkins, coastable. The town was' 
first represented, in the General As-j 
tembly,by John Hawkins, in 1784.j 
The religious denominations, in this! 
.|jpwn, are Congregationalists, Bapt- 
ists, Methodists, Christians and Uni- 
versalists. The Congregational! 
church was the first collected in- 
town. It was organized, January 1,1 
1793, and then consisted of 20j 
members. Mr. John Ransom wasi 
ordained over it, March 4, I793,j 
and contin:ied to preach hefe the, 
greatest part of the time till IBOit.* 
Since that period they have not hadj 
regular preaching. There was a; 

Iconsiderable revival here in Jan. 
1823, in consequence of which 25 
members were added to this church, 
land a number to the other denomi- 
jnations. Tlie present number of 
I members is 63. The Baptist' church 
I'was organized June 6, 1806, and 
jtheu consisted of 11 members. It 
lis under the pastoral care of Elder 
Nehemiah Woodward and the pres- 
ent number of members is 40. The 
number belonging to the Mcthddistt 
Christian and Universal connexions 
is not definitely known. Doctor 
J. H. Monger is the principal phy- 
sician. This town has, generally, 
been very healthy. The dysentery 
has, sometimes, prevailed aad car- 
ried off a number of children. In 
1813, the lung fever prevail^^d to an 
alarming degree. It swept off great 
numbers of our most res^^ectablo 
and useful citizens. Nineteen per- 
sons died in Bridgewater of this 
disease in the month of March, a 
great proportion of whom wero 
heads of families. We have had 
no remarkable instances of lougov- 
ity. The oldest person, now living 
in town, Mrs. French, is in her 90th 
year. In August, 1822, Mr. Aaron 
Lnmb, while sinking a well about 
80 rods north of Queechy river, 
dug up a liviug frog, at the depth of 
26 feet below the suriace of the 
ground. It was in a state of torpor 
when taken up, but revived after a 
short exposure to the atmosphere. 
This town is watered by Queechy 
river, which runs through the south 
part, and by several considerablo 
branches. These streams alfurd 
numerous mill privileges. The 
surface of this town is uneven and 
some parts rough and stoney. A- 
long the river are tracts of valuable 
interval land, and there are many 
good farms in other parts. The 
summits of the hills are, in general, 
covered with spruce and hemlock ; 





the timber, on other parts, is mostly: In 17C8, beings 21 years of age, he 
maple, beech, and birch. The^o-iicame from Groton, Mass., to this 
logical character of the town is||plaee, purchased a lot of land, and 
primitive, the rocks being mical commenced clearing it. Two fam- 
slate, gneiss, limestone, quartz, &c.J|ilies, by the. name of Richardson 
There is un inexhaustible quarry of i 'and Smith, settled under N. Y. 
steatite, situated nearly in the centrel jtitles about the same time with Mr. 
of the town. A mill has been c-jjstone, and three others, by the name 
rected upon tlie north branch foriiof 7'owner, Chipman and Plumer, 
sawing it into slabs, and it has been|{ under N. H. titles. The settlen 
manufactured to considerable ex-, Imostly retired before Borgoyne and 
tent. It makes excellent jambs,' 'his army in 1776 and 7. During 
hearths, &c. In the vicinity of the! the controversy with New- York, no 
steatite, are large quantities oriskirmishing happened in this town 
beautiful green talc. Iron ore is! 'between Uie New- York and New 
found in considerable quantities,'; Hampshire claimants, but the in- 
garnets in perfect tlotlechidral crys-'ll\abitants, frequently, aided their 
tals are common, and several hand-' 'neighbours in the adjoining towns, 
some specimens of rock crystal J 'in inflicting the customary punish- 
erystals of hornblcnJs and schorl,! ment of whipping upon the York- 
have been found. There is a smallijers, who refused to retire after the 
village, on the river, near the south jjusual warning. This flagellation 
eiist corner of the town in which | was called " The Beaeh SealJ" In 

are two stores, a grist mill, saw D3iu,|' 
fulling mill, carding machine, a trip 
hammer and tannery. 

Juncy 1824. 

Bridport, a post town, in the 
west part of Addison county, in lat. 
43^ r»lj\ and long. 3^ 40', bounded 
north by Addison, east by Wey- 
bridge and Cornwall, south by 
Shoreham, and wett by lake Cham- 
plain, which separates itfrom Crown 
Point, N. Y. It is eight miles west 
of Middlebury, 35 south of Bur- 
lington, and 41 southwest of Mont- 
pelier. It was chartered, October 
10, 1761, to 62 proprietors, mostly 
of Massachusetts, of whom Ephi^im 
Doolittle and Benjamin Raymond 
were active in the early settlement, 
and it contains about 42 square 
miles. The first attempt to settle 
the town, was made in 1768, but 
was abandoned at that time on ac- 
count of the urgency of the New- 
York claims. The first permanent 
settler was Philip Stone, who was 
also the first eolonel in the county. 

1772, Ethan Allen, having been de- 
clared an outlaw by the New- York 
government, and a bounty offered 
for his apprehension, called in com- 
pany with Ell Robards, of Ver- 
gennes, at the house of Mr. Rich- 
ards of this town. In the evening, 
six soldiers from Crown Point gar* 
rison, all armed, as were Allen and 
Robards, stopped for the night. Mrs. 
I Richards overheard them making 
their arrangement to take Allen 
and get the bounty. All was quiet 
till bed time, when Mrs. Richards, 
on lighting Allen and Robards into 
another room, hoisted a window, i:^ 
which they silently escaped. When 
the soidiers discovered they were 
gone, they reprimanded Mrs. Rich- 
ards severely for favouring^ their 
escape. But she replied that **,it 
was for the safety of her house, for 
had they been taken here, the 
Flampshire men would have torn it 
down over their heads." Novem- 
ber 25, 1773, Samuel Smith, from 
N. J., moved his family into town, 





having^ been three years in the vi- 
cinity, and his was the second fam- 
ily whicii remained permanently 
here. Philip Stone was married 
the same day to a Miss Ward, of 
Addison, whose family had recently 
moved into that town from Dover, 
N. y. Mr. V'ictory came with his! 
family, the following winter. He! 
died on an island in lake George ofi 

was customary for the men to flee 
into thQ woods till the Indians bad 
performed their work of plunder. 
At on« time a party of tliem enter- 
ed the houaie of Air. Stone, giving 
him but ^'ust time to escape, and 
after stripping it of every thing of 
value to them, the principal San- 
hoop put on the fmest shirt it afford- 
ed, and swaggering away to tho 
au inflammatory fever, having no! ihogsty, selected the best hog, and 
person with him but a son 14 years! ofliciated as chief butcher, flouri&h- 
olJ, with a skiff. The lad tarried liug his fine bloody sleeves, while 
by his dead father till some people Ihis comrades, hooping and dancing, 
came so near, that ho hailed them, Icarricd it away to their canoes. At 

who came ^n shore, buried his 
&ther, and took him off. The ear- 
ly settlers suffered extremely from 
fever and ague, and the long, or 
lake fever. They had no roads for 
many years, except tlie lake and the 
road from Charles town to Crown 
Point, which passed through this 
town. They derived niucli aid from 

another time, a party of Indian?, 
coming up the bank, were discover- 
ed by Mrs. Stone, in season to throw 
some things out of a back window 
into the weeds, put a few in her 
bosom, and sit down to her cardino^. 
The Indians, after taking what they 
could find elsewlicre, came about 
Mrs. Stone and tlic children. One 
the garrison at Crown Point, in oc-; of lUem seeming to suspect that she 
casional supplies of provisioiis and {had some valuable ur tides conceal- 
other necessaries, and were eucour- jcii about her person, attempted to 
aged by the cheapness of the laud,; pull them from her bosom, where- 

it being only about $20, a right ofj 
360 acres, so that the settlemcnti 
continued slowly to advance till the 
commencement of the revolution 

upon she struck him on the face 
with the tcetli side of her card so 
violently that he withdrew his hand, 
while a tall young savage was flour- 
in 1775. And then tlie hope of ifs| ishing his tomahawk over her head. 
speedy close induced most of thei Upon this an old Indian cried out, 
settlers to remain on their farms, for! 

two or three of tlie first years, ex- 
cept on occasional alarms, when 
they retired inte the county of Rut- 
luid or Bennington. A few inci-i 
dents may serve to give the reader' 
an idea of these times, and of thej 
state of the families here and in thej 
other towns in this part of the state, 
during the war. These parts were 
frequently subject to the depreda- 
tions of the merciless Indians, who, 
general!^, fell upon the settlements 
before they had any wamingf of 
their approach. As they seMom 
molest^ women and children, itj 


^^Good squaic^ M^od squaiv" and 
burst into a laugh of derision at his 
companions for being beaten. At 
the commencement of tlie revolu- 
tion, in 1775, when Allen and 
Warner were mustering the militia 
to surprise the garrison at Ticon- 
deroga, a Mr. Douglass was dis- 
patched to this town to procure aid 
in men, and a scow of Air. Smith to 
carry over the troops. Douglass 
stopped to enlist a Mr. Chapman in 
the project, when James Wilcox 
and Joseph Tyler, two young men, 
who were in bed in the chamber, 
hearing the story, conceived the do- 





sign of decoying on shore a large 
oar boat belonging to Major Skeen. 
a noted tory, and which then lay off 
Willowpoint. They dressed, seized 

their guns and a jug of rum, of .only ten years old, to carry him 

which they knew the black com- 
mander to be very fond, gathered 
four men as they went, and, arriving 
all armed, hailed the boat, and of- 
fered to help row it to Shoreham,if 
they would carry them there imme- 
diately to join a hunting party, 
which would be waiting for them. 
The stratagem succeeded, and poor 

[expecting he would be sent to Que- 
bec, went to him in a canoe, a dis- 
tance of 12 miles, with no other 
company than her brother, a lad 

clothes, leaving her two childno, 
the oldest but four years old, alone 
at home. She had to tarry all night 
before «he could gain admittance, 
and when returned she found her 
children safe, the oldest having un- 
derstood enough of her direotimv 
to feed and take care of the young- 
er. In 1778, the inhabitants^ det- 

Jack and his two men suspected | pairing of immediate peace, anl 

nothing till they arrived at Allen's 
head q«»aiters, where they were 
made prisoners of war. Douglass, 
with the two Smiths, Stone and oth- 
ers, in all, amounting to 12, arrived 
about the same time with the scow, 
and these two boats carried over 
most of the troops who marched in- 
to the garrison. During the wai- 
there were two skirmishes in this 
town between small scout?, in which 
three or four men were killed. After 
the capture of Burgoyne, and three 
weeks before tlie British evacuated 
Ticonderoga,a party of Whigs from 
Otter creek, came out in the night 
and plundered the house of a tory, 
by the name of Prindle, who was a 
neighbour of Mr. Stone. Prindle, 
not owning the house, set it on fire, 
and retreating on board a British 
armed vessel on the lake, impb'cated 
Mr. Stone in the robbery and burn- 
ing. He, anticipating mischief, 
kept in the bushes near the bank 
to observe their movements, where 
the British observed him and let off 
a volley of grape shot, which struck 
among the trees above him, and also 
fired upon the house, some of the 
shot entering the room where the 
family was. They, then, sent a boat 
on shore, took him and carried him 
a prisoner to Ticonderoga where he 
remained three weeks. Mrs. Stone 

being continually harrawed, mostly 
abaudoned the town. Nathan and 
Marshal Smith, and John Ward, 
who was just married, however, 
staid. On the 4th of November, 
1778, they, being together, were 
taken by a party of British under 
Major Carleton, who collected 3^ 
prisoners, men and boys, in this vi- 
cinity, to carry to Canada. He dis- 
charged two of the prisoners, Elijah 
G randy and Thomas Shinkly, with 
a batteau to carry the women aod 
children to the Americans, while he 
detained their fathers, husbands and 
older sons. The parting was a. scene 
which affected a sailor's heart, and 
caused him to say, <* I never saw but 
one such scene before, and that was 
when our fleet sailed for America, 
and some leaped over board to reach 
their friends on shore, but were 
pursued and brought back.^ Ward 
swung his hat and cried to his wilii 
and the rest, ** Never mind t<, tn 
shjoji toon return'^ They reached 
Quebec, December 6, and were 
kept in prison 16 months and 19 
days. In the spring, after two dreary 
winters, in which several of the 
party died, the prisoners had liberty 
to remove 30 leagues down the 
river to work. About 40 went^ a* 
mong whom were the two Smiths 
and Ward. They landed the fint 





of May on the south side of the St. 
Lawrence, where the river is about 
27 miles wide, and worked till the 
13th, whea eight of tliem took & 
batteau in the night and reached 
the opposite shore the next day 
about noon. It was a perfect wil- 
derness. They separated into two 
parties of four each, Justus Sturdi- 
fit, now of Weybridge, joining the 
three above named. They travel- 
led nights and kept the woods days 
where the country was settled, oc- 
casionally meeting witli French- 
men,, who appeared friendly, till the 
20th, when, nearly opposite to Que- 
bec, they found a river so swolen, 
that they durst not attempt to pass 
it, and asked aid of a Frenchman, 
whom they saw in a field. They 
went with him to the house, where 
there was another Frenchman. The 
former seized his gua, declaring 
them his prisoners. He was an offi- 
cer, and said that if he suffered them 
to proceed he should loose his hehj. 
The other Frenchman took up an 
ax and both stood against the door. 
Nathan Smith spoke to his com- 
rades, saying, we must go^ and seiz- 
ing the man with the gun, the oth- 
ers -followed his example, laid hold 
of the other, and thrust them from 
the door, and all escaped, except 
Stnrdifit, who remained a prisoner 
till the close of the war. Ward wat 
separated from the two Smiths, and, 
what is remarkable, after travelling 
in the woods just a week, again fell 
in with them. The second night 
afUr they came together, while 
timyelling in the road, four Indians, 
anned with g^ns and knives, witL 
their dogs, came upon them. 71^e^ 
tfprangf into the woods, outran the 
Indians^ travelled all night and the 
next day till noon, when, supposing 
themselves safe, they lay down am 
•lept till they were each awakenec 
by » hi4eoui ladiaa fast hold of him 

They were, then, about six miles 
from Tliree Rivers, where they 
were taken to prison. One side of 
the prison was of wood, the oUier 
three of stone. After three weeks* 
confinement, they commenced dig- 
ging with an old jack-knife, which 
Ward had been permitted to keep, 
and, in one week, had cut a hole a 
foot square, which opened into an- 
other room. Having drawn a week^s 
provision, they prepared to decamp 
by cutting up their bed clothes, and 
tying them together for a rope to let 
themselves down. They got into 
ithe adjacent room, raised the win- 
dow and let themselves down by 
another window, through which 
they saw the officers assembled in 
the room below, and not more than 
a rod from the sentinel in his box. 
Thej travelled that night, lay in 
the woods next day, kept the road 
ithd next night, and took a turkey 
;from the fence, which they cooketl 
jtrws following night. The fourth 
night they took a fat lamb from a 
bam and cooked it. The uext day, 
jthey travelled in the woods, ate the 
caul of the lamb, on which Mr. 
'Smith became sick, and they lay 
by till the next day, when they 
Iprocecded and. reached inhabit- 
iants that night on the north side of 
the St. Lawrence. TTiey had kept 
off from the river to elude the pur- 
suit of the Indians, who, they after* 
j wards learnt, were out in search of 
ithem, 14 days, and who were allow- 
jed half a joe for each prisoner they 
•brought in. Having crossed the 
iriver -and finding the country in hab- 
ited, they set the canoe adrift and 
proceeded as before till they reach- 
led the river Sorell, in the night, 
where they took some poultry from 
.a barn. In the morning they as- 
cended Chambly mountain to take 
observation for shaping their course 
j through the wilderaeas-to Veriaoat, 





This cost them a half day's climb- 
ing. From the summit they des- 
cried Montreal, St. Johns and a 
little yillag^e ahead, and a small 
patch of water, due south, which 
they took to be Mississque bay. 
They descended to. the little villag^e, 
where, at night, they killed an ox, 
and took the best parts of it, which 
they dried by the way to serve 
them as rations through the woods. 
They travelled south, three days, 
through swamps so dreary, that, in 
cloudy weather, they had to carry 
their compass, (which N. Smith had 
.kept concealed about him,) contin- 
ually in their hands to keep on 
their course. The fourth day, shap- 
ing their course southwesterly they 
liit the head of Mississque bay. At 
Fanton, their dried beef being near- 
ly spent, they fell in with an Ame- 
rican scout of three men, who fur- 
nished them with salt provisions. In 
Bridport, they lodged on the farm 
of Asa Hemingway, in the only 
house that bad survived the desola- 
tions of the war. The next day, 
they reached the picket fort in Pitts- 
ford. This journey, from 90 miles 
below Quebec, including a month's 
imprisonment at Three Rivers, they 
performed without changing any of 
their clothes, only a scanty remnant 
of which remained upon their bod- 
ies. All the four men of this party, 
except Mr. Smith, who died a few 
years since, are now living in good 
circumstances. Bridport was or- 
ganized March 29, 1785, and J. N. 
Bennet was first town clerk. It was 
first represented in 1786, by Nathan 
Manley. There are three churches 
and three well finished meeting 
houses in town. The Congrega- 
tioualist church was organized June 
30, 1790, and now consists of 204 
members. The Rev. Increase Graves 
was installed over this church, Feb. 
26, 1794. Their meetinghouse stands 

in the village, and was dedicated in 
1813. The Baptist church was or- 
ganized in 1804, and has more than 
100 members. Meetinghouse a mile 
and a half from the lake. No set- 
tled minister. Methodist society, 
organized in 1800, has 35 xdemben, 
|& circuit preaching every Sabbath. 
Their meetinghouse is in the village, 
was built in 1821, and the lower 
part is shared between the Method- 
ists and Baptists. The upper part 
is a Masonic Hall, the property of 
Morning Sun Lodge. There 
have been three general revivals of 
religion. The first in 1803, subject! 
abeut 100. The second in 1813; 
upwards of 100 ; and the third in 
1821. Of the fruits of the latter 
about 90 united with the Congrega- 
tional church and a considerahle 
number with the other churches. 
The dysentery prevailed here in 
1802, of which 16 died. Of the 
epidemic in 1813, about 50 died. 
In 1822, 25 died here of the dysen- 
Itery. The physicians are Martm 
Gay and Luther Cory. The tm» 
face of this town is very level, ind 
the soil, generally, is a brittle 
marl, or clay. The hills are a lotia 
and red slaty sandstone. A range 
of shelly blue slate extends throng 
the town, lying, generally, a li^ 
below the surface. Theprevailii^ 
timber, in the west part of the town» 
is oak, with white and some Norway 
pine, along the lake shore. In tbe 
eastern part is, principally, maple 
and beech. This town is pooi^ 
watered, there being no dunU* 
mill streams, and the springs ^id 
ground, generally, being impNg^ 
nated with Epsom Salts or Sulphail 
of Magnesia. For family X0 
rain water is, generally, employed ^jii 
It is preserved in large reservoini 
or cisterns set into the ground. Of. 
the brackish water, in this to«n» 
cattle are extremely fond, and ii 






serves, in a munner, as a substitute 
for salt. Some of the springs are< 
so strongly impregnated, that, in: 
time of low water, a pailful will 
yield a pound of the salts. The dis- 
- eovery of these salts or an ingre- 
dient in the waters here, was made 
by the Rev. Sylvanus Chapin, now 
of Addison, and they were man- 
ufactured in considet'able quantities 
more than 30 years ago, but the 
cheapness of the imported salts has 
prevented much being done at the; 
business for some years past. There! 
is a village, in this town, of about 
25 houses- There are 12 school 
districts and school houses, Ave 
wharves for the accommodation of 
ferries, and lake and canal na\nga-| 
tion. Ware houses are erecting on 
two of them. There are also six 
freshet saw mills, five stores, four 
taverns and four tanneries. Popu- 
lation 1511. A. 8. 
Jtfay, 1824, 

Bradpord, a post town in the 
eastern part of Orange county, in 
lat.44^ and long. 4^46', bounded 
north by Newbury, east by Connec- 
ticut river, which separates it from 
Piermont, N. H., south by Fairlee 
^ and West-Fairlee, and west by Co- 
^ rinth. Three thousand acres of this 
town, lying on Connecticut river, 
^ ^ore granted by New-York to Sir 
. r Harry Moore, and by him convey- 
j.'fi ed to 30 settlers. The rest of the 
lp> luidvas taken up by pitches. The 
itil town was first called Moretown, but 
jv.^ *^ altered to Bradford. The first 
^ ajbtttement -was commenced about! 
ps? j«e ysar 1761, by emigrants from} 
aj^ *. H. The two first settlers were; 
Jf j- Samael Sleeper and Benoni Wright.j 
J ^ Before the year 1771, there were; 
»^i 30 families in town. The first town' 
'iieeting on record was on the 4th| 
<>f May, 1773, and Stevens McCon-] 
^I was then chosen town clerk.! 
^iuBtown^ not having been regu-; 



jlarly chartered, the Legislature, 
■I January '2-2, 1791, appointed Israel 
Smith, Alexander Elarvey and James 
VVhitelaw, a committee to deed the 
lands to the settlers. The first set- 
tled minister in this town was the 
Rev. Gardner Kellogg, of the Con- 
gregational order. He was settled 
by the town, September 2, 1795, 
and dismissed April 6, 1809. In 
1815 they settled the Rev. Silas 
McKeen. The Congregational 
meetinghouse is in the east part of 
tlie town, and was erected in. 1793. 
There are also, a Freewill Baptist 
and Methodist society. Rufus L. 
Harvey, Freewill Baptist preacher, 
and John Ross, Methodist. The 
practicing physicians are, William 
Martin, Thomas Coleby, John Fool 
and Barnabas Wright. Wait's riv- 
er, the principal stream in town, 
enters it from the west in two 
branches, and passing through, in an 
easterly direction, empties into Con- 
necticut river, affording a number 
of valuable mill privileges. Hall's 
brook and Roaring brook, are con- 
siderable streams, which enter the 
town from Newbury and pass 
through the comer of it into the 
Connecticut. Smaller streams are 
numeious, and several medicinal 
springs have been discovered, but 
none of much note. The surface 
of the town is somewhat broken. 
A handsome and feKile strip of in- 
terval skirts Connecticut river, and 
there is much good land in other 
parts. In the northwest part of the 
town is situated Wright^s Mountain, 
erroneously called Virgin Mountain, 
In this mountain is a cavern called 
the DeniVs Den^ which has several 
apartments, and is thought to have 
been the abode of human beings. 
In the east part oi' the town is a 
considerable precipice called Row- 
ell's Ledge. The timber is pine, 
sugar maple, oak, beech, hemlock, 





Scc. There is an academy in this 
town built in 1820. It draws about 
$110 per annum from the county 
funds. The rest of its support is 
derived from private bounty and 
tuition. There is a small village 
situated on the north side of Wait's 
river about half a mile from its 
mouUi, containing a number of 
handsome dwcUinghouses, an acad- 
emy, a schoolhousc, masonic hall, 
two stores, two taverns, a saw mill, 
grist mill, two fulling mills, a card- 
ing machine, paper mill, and two 
distilleries. 7^c first artificial 
globes ever manufactured in the 
United States, were made in this 
town about the year 1812, by Mr. 
James Wilson. After a labour of 
some years, Mr. W. and his sons 
have succeeded in bringing their 
globes to a high degree of perfec- 
tion, and have established a manu- 
factory in Albany, N. Y. This 
town is divided into eight school 
districts with a schoolhouse in each. 
There are in town one grist mill, 
four saw mills, two fulling mills, 
one paper mill, one carding ma- 
chine, two stores, four taverns, 
three distilleries, three tanneries, 
and one pottery. Pop. 1411. 

Braintree, a township in 
the southwest corner of Orange 
county, in lat. 43° 68' and long. 4^ 
15', bounded northerly by Roxbury 
and Brookfield, easterly by Ran- 
dolph, southerly by Bethel and 
westerly by Kingston. It is 21 
miles southwesterly from Montpe- 
iier and 38 northwest from Wind- 
sor. This township was granted 
November 2, 1780, and was char- 
tered to Jacob Spear, Levi Davis 
and others, August 1,1781. It con- 
tains 36 square miles. The first 
settlement of the town was com- 
menced about the year 1783, by 
Jacob and Samuel Spear, Matthew 
Pratt, Henry Bracket, Silas Flint 

and others, emigrants from Brain- 
tree and Sutton, Mas., S. Fliofs 
wife was the first woman who came 
into- the town and received in con- 
sequence a present of 100 acres of 
land from the proprietors. Hiram, 
son of Samuel Bass, was the first 
child bom in town. 77ie first pro- 
prietor's meeting was held within 
the town at the house of Jacob 
Spear, September 19, 1786. The 
town was organized March 7, 1788, 
and Elijah French- was first town 
clerk. It was first represented by 
Isaac Nichols in 1791. The relig- 
ious denominations are Coogrega- 
tionalists. Baptists and Chrlstiaoi. 
The Congregational church wu 
iorganized December 25, 1794, and 
at first consisted of eight members. 
The Rev. Aaron Cleveland Tfas set- 
tled over it in March, 1801, and 
dismissed April 22, 1802. Septem- 
ber 22, 1807, the Rev. Ammi 
Nichols was settled over it and still 
continues. The church at present 
consists of 86 members. In 1801, 
they erected a handsome meeting- 
house upon what is called Quaker 
hill. lUder Elijah Huntington was 
settled over the Baptist church in 
June, 1800. The Church consists 
of 30 or 40 members, partly in Ran- 
dolph. T'hey have a meetinghouse 
at the branch, erected about the year 
1813. There is a society of Chris- 
tians, who have a meetinghouse 
erected about the year 1816, in the 
east part of the town, and also a 
few Methodists. Mrs. Nichols is 89 
years old, and the oldest person in 
town. This town has in general 
been very healthy. There are 
three physicians, Joseph Dubois, 
Samuel Craig and Samuel W. 
Thayer. The town is watered by 
the third branch of White river, 
and Ayers' and Mill brooks its trib- 
utaries. They are all sufficient for 
mills. Ayers^ brook rises in Rox-> 





bury and Brookfield, watei-s the 
east part of the town, where it re- 
ceiyes Mill brook from the west 
and unites with the third branch 
just below the west village in Ran- 
dolph. Between Ayres' brook and 
the branch, is a larg^e swell of land. 
When Ebenezer Waters was sur- 
veying the town, he spoke to those 
with him while on this eminence, 
saying, " we will tit down here and 
dine with our hats on and call it 
Quaker hill," and it has ever since 
b&cn known by that name. Be- 
tween the branch and the head of 
White river, in the southerly part 
of the town, is a large mountain 
which renders one fourth of the 
town incapable of settlement. 
Tiiere are nine school districts and 
houses, three grist mills, six saw 
mills, one oil mill, one fulling mill, 
one carding machine and distillery. 
Pop. 1033. 

J«/y, 1824, 
Bristol, a post town in the 
northeastern part of Addison coun- 
ty, in lat. 44<> T and long. 3^ 5b\ is 
bounded north by Monkton and 
Starksborough, east by Lincoln and 
Starksborough, south by Middlebu- 
ry and Avery's Gore and West by 
New-Haven. It is 25 miles south- 
"west from Montpelier, and the 
same distance southeast from Bur- 
lington. It was chartered to Sam- 
uel Averill and his associates, by 
the name of Pooock, June 26, 1762, 
and contains about 26,000 acres. 
The settlement of this town was 
commenced, immediately after the 
Revolutionary war, by Benjamin 
Griswold, Cyprian Eastman, Rob- 
ert Dundee, Justus ^Uen, Samuel 
Brooks and others. The town was 
organized March 2, 1789, and Hen- 
ry McLaughlin was first town clerk. 
The religious denominations are, 
Baptists, Congregationalists and 
Melodists. The Rer. Mr. Stearns 

was ordained here about the year 
1818, and continued a few years. 
Tlie Rev. Mr. Ware a Congrcga- 
tionalist, preaches half the time. 
T'he Baptists and Methodists are 
without settled preachers, but are 
generally supplied with preaching. 
There are two meetinghouses, both 
erected in 1819 ; one belongs to the 
Methodists, and the other was built 
by the Congregationalists and Bap- 
tists together, and belongs equally 
to each. The latter is a commo- 
dious and handsome building. The 
epidemic of 1812, prevailed here, 
but was not very mortal. The 
physicians are Joseph Needham and 
Oren Smith. About one third of 
this town lies entirely west of the 
Green Mountains, and is very level, 
rich and productive. The remain- 
der of the town is broken and a 
considerable part incapable of cul- 
tivation. A considerable mountain 
extends through the town from 
north to south. That part of it 
north of N. Haven river, is called 
the Hog Back, and that on the south 
is called south mountain. A part 
of the latter has been very much in- 
fested with rattle snakes ; their 
numbers, are however, yearly di- 
minishing. New-Haven river, en- 
ters this town from the east, and, 
before it reaches the centre oi the 
town, receives Baldwin and Lewis 
creek. It runs off to the west into 
New-Haven. There are three nat- 
ural ponds here ; the largest, called 
Bristol pond, is a mile and a half 
long and three fourths of a mild 
wide. In the west part of the town 
Is a spring which is slight medicinal 
and is sometimes visited. There is 
a bed of iron ore in the part of the 
town next to Monkton, and there 
have been several forges here, but 
there is now only one which does 
much business. Jtfost of the ore 
which is wrought here, is brought 


fiPMB JHooktflO mhl htita a bed ce cajne in £<i«& after. Tlie ea 

the weal aiJe ci th« bke. a little tiers -^-ere prinrip»llT firon 

north «c Crown Pomu Toe riSa^c; Capt. Croa built the first ^ 

BBcar the centre of the town. HpoD saw milL Timotfar Cole ' 

yew-Haren rirer. immediatelT aA. first town derk and Janatfaai 

IsritpaaKftbcCwcen theHo^BackthefintrcprcsentatiTe. T\ 

and Sooth mountain. It contains: ions dcnoininations are Cc 

37 dw^iinglsoiisca, two meeting- 'tiocaiists. Baptists, Freewi 

hnwrt, two achoolboiises and a Ta- tists, Methodists and UniTC 

rictr of mills, shop?, kc it is ten - The C ougi e ga tionalist chai 

miles firem Vcr^emicsani 11 from orsaniied. Jolj 11, 1787, ; 

JMid-Betmrr. There are in town Rer. Elijah Ljman ordahk 

school distneta. aeren school- it April & 17^, and still coi 

two grift miilsi, two saw Present nmnber of commi 

milb. two fcUni^ mills, two cand- 164. The Baptist chort^ i 

in^ ranchinea, two stores, two distil- Samvel Horer, Elder. He 

lcncs,two tumeiiesandonetaTcm.- wanis of 80 years old. Tb 

Pc^ 1061. -will Baptists are more nu: 

Jvfy. 1S24. The number of Methodists i 

E&ojui Brook, a small miU Peter Bean, local preacli 

fltmun, which rises in the eastern 1789 there were 52 funilic 

part of Barnard, nms acroas the The number of deaths sin 

tootheaat cotner of Rovalton and time, is 499. Of these one 

mis ictio ^liite rirer in Sharon. ; the a«e of 94 yean, and tw< 

Bkojelkt. Tliis name was al- to that of 93. The smalles 

tcreJ to Pern ; Febrmy 3, 1804.Mxr that has died in any year 

See Pent. ^Ihe greatest, thirty-four, i 

EnooKFiELD. a post town in the*avera^ number about ft 

western part of Oran^ county, in 'The yeais of most remarkab 

lat.44'2randlan^. 4-21',isbound-'talitT, are 179S, 1801, 180' 

cd north by WiUiamstown. east by .1811. 1813 and 1823, and t 

Cbdsea, south by Randolph and a .which there have been spe 

part of Braintree, and west by R<»x- riTals of rehofion, are 179: 

bury, it lies 16mfles south from 1809. 18ia 181S, 1816 an^ 

Moctpelier and 40 N. westerly from The congre^tional meetii 

Win^or. This township was grant- .in this town stands near the 

eiNoTember&, 1780, andclwrter-<and was built in 1804. *] 

cd AngustS, 1781, to Phinehas Ly-. also a small meetinghouse 

man and his associates, and contains <branch. The practif^ng^ pfa 

36 square miles. Tlie first settle- wre Walter Bumb&m and 

mcnl of this town was b e gun iniWashbom. This townsl 

1T79, by Shubal Cross and Mjnily. ;oearly on the height of l 

Mn.CrosB was the first woman who jtween White and Onion ri\ 

t into town, and on that account :some parts of it are brofc 

presented, by the proprietors. |it is mostly fit for cultivatio 

with 100 acres of land. Mr. How- ;rery prodoctiTe, partical 

nid^frmily came in about the same.'i^T'ass. It is well water< 

tipne and Caleb Martin, John Lt« jsprings and brooks, but has 

min Jonathan Pierce, John and^good miU priTilegcs. The 

mnh ^yae, ttd several oters jpal stream is the second bi 





White river, which originates iii||ally. The religious dciiominationii 
Williamstown, in conjunctiou wilhj'ure, close commumon Baptists, open 

Stevens' branch of Onion river, and 
runs through the eastern part of this 
town into Randolph. SThere are 
several considerable ponds, some of 
which afford streams, a considera* 
ble part of the year, sufficient for 
mills and other machinery. The: 
pond near the north villag^e is cross- i 
ed by a floating; bridg^e 25 rods long 
Around and at the bottom of a small; 
pond in tlie west part of the town, 
is an inexhaustible quantity of marl, 
from which very good lime is man- 
afactured. There are 12 school dis- 
tricts and to schoolhouses, a ))art ofj 
two of thd districts and the houses 
belonging to them being in Roxbu-! 
ry. There are four grist mills, two! 
"with two run of stones each, and! 
two with one run each, seven saw' 
mills, one carding machine, two ful- 
ling mills, three stores, three tavei*ns, 
two distilleries, two tanneries, and 
oae small furnace. Pop. 1507. 
June^ 1824. 
Bbooklinjb, a small township in 
,, tlw eastern part of Windham coun- 
i ty, inlat. 43^ 1', is bounded north 
\\ Vy Athens, east by Westminster and 
.; Putney, south by Dummerslon and 
-^ West by Townshend and Newfane. 
■ :^ It is about eight miles in length and ,' 
^^ from one and a half to two and a; 
^. half miles in width. It was set ofl*| 
.^^ from Putney and Athens and incor-j 

communion Baptists and Congrega- 
tionalistj*. There was formerly but 
one Baptist church here, over which 
Elder Isaac Wcllman was ordained 
in November, 1808. In 1810, there 
was a revival, in consequence of 
which, about 45 were added to this 
church, and another in 1817, which 
occasioned an accession to this 
church of about 70 members. 
There has lately been a division of 
this church, occasioned by a differ- 
ence of opinion respecting commu- 
nion. The close communion Bap- 
tist church numbers about 140 
members, about two thirds of whom 
reside in the neighboring towns, 
Bela Wilcox is their preacher. 
Elder Wellman is connected with 
the open communion chu*-ch. The 
Baptists have a small meetinghouse, 
situated a little north of the centre 
of the township. A deep valley runs 

through the whole 


of the 

3. \ Pwated into a township, October 
«■:*■ ?0i 1794. The town was organized 

:*^ Jn March, 1795, and John Waters 

: ^ ^''tt first town clerk. It was first 

1-1 represented in 1823, by Benjamin 

-if Ormsbee. The first settlement was 

-If aade in this township by a Whit- 

lij comb, Cyrus Whitcomb, jr. David 

7 J Ayres, Samuel Skinner and Jonah 

'^ Mower, about the year 1777. The 

^: fint settlers had many hardships to 

^"^ OKlure, but nothing more than is 

'■. common in new settlements gener- 

\ H 

township from north to south, at the 
bottom of which runs GrcLssy Brooke 
which rises in Athens and falls into 
West river near the southwest cor- 
ner of Brookliue. Along the whole 
of the east line of the town, is a con- 
siderable elevation. West river 
forms for a short distance, the west- 
ern boundary. During a violent 
freshet, a few years since, an exten- 
sive bed of Kaolin, or porcelain clay, 
was laid open in this town. The 
town has always been remarkably 
healthy. William Perry, jr. is the 
|only physician. TTiere are four 
school districts and schoolhou.scs, 
one of which is a very pretty build- 
ing of brick. The mill privileges 
lare not very good. There are one 
grist mill, three saw mills and a tav- 
ern. Pop. 391. 
June, 1824. 
Brownijtgtoit, a post town in 
Orleans county, in lat. 44^ 40' and 





long. 4® 47', is bounded northeast- 
erly by Salem and Navy, southeast- 
erly by Westmore, southwesterly by 
Barton, and west by north by Cov- 
entry and a part of Irasburgh. It 
is 95 miles north from Windsor, 45 
northeast from Montpelier and 57 
from Burlington. It was granted 
February 26, 1782, and chartered, 
by the name of Brownington, Octo- 
ber 2, 1790, to Timothy and Daniel 
Brown and their associates, and 
contains 16,750 acres. This was 
constituted a half shire town of Or- 
leans county, when that county was 
incorporated. The seat of justice 
is now at Irasburgh. TTie town- 
ship is watered by Willoughby's 
river, a considerable mill stream 
running through the south part, and 
by several of its branches. There 
is also a small pond lying partly in 
the northwest corner of the town. 
Population 265. 

Brunswick, a township in Es- 
sex countyv situated in lat. 44^ 43' 
and long. 5^ 14', containing 14,716 
acres, or 23 square miles. It is 
bounded north by Minehead, east 
by Connecticut river, south by 
Maidstone and west by W6nlock. 
It lies opposite to Stratford, in n. H. 
and fifty-five miles northeast from 
Mortpelier. This»town was char- 
tered, October 13, 1761. The first 
settlement was commenced in the 
spring of 1780, by Joseph and Na- 
thaniel Wait. John Merrill re- 
moved here the succeeding autumn. 
Since this period the population of 
the town has continued slowly to 
advance. Brunswick is watered by 
the west branch of Nulhegan river, 
which runs through the northwest 
part of the town, and unites with 
the north branch in Minehead. 
Wheeler's stream rises in Wenlock, 
and passes through this town into 
Connecticut river. Tliis stream af- 
fords several valuable mill privi- 

leges. It passes through a number 
of natural ponds. PauFs stream, 
receiving its waters from Granby, 
Ferdinand and Maidstone lake, 
passes through the south part of 
the town, and is a considerable mill 
stream. There is a minera/ jpmg 
of some note, situated in the north- 
east part of the town, which is said 
to be similar to the one in Newbu- 
ry, (see Newbury.) This spring is- 
sues from the bank of Connecticut 
river, and from beneath a natural 
I pond of about 25 acres area, lying 
upon the bank above. The town 
is divided into three school districts, 
but one of which has a schoolhouse. 
A physician is the only profesn<Hial 
man in town. TTiere are two 8a\r 
mills and one grain mill. Popula- 
tion 124. 

Burke, a post town in the north- 
east part of Caledonia county, in 
lat. 44° 36' and long. 4*^ 58', is 
bounded northeast by Newark and 
East-Haven, southeast by Victory, 
south by Lyndon and Kirby, aod 
west by Sutton. It is 40 miles north 
cast from Montpelier, and 37 north 
from Newbury. It was chartered 
February 26, 1782, to Justus Row, 
Uriah Seymour and others, and con- 
tarns 23,040 acres. The settlemoit - 
of this town was commenced about 
the year 1790 by Lemuel and In 
Walter, Seth Spencer and others 
from Connecticut and the south 
part of this state. The town wts 
organized December 5, 1796, and 
Lemuel Walter was the first iomk 
clerk. It was first represented by 
Thomas Bartlet, in 1805. A saw 
and grist mill were erected here by 
Roman Fyler and his sons about the ' 
year 1800. The saw mill was des- 
troyed by fire the next year, but 
was soon rebuilt. There are, at 
present, five religious societies, Con- 
gregationalist. Baptist, Free will 





Baptist, Methodist an J Universal- 
ist, but DO settled minister. Elder 
Peleg Hicks, a Baptist, was settled 
here about the time the church was 
-oi^^ized, and continued till about 
1810. Since that time there has been 
uo settled minister, but there is gen- 
erally preaching by circuit, or oth- 
er itinerant preachers. Geo. W. 
Denison and Alva Gadding are the 
practicing physicians. In the au- 
tumn of 1812, this town was visited; 
by the spotted fever, which carried 
off a number of the inhabitants, 
yhis township is watered by the 
Passumpsick river, which runs 
througl) it in a south westerly di- 
rection, and by several of its 
branches, which aiflford numerous 
mill privileges. It is separated from 
Victory by Burke mountain, which 
is about 3,500 feet high and is seen 
from a great distance. The sur- 
face of the town is uneven, and the 
timber, principally hard wood, in- 
terspersed with evergreens. The 
soil is, generally, good. In 1817, 
Roman Fyler and others establish- 
ed a manufactory of shavirig^ boxes 
and brushes in this town, and, for 
four or five years, these- articles 
ivere manufactured to the amount; 
of from ^1000 to |2000 annually.! 
This business is now nearly sus- 
pended, and a manufactory of Ma- 
gog oil stones established by R. 
Fyler and son. In 18 18, Mr. Fyler, 
seeing a stone which was brought 
from Memphremagog lake, recog- 
nized it as an oil stone, and procur- 
ed one and used it as such in his 
shaving box factory. In Septem- 
ber of this year, he made a tour to 
tlie lake to see the quarry from' 
which it had been taken. He: 
found the oilstone, (mvaculite^ up-i 
on a small island, {see Memphre-: 
tnagoglake) immediately secured his 
title to the quarry and soon com- 
menced the manufacture. After 

two or ^hree years of assiduous ex- 
ertions, he succeeded in getting 
them intense in the principal towns 
in the northern states. Since that 
time from two to four tons have 
been annually manufactured and 
soldi The stone is taken from the 
quarry and transported to this town, 
where it is manufactured. It if 
pronounced, by good judges, to be 
equal to the best Turkey oil stone. 
The mills and machinery are sit- 
uated near tlie centre of a small 
village. The town is divided into 
six school districts, in five of which 
there are school houses. There are 
two grist mills, five saw mill?, one 
carding machine, two fulling; mills, 
one store, one tavern, one tannery, 
one distillery, one clover mill and 
one pottery. Population 511. 

ApriU 1824. a. b. 

Burling TO Jf, a post and shire 
town of Chittenden county, is 
one of the principal towns in the 
state. This township lies in lat. 
44° 27', and long. 3^48', and is 
bounded north by Colchester, east 
by Williston, south by Shelburo^ 
and west by lake Champlain. It is 
situated 35 miles, in a right line, 
west by north from Montpelier, 22 
southeasterly from Plattsburgh, 30 
north from Middlebury, 160 from 
Boston, 80 from Montreal, 200 from 
Quebec, and 440 from Washington. 
It was chartered, June 7, 1763, by 
the governor of N. If., containing, 
originally, 36 square miles, and ex- 
tending ten miles, in a right line, 
along Onion river, which separates 
the township from Colchester, and 
6 miles from north to south on the 
eastern boundary. October 27, 1794, 
that part of the township, east of 
Muddy brooks was annexed to Wil* 
liston. Some beginnings had been 
made in this townzihip, and several 
settlers were on their way to it^ 
when the revolutionary war com* 





menced, in the spring of 1775, bul||ing^s in the state. It cost about 
the settlement was wholly aban-j $-23000. The Me^^otUst church, in 
doned in 1776, when the Araerican||this town, is considerably numerous 
troops retreated from Canada be- 
fore the British army, and no at- 
tempt was made to renew it, till 
the close of the war. In the spring 

.and is constantly supplied with 
I preaching on the Sabbath. They, 
'at present, occupy the court-house 
as a place of worship, but it is ex- 
of 1783, the first permanent settle-! jpected that a Methodist chapel will 
ment was commenced by FrederickiJHOon be erected. The sur&ce of 

Saxton, Stephen Lawrence, : this township is considerably eleva- 

Eldredge and Simon Tubbs, farm- ked above tlie lake, is pleasantly di- 
ers. Joseph Stackhouse, wheelright,! versified with swelb and vales, but 
Dubartns Willard, carpenter, and. jthe soil is not, in general, of the first 
John Collins, blacksmith, who re- j 'quality. In the northeastern part is 
moved their families here in August jjan extensive tract of pine plain, 
following. The first town meeting, I where the soil is light and sandy, 
on record, was Jlfarch 19, 1787, and-jThe southwestern part was timber* 
Samuel Lane was then chosen town|;ed mostly with hard wood, and the 
clerk. The town probably or-'.'soil is loamy. The declivity occu- 
gunized one or two years before. j! pied by the village is, in general, a 
The religious societies, in this town, 'hard gravelly soil, very suitable 
are Congregationalists, Unitarians for building ground. Below Onion 

and Methodists. There are also 
»ome Episcopalians. There was 
no settled minister, in this town, 
previous to the year 1810. On the 
10th of April of this year, the Rev. 
Daniel Haskell was ordained over 
the Congregational church, and 
continued their pastor till about the 
beginning of the year 182i?, when 
being elected President of the Ver- 
mont University, he asked a dis- 
mission. On the 23d of August, 
1822, the Rev, Willard Preston was 
installed over this church and so- 
ciety. The Rev. Samuel Clark 
was ordained over the Unitarian 
church, April 19, 1810, and was dis- 
missed, by his own request, Feb. 
18, 1822. The Rev. George G. In- 
gersol was ordained over this church 
and society, on the 30th of May 

following. Each of the above 
named societies have a good meet- 
inghouse. That belonging to the 
Unitarian society is of brick and 
very capacious. It was erected in 
1816; has a good organ, clock and 
bell, and is on« of the fmest build- 

river falls, in this township, is a 
beautiful tract of interval, which is 
not surT>assed in fertility by any io 
the state. There are no streams of 
any consequence, which run through 
the township. Onion river sepa- 
rates it from Colchester, and at the 
lower falls on this stream, common- 
ly known by the name of " Onion 
river falls," are a number of very 
valuable mill privileges, most of 
which are already occupied. From 
these falls, it is about five miles to 
the mouth of the river, while it is 
only a mile and a half across to th^ 
wharf in Burlington bay. Ther^ 
are two bridges over Onion rive**-s 
connecting this township with Col — 
Chester. One is near t'le head o* 
Onion river falls, theoJier, calle<J 
the * High bridge,' or ' Pennyman"*"^ 
bridge", is about one mile and ahaX ^ 
above. The chasm, formed by th^ 
water, over which the latter passed -» 
is a considerable curiosity. Th»^ 
bridge is 65 feet above the surfac ^ 
of the river, at low water, and i^ 
only about 75 feet in length. Muddy 





ook, wiiich runs between this 
ivnship and Williston, is a small 
11 stream. The rocks here are, 
incipally, limestone. Iron ore is 
ind in small fragments, and, 

the lake shore to the northwest 
the village, near Sharp-shin 
int, a beautiful ferru^nous sand 
found in abundance. There are 
'o or ihree springs in town, which 
e thought to possess medicinal 
operties, but are not in very high 
pute. In the vicinity of one, 
iiich is half a mile east of the site 

the University, calcarious tufa is 
und. In the northwest part of the 
wn is a cayem, called the ' Devils 
en,' which is considered a curios- 
f. The entrance is large, and the 
Ltent about 30 feet in a direction 
Jarly horizontal. Burlington vil- 
ge is the largest and handsomest 
iUage in the state. It is situated 
Q Burlington bay, and occupies a 
eatle declivity, which descends to- 
(Tards the west. The streets ex- 
ead from east to west, and from 
lorth to south, and, in general, cross 
)ae another regularly at right an- 
gles, cutting the whole village into 
'quares. The village extends about 
>ae mile from the water, in which 
distance the land rises gradually 
^ut 250 feet above the surface of 
^^ lake. The width from north to 
>uth is half a mile. A great share 
^ the business on the lake centres 
•this place, and the town is rapidly 
^i^easing in size and consequence. 
Q extensive wharf is constructed 
^ the convenience of loading and 
|loading merchandize, &c. upon 
*Uch several store houses have 
'®3* erected. Before lake Cham- 
*-iu was connected with the Hud- 
? by a canal, much of the trade of 
^ town was with Montreal and 
?ebec ; since that time it has been 
*^cipally with New- York. The 
^blig t^uildiPga, in this Tillage, are 


two meetinghouses, a court-hou^e, 
built in 1802, a stone jail, an acad- 
emy and a bank, all of which are 
handsome and commodious build- 
ings. There are also some very 
handsome private buildings and 
gentlemen's seats. The first regular 
mercantile store was opened, in this 
village, in the fall of 1789. It was 
built by Stephen Keyes, and placed 
under the care of Orange Smith, 
rhe second store was opened by 
Zacheus Peaslee. In the year 1800, 
the number of regular stores had 
increased to six. The village, includ- 
ing the street to Onion river falls, 
contains 16 English atid West India 
goods stores, two drug and medicine 
stores, two bookstores, six grocery 
stores, two hat stores, one auction 
and commission store, one shoe store, 
one jewel and fancy goods store, two 
cabinet warehoasesjtwo watch-mak- 
ers and jewelers, two tin factories, 
four chair factories, one tobacconist, 
three masons, five joiners, seven 
blacksmiths, two coopers, three sad- 
dlers, four tailors, one gunsmith, 
five mantuamakers, two barbers, six 
taverns, one saw mill, one gristmill, 
one mill for grinding plaster, one 
woollen factory, one clothier's 
works, one carding machine, one oil 
mill and one paper mill. The view 
of tliis village, from the water while 
approaching it from the southwest, 
is very beautiful. The prospect, 
from the site of the University, 
which is 250 feet above the lake, is 
rich beyond description, and is hard- 
ly surpassed by any in the United 
States. The lake, its bays and is- 
lands, the river, winding its way 
through luxuriant meadows, and 
the mountains, which form the great 
outlines of the view, render th^ 
scenery strikingly variegated and 
beautiful. There is, at present, but 
one periodical paper printed in this 
yilbge. It is issued weekly, aud is 




iliriLaiu, IVeiijEnt fiBuders wtlu- 
nii(Eeil, the courie ol' iuatructioo, in 
ths Uoivenit^, suspended, theita- 
dcnli di!pcrai'd,anJtliB ooll^a-ali- 
JGfe i)ccu|)ied by the troops of the 
Iftiited ttates, which were station- 
ed st £urIiii>IOD. At the close of 
'the war, the Uuitersity wob n 
^Biiizc J, auA the Rec Bamuul Aui- 
tiii, U. D., EippointeJ I'residmt, 
I'lie Univeraiff had many tiiSeal- 
.liGi lu ciicouiit^r from the oiliuiDi 
whiL'h had been brought upon tha 
liaftitutiun during the war, Hud from 
ithe demaadti, nhich were, allcr- 
waj'de, unexpccteilly brought a- 
Iguinat it for erectingthecoll^td- 
jiGcD, naJ the prospecti were h 
IdiaeourHging, that, j^i lOai. the 
■■■ tidenl aud Professor of iVlBthe- 
uiuJui aud Phylusophy, rtagad, 
laud a oonsiderahle pari of the slu- 
jdcDts went tu other collets. In 
the full of thij yfer measurea wetS 
kaken, by which most of the de- 
'minda Bgniiut theiiEtitutlon were 
sotisfied, the Rev. -OanirJ HaiM 
n-KB appuialed Preiideol, and Ida 
sEiira of the University be^an to 
im^abri^hteraspeEt. Id IffiS, 
the medical department was organ- 
ized, and in ths fall pf thit yeaj', a 
of Medical Lectures v/ai 
he first time, to a clan ol' 
i3 5tudenU. At the time Mr, H«s- 
kell accepted the Presidency of thii 
iiutitution, there were butSOitU- 
denti beloD^ng to it. la October, 
lls'iS, there were 55 medical itn- 

^ ^„^ — -o- dents and 63 claasioa! atudents : 

!ted* by the liberal inhabitaais | total lOS. The .local a' 

called the ^ ^orlliern iientiiul,' pub- 
lisbed by E. and T. Mills. It was 
eommenced in IflOl, and was, at 
*r!t, called the Vermont Sentinel. 
Several other periodical papen 
have been established here and dis- ^ 
continued. The Burlington BbuI(|] 
WHS incorporntedKoMDiberS, 1810, 
VithaoipiUlof (loO,UUO. A lai^ 
and elegant building of hrick hi 
been erected for its accomraodi 
tion. In frout of the court-hou; 
is a handsome common, called tlie 
aouare. The court-house is about 
fcalf a mile weat from the Ltniver 
eily, and in long. 73-^ IS'westilou 
Creeawich Obnervatory, as deduced 
from a ceiealial oticrvaticu by Pi 
feasor Deaa. The Tillase,iit pres- 
ent, coutaiui about 225 dwelling 
louses, mau? of which are hand- 
lome, and 1650 inhabitants. O! 
tliese 83S are males, 1)12 females. 
150 foreigners, Oo sailors and 61 
blacks. There are here 17 attur- 
aiesatlawandBixphysioia;?, Tbt 
mople of Burlington are diblin- 
guished for their politeness and at- 
lention to sU-angers, for the refine, 
ment of Uitirmuflnera, and for theii 
liberality and public spirit. Mote 
than $75,000 have been contributed 
by this village for the erection 
public buildings, besiJei the larje 
sums which have been raiaod loi 
other public purposes. The Uni- 
varsity of Vermont was incorpora- 
ted and established here Norember 
3, 1791- In lUOO and 1801, a large 
and elegant coUege edifi. " 
reeled* by the liberal in, 
of Burlington and its vicinity, and 
ioBlruclion CDOunenced at the saint 
time under the Presidency of the 
Rev. Daniel C. Sanders. TheSnl 
commencement was held in 1804, 
twhen lotir young gentlctuen wt 
hoQorcd with the degree of A. 
Kurinj the late war with Great 

* See GiiunU ;'i(»,f nj< 36. 

the Univenily of Vermont is Un- 
rivaBed in pleasantness aud salu- 
brity, anil the calamity, which has 
lately befallenthe institution in th« 
destruction of the college edifice by 
fire, is likely toon to be repaired. 
Subscriptions have been procurei], 
and provision is already made tot 
tiie erection of other bvildinp. 




Id oi-der to an oilinissioa lo Uic lutL-lkclual thilosupliy, VBttel"* 
Frcahman CUsa,)" the University Lnw of Setblia. T/irou^-h t!ie i/car, 
uf Vermont. Ibe vandidnte must ohq les-ou, weekly, in Ihe Greek 
have read Clark'i luttoiluction Ic Tealacaent, and one is Cicero da 
llie makit^ of Latin, tlio whole o( OfficJis ; and, occasionally, a review 
Vir^l, Ciceru'a Select Oration?, the of past (ludioa. 
Greek TeslaraeDt,SallaBt and Gne- All the claiiGi, througU their 
ca Alinora. andiDUstuiideratBndtho wholecoune, atlenl frequently to 
Idrndaraontul rales of Arithmelitk. j Composition, Disputation, and De- 
COUHSE OF STUDIES. ■clamation. Lecture* srp delii-ereJ, 
VKEStmiAN ci.ASe. 'annually, in diii inaliliition.ouNa- 

FiralTerm. — Honuie'sOdeB,Mur- jturnl and Experimenlal I'hilosophy 
lay's GromniarandExerefeeB,Cree.|tiud Astronomy, on Chetaidry, and 
ca JVIajora, ThQcydidca auii Hero- ^od Botany, to whlnh the classical 
ilotua. Stcond Term. — Uornca'a students have oecesa. The charge 
Satires,Hultoa')Arithoaetiok,GrEe- |fop tuition, room-reut, nnd the nse 
caMajora, Xenophon'j CjToptediaj'of the Library, is twenty doll a ra a 
and Aaaha^ii. Third Term. — Ho-'^year. The annual ConimencenieQt 
race finishej, Adam's RoniaD Anli-iiiaon Uie-secood IVaJnesday in Au- 
(juilies, Elair^ Rhetoriok abridged, Jgust. ThBTacalionj are frow 

Cicarode SenectuteanddeAmii 
J^>)/ rerai.— Cicero lie Oratoi . 
Hmton's Atgebm, Morses Octavo 
Geograpliy, last edition. SccbjuI 
Term. — Cicero de Oralore finished, 
Craeoa Mujorn, Excerpta ex Orato- 
ribus, Tytler's Elemenla of History. 
Third Ttmi. — Ilutton'a Geometry, 
Livy 5 boDks,Hodge'i Logiok.Hnt- 
ton's Trigonometry and Conick 

Firil 3tj-m.— Grwm Majora, Ist. 
Vol. finished, Eniield'* Philosophy. 
Steond Tmn.— Tacltoa'a HiKory, 
Enfield'i Philosophy continued, 
GrKca Majora, Exoerpta Heroica. 
Third J>f7n.—Gr»CE Majora, 2nd. 
.Vol. finished, Enfield's Aatronomy, 
Jsmiesoa's Grammar of Rhetorick. 


FirsI Term.— Palej'a Natural 
Theology, Paley'a Eiideocea of 
Christianity, Paley^ Aloi-nl Philos- 
ophy, BuUer'a Analogy. Second 
renn.— Stewart's Philosophy of the 
Humankind, Campbell's Philos- 
ophy of Rhetorick. Third Term. 
Jbhusmu'e (jruiuanrof Logickand 

jmeneement, four weeks; from Ihe 
second Wednesday in Aecember, 
jaeven weeka ; imd iroDi the woond 
|W«dne8d«y in May, two 'weehc. 
ThepresEiit Faculty are the Rev. 
.Daniel Haskell, A. M., Pretidenl, 
'James Dean, A. A. S. Pro/nicr 0/ 
[MaihisaBlicIa and JValural jfAiVo*- 
ip/iy, Lucas Hubbell, A. M..J'™. 
Uiaior of Ike Leamrd Jianguagea, 
fNalhan Smith, M. D. C. S.iM.S. 
iLond., iPro/aSarin Yale Cat.) Pro- 
feUBr 0/ Ihe Thcorjf and Pracliee of 
Surgery and ObiMrtes, Joseph A. 
Gallup, M. D„ Theory and Praclict 
nf Phytic and Jialtria Mediea, 
Nathan &. SmiUi, M. D., .Snalomy 
and Phyiialot^ and Arthur L. 
Porter, '.T. D. 'dumiilry and Phar- 
macy. The whole population. of 
Burlington,iQl820,was2lll. The 
pressnt number is about S600. 
^^iiguit e, 11124. 

port township 6 milea 

the western part of Cal- 
mly, is situated about tiio 
head waters of Onion river, in lal. 
44° •£> k long. i° 38',Bnd is bounded 
north by W'alden, east by Danville 
andfeBGhUP, toulb bj JUuiUeld 





and west by Woodbury. It is li^ 
miles east from Montpelier, and 65 
north from Windsor. It was grant- 
ed November 6, 1780, and charter- 
ed August 17, 1781, to Jesse Leav- 
enworth and his associates. The 
settlement of the town was com- 
menced in April, 1785, by James 
Bruce, Edmund Chapman, Jona- 
than Heath and Benjamin Webster, 
with their families. The females 
came into the town on snowshoes, 
and were obliged to suffer many 
privations* and hardships. Mr. 
Webster and his wife, are now the 
only persons, of the above named, 
who reside in town. They live, on 
what is called ' The Plain' in Cabot, 
near the place where the settlement 
was commenced. This plain is sit- 
uated on the height of lands be-, 
tween Connecticut and Onion 
river, and commands an extensive 
and beautiful prospect. Its out- 
lines are formed by the western 
ransre of the Green mountains and 
by the White mountains, in N. H. 
The religious denominations are 
Congregationalists and Methodists, 
each of which has a meetinghouse. 
The Rev. Moses Ingalls is settled 
over the Congregational church. 
This town is the native place of 
Zera Colburn, who, at the age of 
five or six years, astonished the 
world by his extraordinary powers 
of combining numbers, and who has 
since been fostered and admired by 
the literati of Europe. His widow- 
ed mother still resides here. The 
eurface of this town is generally un- 
even and the soil hard. The tim- 
ber is mostly hard wood, with some 
hemlock and spruce. It is watered 
by Onion river, which is formed of 
several branches in this town and 
affords here several mill privileges. 
Joe^s and Molly's pond lie in the 
northeast part. The waters of the 
former pass by Joe's brook and 

Passumpsic river into the Connec- 
ticut, while those of the latter pass 
by Onion river into lake Champlaiiu 
Near Onion river in this town is a 
sulphur spring. At the centre is a 
small village, in which are a meet- 
inghouse, erected in 1823, a store, a 
tavern, and some mills and other 
machinery. There are, in town, 
three physicians, two ministers, two 
stores, two taverns, four saw mills, 
two grist mills, one fulling mill, one 
carding machine and one tannery. 
Population 1032. 
September, 1823. 
Calais, a township, in the 
north part of Washington county, is 
in lat. 44® 22' and long. 4=» 48', and 
Is bounded north by Woodbury, east 
by Marshfield, south by Montpelier 
Jand west by Worcester. It is 37 
miles east from Burlington and 62 
north from Windsor, was granted 
October 21, 1780, chartered August 
15, 1781, to Jacob Davis, Stephen 
Fay, and their associates, and con- 
tains 36 square miles. The princi- 
pal proprietors and first settlers of 
this township were from Charleton, 
Mass. The settlement was com- 
menced in the summer of 1787. 
The first settlers were Abijah, Asa 
and Peter Wheelock, who started 
from Charleton, June 5, 1787, with 
a waggon, two yoke of oxen, pro- 
visions, tools, fcc. and arrived at 
Williamstown, within 21 miles of 
Calais, the 19th. They had hither- 
to found the roads almost impassa* 
ble and here they were obliged te 
leave their waggon, and, taking a 
few necessary articles upon a sled, 
they proceeded towards Calais, cut- 
jting their way and building cans* 
ways as they passed along. After 
a journey of two days, and encamp* 
ing in the woods two nights, they 
arrived at the place where Mont- 
pelier village now stands. Here 
Col. Jacob Dayis, h»d commenced 





ring and erected a small log; 
id here they left their cattle to 
upon the vrild grass, leeks and 
aery, with which the woods 
ded ; proceeded to Galas and 
enced cutting down the forest, 
returned to Charleton in Oc- 
and the following spring A- 
and Peter Wheelock, came 
to Calais, accompanied by 
Stone. They this year erect- 
g house, and spent the foUow- 
inter at Charleton. In the 
of 1789, Abijah Wheelock 
ed his family, consisting of a 
ind two children, into town. 
Montpelier, a distance of 1 1 
Mr. Wc drew his bed, a son 
3ars old, and some other arti- 
pon a handsled, while Mrs. 
■avelled the whole distance 
jh the woods on foot, (snow 
;wo to three feet deep,) carry- 
her arms a child four months 
They arriyed in Calais, ac- 
inied by Samuel Twiss and 
fe, on the 13th of April. In 
nber following Peter Whee- 
loved his family, consisting of 
e and six children, to this 
bkip. In 1790, James Jennings, 
d here with his family, Asa 
lock and David Goodell, re- 
I here in 1791, and Edward 
jr, and others in 1792. Lu- 
daughter of Peter Wheelock, 
orn this year, and was the 
hild born in town. On this 
in, Mrs. Rachel, wife of Asa 
lock, travelled four miles 
;h the woods on foot in a very 
ight. In 1793, the first saw 
ist mill were erected near the 
of the town, by J. Davis, of 
telier and Samuel Twiss. 
^ this and the succeeding year 
srable additions were made 
settlement. In the winter of 
Mr. Jenninss, of this town, 
upwards of oO years of age. 

lost his life by fatigue and frosty 
while on his return through the 
woods from Montpelier to this 
place. There were not at this time 
a sufficient number of men in town 
to constitute a jury of inquest. It 
was in this township that the Hon. 
Timothy Stanley lost his foot by 
frost, in 1788. The town was or- 
ganized March 23, 1795. Peter 
Wheelock was first town clerk, Jo- 
nas Comins, first constable, Joshua 
Bliss, first select man, by the unan- 
imous suffrage, of 17 legal voters. 
The town was represented in Oc- 
tober following by Peter Wheelock. 
The first settlers of Calais experi- 
enced all those privations and hard- 
ships which are incident to the set- 
tlers of new townships generally. 
They located themselves at some 
distance from each other, and it was 
not uncommon for a woman to trav- 
el several mile^. to visit a neighbor 
and return after dark through the 
woods, brandishing a firebrand to. 
enable her to discover the marked 
trees. For one or two years the 
settlers brought the grain for the 
support of their families, and for 
seed from Williamstown,Brookfield 
and Royalton, a distance of 30 miles 
or more After they began to raise 
grain in town, they had to carry it 
15 miles to mill. This they did in 
winter, by placing several bags of 
grain upon the neck of an ox, and 
driving his mate before him to beat 
a path. There are here five relig- 
ious societies, viz., Baptists, Congre- 
gationalists, Universalists, Method- 
ists, and Freewill Baptists, and the 
greatest harmony prevails among 
them. There are two preachers. 
Elder Benjamin Page, and Hosea 
Hatch, and one meetinghouse which 
is shared by all the denominations. 
There are also two physicians, John 
Gilman and Charles Clark. For 
some time after the eettlemeat of 





the township, there was no physi- 
cian within 25 miles of this place. 
The town has generally been very 
healthy. Abijah Wheelock and his 
wife, the first settlers, now 60 years 
<>f age, reside near the centre of the 
town, surrounded by eleven chil- 
dren, no death ever having happen- 
ed in the family. This township is 
watel-ed by two branches of Onion 
river, one entering it near the north- 
east, the other near the northwest 
corner. They U|iite near the south 
line of the town, affording, in their 
course, a great number of valuable 
privileges for mills and other ma- 
chinery. It is also well watered 
with springs and brooks. The soil is 
a. warm loam, easily cultivated, well 
adapted to the production of all 
kinds of grain and is not inferior to 
other towns in its vicinity for graz- 
ing. The surface of the township 
is somewhat uneven, but very little 
of it so broken as to be incapable of j 
cultivation. TTie timber on the 
streams is mostly hemlock, spruce 
and pine ; on the higher lands, ma- 
ple, beech, &c. The lowest lands 
here are in general driest and the 
best soil. The north line of the 
township intersects two considera- 
ble ponds. There are several oth- 
er small, but beautiful ponds ly- 
ing within the township, and which 
abound with trout and other fish. 
Long pond lies in the north west 
part of the town. In one autumn, 
2,0001bs. of trout were taken from 
this pond with a hook, which sold| 
for ^8 per cwt. In the spring of, 
come years, at the inlet of this pond,' 
more than two tons of fish have, 
been thrown out of the channel withj 
the hands and with baskets. A 
mineral spring has lately been dis- 
covered, which is said to have ef- 
fected some cures, but its properties 
are little known. There are in the 
town a nail fj^ctory, in yrhiiih hare 

been manufactured from six to nine 
tons of nails annually, three grist 
mills, seven saw mills, two smut 
mills, two clover mills, two distille- 
ries, two potashes, two trip hammer 
shops, one carding machine and one 
store. There is also a manufactorj 
of musical instruments of almost all 
kinds, which, in quality and beautj, 
are equal to the imported. Popu- 
lation, 1820, llli; 6. w. 
August 10, 1824. 
Caldersburgh. — This name 
was altered to Morgan, Octbber 19, 
1801. See Morgan, 

Caledonia CouiifTT is bounded 
northeast by Essex county, east by 
Connecticut river, which separata 
it from Grafton county, N. H.,spiith 
by Orange county, west by WaA- 
ington county, and northwest by 
Orleans county. It lies betweei 
44° 9' and 44«» 45' north lat. and be- 
tween 4° 25' and 5° 4' east lei^. 
and contains about 700 square miles. 
This county was incorporated Not. 
5, 1792. Danville is the prlndpal 
town and the seat of justice. The 
Supreme Court sits here on the sec- 
ond Tuesday of September, and the 
County Court on the first Monday 
of June and second Monday of De- 
cember, annually. The Passump- 
sick and some smaller tributaries of 
the Connecticut water the east part 
of the county, and Onion river is 
formed in the western part. The 
Lamoille river rises neat the north 
west corner. The height of lands, 
or eastern range of the Green 
mountains, extends through the 
western part of the county. Be-- 
tween this range and the Connee-- 
ticut, and along the Passumpsick, is 
a fine farming country. The geo- 
logy of this county is but little 
known Argillite, limestone, g^ran- 
ite, mica slate aiid hornblend rocki 
are common. Sulphur springs are 
very numerous. There is one print* 





ing estttblishment in this coanty, at 
Danville. Population, 1820, 16,669. 
Cambridge, a post town in the 
south part of Fraftklin county, in 
lat. 44° 38' and long. 4° 7', is bound- 
ed northeasterly by Cojt's gore and 
a part of Fletcher, easterly by Ster- 
ling and a part of Johnson, south 
by Underbill, and west by Fletcher, 
and is 30 miles northwest from 
Montpelier, and 22 northeast from 
Burlington. It was granted Nov. 
7, 1780, and chartered to. Samuel 
Robinson, JohnFasset,jr. Jonathan 
Fasset, and their associates, August 
13, 1781, and contains 28,533 acres. 
The first settler of this town was 
John Spafford. He came into town 
May 8, 1783, planted two acres of 
corn, which was overflowed with 
water in the fall, and nearly all 
destroyed. He moved his family, 
consisting of a wife and two child- 
ren, into town from Fiermont, N. 
H. in November. The toAvn was 
surveyed, this year, by Amos Fasset. 
In 1784, Amos Fasset, Stephen Kins- 
ley, John Fasset, jr. and Samuel 
Montague moved their families here 
from Bennington, and Noah Chit- 
tenden his from Arlington, Vt.^ The 
first saw mill was built, this year, 
by Amos Fasset. Thirty-five per- 
sons spent the second winter here. 
In 1785, David SafFord and others 
moved into town from Bennington. 
"When Mr. Spafford came into town, 
there were no inhabitants or road 
between this place and Hazen's road 
in Craftsbury, and they who came 
from Bennington, had to cut their 
road for ten miles through the 
voods. The first settlers brought 
their provisions with them, and 
when their meat failed, they hunt- 
ed the moose. The first improve 
ments were made on the fiats along 
the river Lamoille, the waters of 
whicii frequently swept away or 
spelled in fall the products of sum 

mer. TTie crops of pumpkins fre- 
quently floated away and landed 
safely on the shores of Grand Isle. 
When their mill dams were swept 
away, the people ground their grain 
in mortars, which they called plutnp' 
ing mills. They were made by 
burning a large cavity in the top of 
.a stump, and suspending a large 
\pesile to a spring pole. The town 
was organized March 29, 1785, and 
John Fasset was first town clerk. 
David Safford was first representa- 
tive and John Safford taught the 
first school in town. The religious 
denominations are Congregational- 
ists. Baptists, Episcopalians and 
Methodists. The Congregational 
church consists of 100 members. 
The Rev. Elijah Woolage was set- 
tled over it in 1 805» and dismissed 
in 11106 ; the Rev. John Truaire in 
1810, and dismissed in 1812. The 
Rev. Royal A. Avery was settled in 
1824. Their meetinghouse Was e- 
rected in 1805, in the village called 
the Borough, The first Elder of 
the Baptist church was Joseph 
Call who removed and was suc- 
ceeded by Elder Samuel Holmes, 
who died in 1813. The number 
belonging to the Methodist church 
is twelve, to the Episcopal, six. 
TTiere have been four considerable 
revivals of religion ; the first in 
1784, the subjects of it, four ; the 
second in 1792, about 50 subjects ; 
the third in 1808, about 20, and the 
fourth in 181 7, about 60. The dys- 
entery prevailed here in 1807, and 
was very mortal. In Cambridge, 
21 died, and as many more along the 
river in its immediate vicinity. 
Practicing physicians, John Fasset 
and William Page. Samuel Mont- 
ajj ue, now aged ^i I years, his wife 
75, David Safford. .0, his wife, 75, 
John Spafford, 69. and his wife, 68, 
all settled farms iidjoining each 
other. They are ail living on the 





^ame farms, and have never had a 
law suit or arbitration with each 
other. David Spafford, together 
with Seth Warner, John Warner, 
Elnathan Hubbell, jr., Nathaniel 
Holmes and John Steward, constitu- 
ted the Spartan band, which defend- 
ed the house of James Brecken- 
ridgpe, of Bennington, (called the 
Thermophyla of the N. H. grants,) 
agj^inst the sheriff of the comity of 
Albany, aided by a force of 300 
men. The river Lamoille enters 
this town on the east side one mile 
from the northeast corner, and after 
running a serpentine course of 12 
miles^ in which it receives north 
branch from the north, and Bruslers 
river and Seymour's brook from 
the south, passes the west line of 
tlie town, one mile from the south 
west corner. These stream* afibrd 
numerous mill privileges. The 
surface of the town is uneven, and, 
in some places, rough. The land 
is, however, generally good, and on 
the river are about 5000 acres of 
valuable interval. A branch of 
dead creek, which is a branch of 
Mississque river, rises in this town,| 
and anoUier branch of said creek is- 
sues from Metcalf pond in Fletcher, 
and runs across the northwest comer 
of this town. The town is well 
watered, and the timber of various 
kinds. There are three small vil- 
lages. The village called the Boro^ 
is on the south side of the river La- 
moille, in the southwest corner of 
the town, on the post road, and con- 
tains a Congregational meeting 
house, two stores, one tavern, one 
distillery, and mills and other ma- 
chinery. The centre village is on 
the south side of the Lamoille near 
the centre of the town, east of 
Bruslers- river, and contains one 
store, one tavern, one distillery, one 
trip hammer shop, one fulling mill, 
one carding machine and other mills 

I and machinery. The toWnmeet 
ings and the meetings of the Bapti! 
: society for religious worship ur 
' held here. The other village is on 
mile north of the Borough^ and i 
called the Harbour. The old Spai 
tan, David Safibrd, settled here wit 
several of his friends. Tlietow! 
is divided into 12 school district! 
There are two grist mills, with tw 
run of stones each, six saw miUi 
two clothier's works, two cardis) 
machines, one trip hammer sho| 
four distilleries, five stores, ihm 
taverns and one tannery. Popiola 

J\irareh^ 1^24. 

Camel^s Rump* is one of th< 
most elevated summits of the Greei 
Mountains, situated in the easten 
part of Huntington, near the W€fl 
line of Duxbury. Its height abovi 
tide water is 4188 feet, and abovi 
'the State House, at Montpelia 
3960 feet. It is 17 miles west fron 
Montpelier, about 25 miles norUb 
east from Middlebury, and 20 milei 
southeast from Burlington, and is ill 
full view from the site of the Uni- 
versity of Vermont. The top (A 
this niountdn commands a most ex- 
tensive and romantic prospect. 

Cawaaw, a post township, lying 
in the northeast comer of I>8ex 
county, uid entirely at the north* 
eastern extremity of the state. It 
is in lat. 44^ 57' north, and long. 5^ 
18' east, and contains about 39 
square miles. It is bounded north 
by Hertford, Canada, east by Con- 
necticut river, and southwest by 
Lemington and Averill. It lies op- 
posite Stewartstown, N. H. The 
northeast' comer of the town is tl» 
most easterly land in Vermont, 9xA 
lies in long. 5° 23' east and 71°^ 
west from Greenwich. This town 
was chartered July 29, 1*762, an^ 

* Why not Comets Hurnp ? 





granted to William Williams, Jon-I;i>ter, Elder Caleb Ingala, in thi» 
atban and Arad Hunt, and others. ! town. Thero are abo a store and 
February 26, 1782, it received ap a tavern. Population 277. 
new charter, and October ^^ 180Kj{ Castletoh, a post town in Rut- 
Ihe town of Norfolk was annexed ;land county, ^10 miles west of Rut- 

to it. The first settlers were Silas 
Sarg^eant, John Hugh and Hubbard 
Spencer, who removed their families 
into Canaan in 1785, and in 1791, 
there were 19 persons in town. 
Canaan being a frontier town, was 
subject to considerable di^nrbance 
during the late war with Great 
Britain. About the first of Sept« 
1813, Samuel Beech, of tliis town, 
had a permit to go into Canada to 
repair a mill dam. He sent his 
worVmen forward with a team, 
-which was taken from them by John 
Dennett, Joshua and John Morrison 
And Thomas Todd, and driven back 
int%» Canaan. Beech, in attempt- 
ing to regain his team, was shot by 
Dennett, and died. Dennett and his 
'associates were committed to pris- 
on, from which he escaped in Jan- 
uary following into the woods in 
Averill, where he remained till 
August, when he was retaken, but 
sottill after he was mortally wound- 
ed by his pursuers. It appeared 
that Dennett resisted, and, while 
Attempting to kill Mr. Morgan, one 
"of those endeavouring to apprehend 
him, was shot by Mr. Sperry, an- 
other of his pursuers. In 1814, 
Samuel Hu^ was carried off by the 
enemy, and considerable property 
^ta also taken from Messrs. Ingham, 
€o88 and others. This township is 
Jivided into three school districts, 
W one of which is furnished with 
^ school house. The denominations 
pf Christians are Congregational- 
^, Freewill Baptists and Method- 
^fU, Several small streams pass 
Uirough the town into Connecticut 
Iver. Leed*8 pond lies partly in 
this town and partly in Canada. 
^here are one lawyer and one min- IN. Y. 


land, is in lat. 43® 34' and long. 73'> 
west from Greenwich. It has 
Poultney on the south, Ira on the 
east, Hvbbardton on the north, and 
Fairhaven on the west. It contains 
36 square miles and was originally 
divided into 70 rights. The charter 
was obtnined by Samuel Brown, of 
Stockbridge, Mas. September 22, 
1761, signed by the Governor of 
N. H. Col. Amos Bird, of Salisbn* 
ry, Con. became the principal pro- 
prietor and in company with Col. 
Noah Lee made the first surveys of 
lots in June, 1766. The first house 
was erected in the town August 9, 
1769, of which Col. Lee was the on- 
ly inhabitant, the wintfer following. 
In 1770, Ephraim Buel, Eleazer 
Bartholomew, and Zadock Rem- 
ington, with their families, settled in 
thu town ; and soon after Colonels 
Bird and Lee, with their families. 
The first settlers emigrated princi- 
pally from Connecticut. IHie en- 
terprise and worth of Cols. Bird 
and Lee, entitle them to a place in 
the memory of future generations. 
The former was eut off in the midst 
ofaetiveand benevolent exertions 
for the benefit of his infant settle- 
ment, Sept. 16, 1772. His solitary 
monument on the bank of Caslle- 
ton river, and a moimtain which 
bears his name in this town, are 
memorials of the man, associated 
with his worth, in the recollection 
of his friends. Col. Lee was vigil- 
ant and active in the dangers and^ 
hardships, which were encountered 
by the first inhabitants of the town, 
under the government of N. H. and 
the perplexities consequent to the 
interference of the government of 
At the commencement of 





the strag^gle for independence, he 
entered the American army with a 
oommission, and after sharing^ in its; 
toils and honors, the return of 
peace brought him again to the bo- 
som of his iamily. He still, continues, 
now 80 years of age, in unabated 
rigour of constitution, to enjoy thosej 
benefits which he toiled to procure 
for his country. During the revo- 
lutionary war the inhabitants of 
CasUeton were often alarmed, and 
once invaded by the British and In- 
dians. On the 6th July, 1777, Gen. 
Frasier, who had advanced to Hub- 
bardton, sent a detachment of the 
British army under Col. Frasier, 
which attacke(f by surprise about 
20 militia, who were posted near 
the present site of the village. 
Capt. Williams, of GuUford, Vt. 
who commanded 15 volunteers, was 
killed on the spot, Capt. Hall, of 
this town, was mortally wounded, 
and bis son, Lieut. Hall, and a few 
others were taken prisoners ; the 
rest were dispersed. On this ground 
was built a fort, the next year, 
which was furnished with two 
pieces of cannon and garrisoned 
under different commanders until 
the war closed. Castleton was or- 
ganized March, 1777. Jesse Bel- 
knap was the first town clerk and 
justice of the peace. Zadock Rem- 
ington was the first representative. 
Tliere are a few Baptists and Meth- 
odists in the town, but much the 
greatest number of professors are 
members of the Congregational 
church, which is the only one or- 
ganized in the town. Their first 
pastor was the Rev. Matthias Carier, 
who was settled by the town, in 
November, 1789, and dismissed De- 
cember 13, 1792. January 18, 1804, 
Rev. Elihu Smith was ordained 
ever the church and society, and h 
their present pastor. The church 
then consisted of 60 members. lu 

1817, there was a remarkable re- 
vival, from the subjects of which 90 
were admitted to the church in one 
iday, and subsequent 96, total 186. 
!in 1821, there was a revival, and 32 
were admitted to the church, as the 
fruit of it. Present number of 
members, residing in town, 204, 
whole number admitted since the 
organization of the church 380. In 
1813, an epidemic Pneumonia pre- 
vailed here, of which 77, or aboDt 
l-19th of the inhabitants, were the 
fatal victims. The practicing phy- 
sicians are Theedore Woodwanl, 
William Anderson, Joseph Perkins, 
Jonathan Woodward. Castleton , 
river has its source in Pittstbrd, 
crosses parts of Rutland and Ira, 
crosses Castleton from east to west, 
in which it receives the water of 
lake Bombazine,, joins Poultney 
river in Fairhaveh, and enters lake 
Champlain at East Bay. This river 
and its tributaries furnish many 
convenient situations for water lAs- 
chines. It likewise ofiiera a fine 
medium for connecting the waters 
of Otter creek, in Rutland, vith 
those of Champlain, by means of a 
canal 18 miles in length. Natunl 
advantages, certainly render this an 
eligible enterprise. Some abundant 
springs which ai ise in the river a 
short distance east of Castleton vil- 
lage, render the water very pure and 
cool in summer and free of ice in 
winter. Lake Bombazine lies in 
this town excepting tlie northern ex- 
tremity, which extends a short dis- 
tance into Hubbardton. It is eight 
miles in length, and its greatest 
breadth two miles and a half. An 
island, situated near the centre of 
this lake, containing about ten acres, 
adds much to the beauty of the 
scenery. The outlet of the lake 
I furnishes a sufficient supply of water 
ifor the mills. Sic. established, here, 
which are always secure from 





freshets. There are one grist mill, 
three saw mills, one carding machine 
and two clothiers' works. Castle- 
ton is made ap of hills and valleys, 
except the southwestern part which 
has some pine plains. The soil is, 
generally, good;.4he intervals, on 
the river, are very productive, and 
the pine lands are made valuable by 
the use of plaster. The hills pro- 
duce oak, and the plains much val- 

mencement of the Academy in 
Castleton, at the close of each lec- 
ture term. 7%e lecture fees are 
$4000. The number of graduates, 
in 1820, was 2 ; 1821, 5 ; 1822, 12 ; 
1823,48. The lecture term com- 
mences the first week in September 
annually, and continues fourteen 
weeks. The buildings are pleas- 
antly located, and the apartments 
well adapted for the apparatus and 

uable pine timber. The village of: lectures of the dififerent branches of 

Castleton is pleasatftly situated on 

medical science. The origin, pro- 

Castleton river, near the ceAtrc ofjjgress and present condition of the 
the town. It consists of the public 
buildings and 35 dwelling houses, 
principally situated upon a single 
street, which extends from east to 
"West half a mile oo: almost a perfect 
level. T^he public buildings are a 
meetinghouse, two buildingt for the 
Vermont Academy of Medicine and 
one for the Rutland County Gram- 
mar School. Medical lectures were 
first given in Castleton, in March, 
1818, by Doctors Gridley, Wood- 
ward and Carier. October 29, 1818, 
an act incorporalnig a Medical i 
School in Castleton, by the name of 
Castleton Medical AoaJemy, was 
granted by the Legislature to 
Doctors Selah Gridley, Theodore 
Woodward and their 
The Medical Faculty were 
organized and lectures were given, 
commencing November 16, 1818, to 
a class of nine students. Novem- 
ber 22, 1819, number of students ^. 
October 18, 1820, 44. Octebcr 18, 
1821, 76. September 17, 1822, 87. 
September 3, 1823, 126. The name 
of the institution was altered iu 1821 
to " The Vermont Academy of Med- 
icine." By a connection with Mid- 
dlebury College, degrees of Doctor 
of Medicine are conferred on the 
students of this institutioji, who are 

institution give the fairest comment 
upon the individual exertions of its 
patrons and public merit of its in- 
structors, which have procured them 
[that deserved reputation wliich 
they now possess in stations of pub- 
lic usefulness. The Faculty of the 
institution, December, 18s^, were 
Jos. A. Gallup, M. 1). President, 
Theodore Woodward, M. I). Re- 
gister ; Professor, Jos. A. Gallup, 
M. D.* Professor of Theory and 
Practice of Medicine, and Medical 
Jurisprudence. Theodore Wood- 
ward, M. D. Professor of Surgery 
and Obstetrics ; Woi. Anderson, M. 
D. Professor of Anatomy and Phys- 
iology ; Amos Eaton, Esq. Professor 
associates. jjof Chemistry and Natural Philos- 
"•'— then! ophy, and Lecturer on Mineralogy 
and Zoology ; Jonathan A. Allen, 
M. D. Professor of Bottany, Materia 
Medica and Pharmacy. The Rut- 
land County Grammar School, in 
Castleton, was incorporated Octo- 
ber 29, 1805, and the government 
vested in twelve trustees. It is now 
in a flourishing condition under the 
tuition of a permanent instructor^ 

* Since the above was written^ 

Doctor Gallup has resigned the of" 

fices which he held in this institution^ 

qualified for the same, either at the \and William Tully^ M, D. of Hart^ 

annual commencement of Middle- ^Jbrd^ Con,^ has been appointed /a. 

bury College, or at the annual com- \sapply his place. 





Henry Howe, A. M. Number of Ithat night, delivered of a daog^hter* 
scholars from 50 to 60. Number |which she called Captive, Mn. 
ef grist mills, in town, two, saw Johnson was compelled to keep oa 
mills nine, oil mill one, clothier^s her march over the Green Monn- 

9hops three, carding machines two, 
cider mill, moved bj water, one. 
M\\\^ for sawing stones, one, fur 
naces two, distillery one, tanneries 
four, taverns six, stores four, book 
store one, school districts and school 
houses eight. Population 1541. 

March^ 1024. j.p. 

CAgTLEToir River originates in 
Pittsford, runs south into Rutland, 
thence west through Ira, Castleton 
and Fair Haven into Poultney riv 
er. In Castleton it receives the 
waters of lake'nombazine, and an- 
other considerable mill stream frdra 
the north. The road from Rutland 
to Whitehall, through Castleton 
village, passes along this river for a 
considerable part of the distance. 
Length of the lEitream about 20 
miles. . 

Cavendish, a post town in 
Windsor county, is in lat. 43^ 23' 
and long. 4"^ 21', and is '60 miles 
ffouth from Montpelier, and 10 miles 
from Windsor, ^t is bounded north 
by Reading, east by Weathersfield, 
south by Chester, and west by Lud- 
low. This township was chartered 
by the governor of New-Hamp- 
fehire, October IS, 1761, and after- 
wards regranted by New-York. It 
was originally about 7 miles square. 
In 1793, 3000 acres were set off from 
the southeast corner, and constituted 
aieparate township by tl^e name of 
Bmltimore. On the morning of the 
dO(h of August, 1754, the Indians 
aitfiMriied Charlestown, N. II., and 
' '- prisoners of Mr. Labaree, 
Fvnfworth and Mr. Johnson 
fiufilj. The savages prp- 
^witb thdur prisoners and 
1ii0 wilderness, and en- 
iHjtlim the present limits of 
wkere Mn. Jobiuon was, 

tains, and to perform a journey of 
r200 miles. After a captivity of 
jsome time, in which they endured 
jmany privations and hardBhips, thii 
ilittle band of sufferers were ran- 
jsomed and returned again to N. H., 
|to tlie enjoyment of their friendt 
!and society. Captive Johnson is now 
!the wife of Col. George Kimball. 
iNear tlie place where Mrs. Kimball 
;Was bom, a monument is erected 
iwith an ihscription, of which the 
.following is a verbatim copy. **Thii 
lis near the spot that the Indians en- 
camped the night after they took 
xVIr. Johnson and family, Mr. La- 
jbaree and Mr. Farnsworth, August 
pOth, 1754, and Mrs. Johnson was 
idelivered of her child half a mile 
up this brook." 

" When trouble is near the Lord ii 
He hears the Captives cry ; 
He can subdue the savage mind. 
And ham it sympathy,"*^ 
The settlement of this township 
was commenced in the north part 
by Capt. JohnCoffein,in June,1769« 
at whose hospitable dwelling, thou- 
sands of our revolutionary soldiers 
received refreshments, while (Mtssing 
from Charlestown, then No. 4, to the 
military posts, on lake Champlain^ 
nearly the whole distance being, a^ 
ithat time, a wilderness. On tbo 

j ' 

[farm, now the residence of James 
iSmith, Esq., in the northwesterly 
Ipart of the town, 20 miles from 
Charlestown, was another stoppingT 
place, called the " Twenty mile* 
encampment," giving name to * 
small river near the head of which 
the encampment was situated. lo 
1771, Noadiah Russell and Thoxnaa 
Gilbert joined Capt. Coffein in the 
Isettlement, and shared with him iH 





s wants and privations. For sev- 
al years they struggled hard for a 
anty and precarious existence, 
he grinding of a single grist of 

iles travel. Such ivas the situa 
m of the roads and the scarcity of 
ills at this early period. Many 

vailed here, and about 40, mostly 
heads of families, were victims to it. 
Physicians, Asaph Fletcher, Isaiah 
Parker, Alpheus Fletcher and Eli- 

rn was known to have co^t 60 |jah R. Witt. The soil of this town 

is easy and generally fertile. Black 
river, which runs frpm west to east, 
and Twenty mile stream, which runs 

teresting anecdotes are related ofljin a southerly direction and unites 
ipt. Coffein, which our limits will !j with it near White''* mills, are the 
t permit us to insert. At onejjprincipal streams. Along theso 
ne, he owed his life to the saga- .streams are some small tracts of fine 
;y of his faithful dog. He was 'interval. The greatest curiosity in 
turning from Otter creek, in jthe town, and perhaps the greatest 
irch, 1771, wliile the country was ijof the kind in the state, is at the 
rfeotly ne^, and on account of , falls on Black river, which are sit- 

5 depth of the snow was compell- 
to travel on snowshoes. While 
>3sing one of tlie ponds in Ply- 
>uth, the ice broke, and he was 
Idenly plunged into the water.^ 
icumbered with a large pair of 
jwshoes and a great coat which 
had on, he strove, but in vain, to 
tricate himself. He struggled 
out half an hour, and, in despair, 
IS about yielding himself to a 
atery grave, when, at this critical 
otaent, his large and faithful dog 
iholdinghis situation came forward 
the rescue of his master. He 
2ed the cuff of his great coat, and, 
led by the almost expiring efforts 
Capt. Coffein, succeeded in drag- 
s' him from the watery chasm tu 
>]ace of safety. Capt. Coffein 
^d to see the town all settled and 
^nized, and to take an active 
"t. in its public concerns. He was 
first representative, and repre« 
ted the town for a number of 
Lrs. His widow is now the old- 
person in town, being in her 94th 
Cr. The first settlers were most- 
from Massachusetts. Josiah 
stcher was first town clerk. There 
a Baptist an<l Congregational 
irch, and some Methodists, Uni- 
'salistA, &c., but no settled minis- 
. The epidemic of 1812 pre- 

uated between Dutton's village and 
White's mills. " Here the channel 
Jof the river has been worn down 
100 feet ; and rocks of very large 
dimensions have been, undermined 
and thrown down, one upon an- 
other. Holes are worn into tha 
rocks of various dimensions and 
fornv. Some of them are cylin- 
drical, from one ^o eight feet in diam- 
eter, and from one to fifteen feet 
in depth ; others are of a spherical 
jform from six to twenty feet diam- 
eter, worn almost perfectly smooth 
;into the solid body of the rock.'* 
I Hawk's mountain, which separates 
I Baltimore from this town, derives 
jits name from CjoI. Hawks, who, 
I during the French and Indian wars, 
jcncamped thereon for the night 
with a small regular force, among 
I whom was General (then Capt.) 
!John Stark. Some traces of their 
jrout are stiU to be seen. The turn- 
pike^fiomWeathersfield to Rutland, 
passes through this tovirn along; 
Black river. There are two vil- 
lages, viz : Dutton's Village and 
Proctorsville. DuitorCs Filtage is 
situated on the turnpike, and de- 
rives its name from Salmon Dutton, 
Esq., the first principal settler. 
Here is situated the academy and a 
po6t-offiice bearing the naioe »f tile 





town. ProctorsiyUle is so called 
from Capt. Conard Proctor, the first 
principal inhabitant, who is now 
living; in his 90th year, and the oldest 
man in town. It is situated ou the 
Green moantain turnpike and has 
good water privileges, which are 
artfully constituted by taking the 
water from Black river half a mile 
above. Here is a post-office bear- 
ing the name of the village. One 
mile northwest from Proctoriville Is 
an immense quantity of serpentine. 
It contains magnetic oxide of iron, 
is hard to break and difficult to pol- 
ish. It belongs to the variety call- 
ed common serpentine, is used as a, 
building stone and may be seen in 
the stone walls, along the road for a, 
distance of more than two miles. 
There also considerable quantities 
of primitive lime stone, talc, &:c. 
Tlire are in this town a meeting- 
house, an academy, eleven, school 
districts, nine schoolhouses, eight 
saw mills, three grist mills, four 
fulling mills, tiiree carding machines, 
two woollen factories, one nail fac- 
tory, three tanneries, two distilleries, 
one tin ware and stove factory, one 
hat factory, three stores and three 
taverns. Population 1551. 

./3/;rj/, 1824. J. P. 

Champlain Lake. — A general 
description of this lake has already 
been given, page 12. This lake 
commences at Whitehall at the 
junction of Wood creek with East 
bay. A mile or two north of this 
it receives the waters of South bay 
which projects to the southwest. 
Fi'om Whitehall to the south part 
of Orwell the average width of the 
lake is about half a mile. At Sholes 
lauding about one mile south of 
Mount Independence the lake is not 
more than 40 rods wide, and be- 
tween Mount Independence and Ti- 
conderoga only 80 rods. The wid- 
est place, yi the lake against Orwell, 

is about two miles, and i1 
width about a mile. The 
from Whitehall to Ticoi 
about 20 miles. The f 
this name is now ahea{ 
It was built by the French 
on a point of l4ind form< 
junction of luke George c 
lake CJiamplain, and was 
N. W. from ^ount Ind< 
and opposite tlie N. W. 
Orwell. Ticouderoga i 
from the Indian and signi 
The French called tlie fort 
It was a place of great 
both by nature and art. 
sides it is surrounded by v 
about half the other is oc« 
a deep swamp, while th( 
completed by the erect 
breast work nine fcothigh o 
assailable ground, la V 
Abercrombie, with a Brii 
was defeated in an attempt 
fortress with the loss of 1 
but it was the next years 
ed to Gen Amherst. It 
prised by Col. Allen, May 
at the commencement of 
lution and retained till \'i 
it was evacuated on the ap 
Gen. Burgoyn. Near th 
one of the richest localitie 
erals in the United States 
most interesting spot to tl 
science. " Within the limi 
or five acres are found 
and crystallized garnet, sc 
rieties of coccalite, augit 
and green, crystallized and 
very beautiful adularia 
mon feldspar, tabular sps 
blend, calcareous spar c< 
Brucite, and elegant crys 
lico calcareous oxyde of ti 
Hall, From 2^conderoga t 
Point, a distance of 12 or 
the width of the lake ( 
from one to two miles. 
Point Fortnss is now ia i 




is opposite to the south part of Ad- 
duoQ. It wa& built by the French, 
in 173 X , on a point of land between 
AVest V)ay and the lake, and was 
calletl I'ort St. Frederick. In 1759, 
it was 

iroopa under Gen. Amherst, and 
was ln.€^ld by the British till May 
10, IT T5, when it was taken by Col. 
Seth Warner, on the sama day that 
Ticoi:i.<J|eron;a surrendered to Alien. 
llag%«.infcll into the bands of tho 

llittle to the south of Cumberland 
,bay, and is 14 or 15 miles. Cumbcr- 
;land bay, on the head of which 
•stands Flattsburjh, N. Y., is about 
|22 miles from Durlington. This 
surrendered to the British jbay is celebrated for the sig^nal 

victory of the American squadron, 
under Commodore McDonnoug^h, 
over the British fleet, on the 11th 
jof September, 1811. From South- 
ihero to the 45th degree of lat. the 
jbreadth is from nine to twelve miles, 

JBriti.;3l-i, iu 1776, who kept posses- 'jand contains several islands. Where 
aion o^ it till after the capture of! jit leaves the state on the west side 
Burg-^iyn in 1777. This fortress isjjof Albur»h, it is less tlian two 
iu lat^ 440 3' and long. T3^ 29' wcst.|milcs wide. The lake extends into 
from. C^reenwich. The walls were (Canada 24 miles to St. Johns, 
of ''^ood and earth 22 feet thick and ji where the river Sorell commences 
16 l^ig^h. The fort was about 1500 jand conveys the waters of the lake 
yariX^ square and was surrounded ~ 

^y *^ V)road deep ditch cut with im 
men^^ labour in a rock of solid 
gracxlte. On the north was a row 
**f ^srracks suthcient to contain 
*^^rO troops ; a gate, a strong draw 
brivli>.g and a covered 

to the St. Lawrence. The Sorell 
lis about 60 miles long, and joins the 
St. Lawrence near the upper end of 
lake St. Peters, about 45 miles be- 
jlow Montreal. The canal, which 
connects lulie Cliamplain with the 

<^« ouvi » ^w»w.w« way to thejjHudson, at Albany, is C3 miles in 
wat:^,. of the lake. From Crown llength, and traveriv?s a most inter- 
*^*^t, to Split rock, a distance of esting country. * It passes in sight 
abovi^t 19 miles, the width of the^of tUe very spot where the tree 
lale^ win average about three mile? jstood, to which Putnam was bound, 
"*^ u half. The width from Thomp- 


^ Point to Split rock is only 

in 1757. Fort Edward and Fort 
Miller also recall to mind many cir- 

liams, iu 1775, aiid its walls are 
now in some places 20 feet high. 
The unfortunate Miss M'Crea was 
murdered near this fort, and the 

^***^« quarters of a mile. The Split; cumstances of American history. 
r?^ic is a considerable curiosity. At 'The former was built by Col. Wil- 
*^^Neal's ferry between Charlotte ' 
fJ^*i Essex, N. Y., a few miles fur- 
^*^^^ north, the width of the lake 
Jf^'^kts 20 rods of three miles. From 

J*^ place the lake spreads as it [trunk of tlie tree, to w'lich she wai 
J^'Wa north, and at Burlington from jbound, still remains with "her name 
JJ^^ bottom of Burlmgton bay to 'and the date, 1777, rudely inscribed 
^^t of Douglas' bay is nine miles iupon it. *It passes near the spot 
**^<X three quarters wide. A few where the haughty Burgoyn sur^ 
j^^les to the northwest of Burling- I'endered his sword, October 17, 
^^ bay tlie Steam Boat Phoenix 1777, where Schuyler's house was 
]^^ consumed by fire on tlic morn- burnt, and where the brave Frazier 
^*^§oftbe5th of September 1819, 

?.^U much property and several 
^Ves lost. The greatest width is 

^i-031 the town tf Southhero, a, ^remain unaltered,' 

iaW. The house, where that officer 
!died, is still standing, and the rooms, 
occupied by the Countess Reidsell, 


CA^ErJ'fifcR OP VERMOirr. 



Charlotte, a post towa in the 
southwest comer of Chittenden 
county, is in lat. 44° IS' ami long. 
3° 45', and is bounded north by| 
Shelburn, east by Hinesburgh, south! 
by Ferrisburgh and a part of Monk- 
ton, and west by lake Champlain. 
It is ten miles south from Burling- 
ton, and ten north from Vergennes. 
and was chartered June 24, 1762. 
The first attempt to settle this town 
was made by Derick Webb. He 
first began in town, in March, 1776, 
but soon left. He came in again in 
March, 1777, and left in May follow- 
ing, but no permanent settlement 
was made till 1784, when Derick 
Webb and Elijah Woolcot moved 
into the town and were followed by 
others, so that the town was soon 
after organized. John McNeil was 
first town clerk and first represent- 
ative. The Congregational church 
was organized January 3, 1792, and, 
on the next day, the Rev. Daniel 
C. Gillet was ordained over i*^. He 
was dismissed in 1799, and the 
church was vacant till November 4, 
1807, when the Rev. TVuman Bald- 
win was ordained over it, who was 
dismissed March 21, 1815. The 
church was then destitute till Oct. 
15, 1817, when the Rev. Calvin 
Yale wa» ordained over it. The 
church, at first, consisted of four 
members; in 1807, there were 11, 
in 1817, 80, and at present, 114. 
There are also a Baptist church, 
oonsisting of 32 members, but with- 
out a settled minister, and a Meth- 
odist church, consisting of about 85 
members. Rev. Buel Goodsill, pre- 
siding Elder. Each of these church- 
es have convenient and well finished 
meetinghouses. The Congregation- 
al meetinghouse was erected in 1808, 
the Baptist, in 1809, and the Jtfeth- 
odist, in 1821. The most remark- 
able season of mortality was in the 
winter of 1812 uid 13, when about 

170, mostly over 16 years of age, . 
'were victims to the epidemic of that 
'period. Physicians, John Strong 
!and Luther Stone. This township 
lis pleasantly situated on the lake 
[shore, and is watered by the river 
. Piatt, which runs through the north 
least corner, and Lewis creek, which 
|runs through the southeast comer. 
On the former stream, in this town, 
are gne grist mill and three saw 
Imills, one of which is employed in 
Isawing marble, procured from a 
Iquarry in Shelbam, and on the lat* 
iter, one grist mill, one saw mill and 
one fulling mill. The western part 
!of the town was originally timbered 
■with hard wood, and the soil is ex<i 
icellent, producing an abundance^ 
iTlie eastern part was principally 
Itimbered with pine, hemlock, ftc. 
iTliere are no elevations, which de- 
serve the name of mountains, bat 
several considerable bills. Pint 
ihill, in the southwest comer of the 
|town, afibrds an extensive and beau- 
jtiful prospect of the lake and ad* 
Ijacent country. There are, in th» 
town, some of the finest apple orch- 
ards in the state, and much cider k. 
distilled or exported. There is a 
small village, a little to the weet ci 
the centre. The town isdivided inta 
14 school districts. There are tvo 
saw mills, four gristmills, two stores 
five taverns, five tanneries, ei^ 
blacksmiths and one distilleryiit' 
V7hich 2400 gallons of cider bnuidy 
and 3000 gallons of whisky wen 
'distilled, the last year. PopulatklH 
1820, 1528. j.T. &I.W, 

June, 1824. 

Chelsea, a post townsiiip ait 
shire town of Orange eoonty, iAk 
lat. 44^ and long. 4° 30' ; and If 
'bounded north by Washinfton, eUl^ 
jby Vershire, south by Trmbri^^ 
and west by Brookfleld. It n iK 
miles southeast from Montpd&tt^ 
and 20 southwest fr««i J!V0wMI]p» 





It was g^nled to Bela Turner and 'houses. There are 244 taxable 

aasociatea, November 2, 1780, chart>j 
ered by the nam« of Turner&bur^), 
A«^st4, 1781, ami contains 24320 
aere«, or 36 square miles. The 
name was altered to Chelsea, Oct. 
13, 1788. Improremcnts were com- 
menced in this township, in 1783. 
The first settlers were Thomas and 
Samuel Moore and Asa Bond, who 
remoyed their families here from 
Winchester, N. H. in 1785. They' 
were shortly after followed by otb-| 
er families from different parts of. 
New-England. The town Was or- 
ganized March 31, 1788, and Enos 
Smith was first town clerk. It was 
fint represented ta 1794, by Samu- 
el Bad^r. There is a small socie- 
ty of Baptists, over which Elder 
Samael Hovey, was ordained in 
April, 1798. There is abo a Con- 
{;reg;Btional church, consisting^, at 
present, of 145 members, over which 
the Rev. Lathrop Thomson, was 
settled in November 1799. He was 
dismissed April 29, 1805, and the 
Rev. CaMn J^oble, was ordained 
ever it September 30, 1807. The 
practicing^ physicians are Thomas 
Winslow, John McClure and Sam- 
uel S. Stevens. SThis township is 
watered by the first branch of 
White river, and its numerous trib- 
maries. The surface is considera- 
Uy uneven, but the soil is, in gen- 
eral, warm and productive. Chel' 
•AM wittage is situated on the branch 
•t the centre of the township, and 
eootAiitt an elegant meetinghouse, 
a ecmrthoose, jail, and a large two 
0SaKj sehoolhouse, a tavern, several 
and- mechanic shops, three 
rofiSces, and about 65 dwell- 
_ It is as the roads are 

liWf«ll«d S2 miles from Montpclier, 
SS from Hanover, N. |^., and 18 
|l«a Connecticut river at Bradford. 
nb town is divided into 15 school 
i9 which are 13 school- 

houses ; two grist and 5 saw mills, 
two clothiers works, a small wool- 
len factor}*, two carding machines, 
two triphammer shops, three stores, 
one tavern, and two tanneries. 
Pop. 1820, 1462. 
August 1824. 
Chester, a post town in the 
south part of Windsor county, 
is in lat. 43° 17' and long. 4^ 21', 
and is bounded north by Cavendish 
and Baltimore, east by Springfield, 
south by Grafton and west by An- 
dover. It was chartered by New- 
Hampshire, Feb. 22, 1754, by the 
name of Hampstead. It was re> 
chartered November 3, 1761, by the 
name of New-Hampstead. The set- 
tlement was commenced in 1764 
by Thomas and John Chandler, 
Thomas Chandler, jr. Jabez Sar- 
geant, Edward Johnson, Charles 
Man, William Warner, Ichabod Ide, 
Ebenezer Holton and Isaiah John- 
son, from Woodstock, Connecticut, 
and Worcester and Maiden, Mass. 
On the 4th of July 1766, Thomas 
Chandler obtained a charter from 
New- York, for himself and 36 oth- 
ers, in which the township took the 
name of Chester. At the same 
time the county of Cumberland was 
organized, and Chester became the 
shire town. Col. Thomas Chan- 
jdler, was also appointed chief jus- 
tice of th^ county, and his son Jolm 
Chandler, clerk. Thomas Chan- 
dler was the first tewn clerk, and 
Thomas Chandler, jr. the first rep- 
resentative. The religious denom- 
inations are ' Congregationalists, 
Baptists, Methodists and Univcr&al- 
ists. TTie Congregational church, 
was formed in the year 1773, and 
the Rev. Samuel Whiting was set- 
tled by this town and Rockingham, 
for five years. He oinciated one 
third of the time here and the re- 
mainder at Rockingham. Since that 





time they have had no settled min- 
ister. The Rev. Uzziah C. Bumap, 
is now officiating^, under whose care 
the church is flourishing, and ar- 
rang;ements are making for his per- 
manent settlement. The Baptist 
church was formed in 1788, under 
the care of Elder Aaron Leland^ 
(the preset Lieut. Governor of the 
state,) who has ever since continu- 
ed its pastor. The epidemic of 
1813, proved very mortal to the 
middle aged people of this town. 
The physicians are Otis Gould, 
Nathan Whiting, Ptolemy Edson, 
Thomas T. Barrett and Abram 
Lowell. There are now living in 
Chester, 10 persons who are over 
80 years of age, of whom one is 96, 
And nine under 84 ; there are also 
&ix between 75 and 80 ; two have 
recently died over 90, and one over 
86. Among the distinguished per- 
sons who have resided in this town 
may be mentioned Doct. Nathan 
Smith, M. D. C. S. M. S. London, 
Professor in Yale College, and Lec- 
turer in the Vermont University,^ 
who lived many years here in his 
youth ; Col. Thomas Chandler, dis- 
tinguished for his instrumentality in 
the massacre at the Courthouse in 
Westminster. Col. Chandler, af- 
terwards died in Westminster jail. 
Thomas Chandler, jr. was also, con- 
spicuous in the formation of our 
ftate government, one of the com- 
missioners on confiscated estates, 
one of the judges of the first Su- 
preme Court, and first Secretary of 
State. William's river is formed in 
this township by the union of three 
considerable branches. The branch- 
es unite nearly in the same place, 
and about one and a half mile south- 
east of the two villages, and these 
constitute the principal waters. 
The surface is considerably diversi- 
fied with hills and vallics, but the 
soil is generally good. The uplands 

yield excellent pasturage and pro- * 
duce an abundance of grain. The 
intervals are rich and fertile. 
The roads are extremely level fiv 
so uneven a township and remarka- 
bly good. The timber, sugar ma- 
ple, beech, birch, bass, oak, cherry, : 
hemlock, spruce, butternut aai 
some walnut and pine. There are 
two villages called the North and 
South Village. The nortk villagt 
is situated near the centre of the 
township on the north side of the 
north branch of Wil]iam''s river, the 
Green Mountain turnpike passio; 
through it in a westerly directioo. 
It contains a Congregational meet- 
inghouse, built in 1789, two stores, 
two taverns, one attorney's office, 
two cabinet shops, one tannery, one 
oil and one grist mill, and abocit 20 
dwellinghouses. It is worthy of re- 
mark that there is scarcely a house 
in this village in which the heads of 
the family residing in it have not 
died within the last 20 years. The 
south village is situated in a pleasant 
valley, on the north side of the mid* 
die branch of William's river, three 
fourths of a mile south of the north 
village, and a little southeast uf the 
centre of the township. It contains 
a Baptist meetinghouse, erected in 
1788, and an academy and mason^ 
hall built in 1814. The academy j 
was incorporated the same year, j 
The building is of brick three sto- j 
ries high, and very commodious. ; 
The school is flourishing, consistfn^ 
jof 60 students, and is under the care 
of the Rev, U. C. Burnctp, There 
arc here two attorney's offices, a post 
office, two stores, two taverns, one 
cotton factory, two woollen fecto- 
ries, two wheelright shops, ona 
chair maker, two tanneries, one sad- 
dler, and about 36 dwellinghouses - 
The houses are generally neat an.^^ 
some of them elegant. They ac*" 
mostly built oa one street, which ~ 






ride, level and half a mile in leng^th. 
The line of stages from Boston to 
hdontreal is intersected in this vil- 
Age by the line from Hanover to 
Albany and Saratoga Springs. The 
lew road from Chester to Manches- 
ter is considered the best passage of 
the Green Mountains in this state, 
south of Onion river, and renders 
this village the great thoroughfare 
for the travel from Maine and N. 
Hampshire, to the state of N. York, 
and particularly to Saratoga and 
Ballstown Springs. The town is 
divided into 19 school districts with 
as many schoolhouses. There are 
four grist, nine saw, three fulling, 
and one oil mill, one cotton and twp 
woollen factories, three carding ma- 
rlines, five stores, six teverns, one 
distillery and four tanneries. Pop- 
nlation 1820, 2,493. 
Atigust 1824. 
Chittebtdsn, a township in the 
northeastern part of Rutland coun- 
ty, in lat. 43° 44', and is bounded 
northerly by Goshen, easterly by 
Fittsfield, southerly by Parkers- 
town, and west by Pitlsford and a 
part of Brandon. It was granted' 
the 14th and chartered the 16th ofj 
March, 1780, to Ghershom Beach I 
and associates. The township of 
Philadelphia was annexed to Chit- 
tuideos November 2, 1816. This 
township is thinly settled and the 
greatest part of it lies on the Green 
Mountains. The northwest part is 
■watered by Philadelphia river, 
which fells into Otter creek at Pitts-j 
fowl. Tweed river rises in the east- 1 
wnpart and falls into White river. | 
^6 southwestern part is watered 
^ East creek. Much of the town- 
^^ is high, mountainous and inca- 
pable of cultivation. Near Philj^- 
^iphia river, is a mineral spring, 
•*^ among the mountains are some 
JJJJ^cms, but they are little known. 
''^%X9 are here three school dis- 

tricts, a saw and grist mill. Popu- 
lation 1820, 528. 

Chittenden County, is bound- 
ed north by Franklin county, east 
by Washington county, south by Ad- 
dison county and west by lake Cham- 
plain. It lies between 44° 7' and 44° 
42' N. lat. and 3° 37' and 4° 10' east 
long. Its extent from north to south 
is 30 miles, and from east to west 
22 miles, covering about 500 square 
miles. It was incorporated Octo- 
ber 22, 1782. A few settlements 
were commenced in this county be- 
fore the revolution, but they were 
all abandoned during the war. 
Onion river runs through the mid- 
dle of the county .and falls into lake 
Champlain between Burlington and 
Colchester. The river Lamoille 
runs across the northwest comer, 
and Laplott river and some other 
streams water the south part. This 
county, except along the lake shore, 
where it is generally level, is une- 
ven, but not mountainous. The 
soil is various, being in some places 
pine plane, and light and sandy ; in 
others a rich loam, and in others 
a deep alluvia n. The flats on Onion 
river are equal to any in the state. 
Burlington is the seat of justice and 
the principal town in the county. 
The Supreme Court sits here on the 
first Tuesday of January ; the Coun- 
ty Court on the last Monday of 
February and last Monday save 
two of September. The Grand List 
of the county for 1823, was f 193,219. 
Pop. 1820, 16,055. 

Clarendon, a post township in 
the central part of Rutland county, 
is in lat. 43° 31' and long. 4«> 2', and 
is bounded north by Rutland, east 
by Shrewsbury, south by Tinmouth 
and Wallingford, and west by Ira, 
It is 55 miles S. from Montpelier, 
and 46 N. from Bennington, and was 
chartered Sept. 5, 1761. It was 
granted both by N. H. and N. Y^ 





■A. - ■ 

and comprehends a part of the two 
^ants of Socialborough and Dur- 
ham. The first settlers were most- 
ly ft om Rhode-Island, and purchas- 
ed their lands of Col. Lideus, who 
claimed them under a title derived 
from the Indians. This title was 
' however, never confirmed by either 
of the colonial governments, and 
the diversity of claimants occasion- 
ed much litigation, which continu- 

jMount-Holly, runs nearly on the 
line between this town and Wal- 
liugfbrd, receiving irom the latter 
'the waters of a considerable pond, 
Icrosses the «outhwe8t comer of 
[Shrewsbury and falls into Otter 
jcrcek near the south part of CUr- 
jcndon. . Cold rwer rises in Parken- 
town, crosses the northwest corner 
|of Shrewsbury and enters Otter 
[creek near the north part of Cla^ 

cd till 1785, when the Legislature! endon. Furnace brook<t called abo 
passed what was called the quieting! little West river^ rises from a small 

act. By this act the Settlers were 

put in peaceable possession of their land runs north, parallel to Otter 

land, and the N. Hampshire title, to 

pond in the south part of Tinmouth 

creek, through the west part of the 

those lands which were not 8ettled,|.town and ialls into Otter creek near 
was confirmed. In consequence of Jthe centre of Rutland. Near the 

these proceedings there are no pub- 
lic rights, in town. The firt^t town 

Inorth line of Clarendon it receiva 
Ira brook from Ira. On Furnace 

meeting on record was in 1778, and |i brook in this town are a furnace, and • 
Stephen Arnold was this year town!, several saw and grist mills. Near 
clerk, and Abner Lewis, represent- {this brook is a 'chalybeate spring, 
ative. (There are at present two which is also impregnated with the 

Ba))tist and one Congregational 
church in this town. The town is! 
ilivided into two parishes by a range 
of hills running north and south 
with a Baptist meetinghouse in 
each. The Baptist church in the 
east parish consists of about 30 micm- 
"bers. Elder Isaac Beals of the Bap- 
tict order was the first settled min- 
ister. The Congregational church 
was gathered here in Feb. 1822 by 
the Rev. Henry Hunter, who was 
installed over the same on the 6th 
of Nov. following. The church 
at first consisted of 12 members; 
the present number is 43. This 
church and society are now erect- 
ing an elegant brick meetinghouse. 
Doct. Silas Bowen is the only prac- 
ticing physician. Otter creek runs 
through this town from south to 
north, a little east of the centre, and 
receives here Mill river and Coldj 
river from the east, which afford 
numerous sites for mills and other 

machinery. Mill river rises in] {wide and about 20 high. Eteiy 

carbonate of lime, &c. It has gain- 
ed some celebrity and is beginning 
|to be a place of considerable resort 
for valetudinarian^. Calcareous 
tufa is found around the spring. 
The east part of the town borden 
on the Green Mountains, but the 
principal elevations are the range 
iof hills between Otter creek and 
furnace brook, and between the lat- 
ter and Ira brook on the west line 
of the town. The alluvial flats on 
Otter creek are from half to a mile 
wide through the town and are ve- 
ry productive. The uplands are a 
gravelly loam. Clarendon cave is 
situated in the westerly part of the 
town, and is described by some 
geographers as being in Tinmouth. 
It is on the southeast side of a moan- 
lain. The descent into this cavera 
is through a sloping passage aboat 
two and a half feet diameter and 32 
feet in length. It then opens' int» 
ja spacious room 20 feet long, 12 






part of this room is of solid rock, and 
very rottg^ and oueven. The water, 
continually percolating^ thro^ the top, 
has formed stelactites of rarious and 
&ncifiil forms. From the north 
€Dd of this room is anothei sloping 
panoge of about the same dimen- 
aions as the first, but very rough, S4 
feet in length, to another apartment, 
which is 30 feet long, 20 wide and 
90 high. In the spring of the year 
the lower room is filled with water, 
and water is to be found in the low- 
est parts of it at all seasons. Mar- 
ble is plenty in this, town and is 
wrought to some extent. There 
are two small villages, one in each 
parish. There are 16 school dis- 
tricts and schoolhouses, five grist, 
eight saw, and four fulling mills, 
three carding machines, one mill 
for sawing marble, one furnace, two 
stores, four taverns, three distille- 
ries and three tanneries. Popula- 
tion in 1820, 1712. 

Ci«TDB RivxR has its source in 
Pitkin*« and Knoulton*s ponds, in the 
aortheast part of Random and runs 
a norihweeterly course thro^ llan- 
dom. Navy, Salem and Derby, to 
lake Mdmphremagog, excepting a 
few short rapids, this is a dead still 
rrrer till it comes within three miles 
of lake Memphremagog. This 
ftream runs through Round pond 
HI Navy and through Salem lake, a 
beautiful sheet of water, near two 
miles in length and one in width, 
lying^partly in Salem and partly in 
Derby. j. w. 

Coitus Gore, is situated in 
ITranklin county, in lat. 44^ 43' andl 
is bounded north by BakersfieldJ 
east by Belvidere, south by Cam-j 
bridge, and west by Fletcher and a! 
part of Bakersfield. It was char- 
tered October 26, 1788, to James 
Whitelaw, James Savage and Will- 
iam Coit, and originally contained 
1 1,000 flcre^. It is not organized as 


a town. It is watered by the north 
branch of river Lamoille which af- 
fords a number of good sites for 
jmills and other machinery, some of 
'which are already occupied. In 
,the vicinity of this stream is some 
jvery good land, but a considerable 
,part of the gore is mountainous. 
{There are in ttiis gore a good grist, 
two saw, and a falling mill and a 
carding machine. Pop. 1820, 274. 
Colchester, a township in 
Chittenden county, is in Int. 44° 33^ 
and long. 3° 55', and is bounded 
north by Milton, east by Essex, 
south by the north bank of Onion 
river, which separates it from Bur* 
lington, and west by lake Cham- 
plain. It is 116 miles north from 
Benningfton, and 38 miles northwest 
from Montpelier, and was charter- 
ed June 7, 1763. Gen. Ira Allen, 
began the first settlement in this- 
town in 1774, at the lower falls on 
Onion river, and in 1775, Joshua 
Staunton, Esq. began improvements 
on the interval above the narrows 
in that river, and there was a small 
clearing made at Mallet^s bay be- 
fore the war, which commenced this 
year. During the revolution the 
settlement was wholly abandoned. 
At the close of the war, about the 
year 1783, Messrs. McClain, Low 
and Boardman, began improvements 
on Colchester point. Gen. Alleit 
returned and the settlement was re- 
commenced with renewed vigour. 
Allen immediately erected mills, a 
forge and a shop for fabricating an- 
chors at the lower falls, and this 
place soon assumed the appearance 
of a considerable village. TTie 
town was organized about the year 
1791, and Ira Allen was first town 
clerk. It was represented in 1793, 
by Joshua Staunton. Thero are 
three churches in this town, viz ; 
Congregational, Methodist, and 
Baptist. The two former were 





formed aboat the year 1804; the « situated 
latter, in I8I61 and then consisted 
of aboat 15 members. Elder Phin" 
thai Culver was ordained over this 
church, in July, 1819. Tliere are 
three men in this town, living with- 
in two miles of each other, and the 
eldest 94 years old, and the young- 
est 84. Physician Calvin Deming. 
There are no mountains, and much 
of the town is a pine plain. The 
soil is various!, being, in some parts, 
rich alluvion, in others, clay or marl, 
and in others, sand. T^he timber, 
in the north and east part, is hard 
wood, consisting of beech, maple, 
ash, oak, walnut and some chesnut : 
in the southwest part, it i& princi- 
pally white and pitch pine inter- 
mingled with some oak and walnut. 
Its' streams are the Lamoille river, 
which runs through the northwest 
eomer. Mallet's creek, which passes 
through the north part into Mallef s 
bay. Indian creek runs nearly 
through the middle of the town in- 
to Mallet's creek, near its mouth,! 
and Onion river, on the southern' 
boundary. The two first enter thej 
town from Milton. These streams ^ 
mfibrd many good mill privileges in! 
this town. Mallet's, or Colchester! 
"bay is a large body of water, which j 
aoAkes into the town, on the west 
side, and extends nearly to the! 
centre. On the south of this bay, 
and between the bay and Onion 
river, Colchester point projects a 
considerable distance into the lake. 
Near the extremity of the point are 
several amall islands. There are 
two small ponds in town, the lar- 
gest covering about 00 acres. 
There are five school districts, four 
school bouses, one grist mill, foHr 
saw mills, three taverns and one dis.- 
tillery. Population, 1820, 960. 

June^ 1824. 

Concord, a post towdship on the 
tibuthem extremity of Essex pounty, 

in lat. 44° 25' north, and 
long. 5° 4' east, containing' about 
47 square miles; It is bounded 
nortlieriy by Kirby and Bradley- 
vale, easterly by Luuenbureb, 
southerly by Connecticut river,, and 
westerly by Waterford, lying ^op- 
posite to Littleton, in New-Hamp- 
shire, It was granted November 7, 
1780, and chartered September 15, 
1 1781, to Reuben Jones and his as- 
jsociates. The first settlement of 
Concord was commenced, in 1788, 
by Joseph Ball. Among the set- 
tlers, who came into town previous 
to the year 1794, may be mentioned 
Amos Underwood, Solomon Bab- 
cock, Daniel Gregory, Benjamin 
Streeter, Jonathan and Jesse Wood- 
bury and Levi Ball. In 1795, when 
John Fry came into town, there 
were 17 families here. SThe first 
settlers were principally from West- 
borough and Royalston, Massachu- 
setts. John, son of. Joseph Ball, 
was bom in 1789, and was the first 
child bom in town. The first town 
meeting was held and the town or- 
ganized March 3, 1794. Elijah 
Spa fiord was first town clerk. At 
this meeting 14 persons took the 
freeman^s oath. There are a Con- 
gregational, a Freewill Baptist and 
a Methodist church, in this town.. 
The Congregational church was 
organized January 7, 1807, and then 
consisited of 17 members. The 
Rev. Samuel Godard was erdained 
over it September 7, 1809, and dis-, 
missed June 6, 1821. The Rev. 
Samuel R. Hall was ordained over 
the same church March 4, 1823, and 
still ccmtinues. The church now 
consists of 102 members. The 
Freewill Baptist church was form- 
ed October' 10,' 1821. There are, 
at present, 37 members. The Meth- 
odist Episcopal church was formed 
in May, 1822, and consists oi 26 
members. Concord Academy wa^ 





incorporated in this town by act of 
the Legislature, November 5, 1823. 
The ^hool is in successful opera- 
tion under the instruction of the 
Rev. S. RC Hall, Preceptor, and 
Miss Wealthy Wood,- Assistant. 
SThe present number of schoUars is 
50. HalCz pond, lying near the 
centre of the town, is about a mile 

Ions: and on an 


100 rods 

wide. Jl/i/M^pond is about the same 
size, and lies near the northeast 
comer of t^ town. This town is 
'fvatered b^ Moose river, which _ 
parses through the northwest part, 
by Connecticut river, on the south,! 
and by several small streams. The! 
surface of the town is uneven, andi 
in the northeastern parts, very 
itoney. It is an excellent grassing | 
township, and has some good tillage 
land. The professional men in Con- 
cord are one attorney, David Hub- 
bard, jr., one physician, Andrew 
Spaulding, and one minister, Sam- 
uel R. Hall. The town is divided 
into nine school districts, seven ofj 
which have school houses. Therej 
is a idecent meetinghouse near the 
centre of the town, belonging to tlie 
Congregational society. There are 
three saw mills, three grist mills, 
one fulling mill, one clover mill, one 
distillery and ons tannery. Popu- 
lation 806. 

January ^ 1824. 

CowwECTicuT River lies be- 
tween Vermont and New -Hamp- 
shire, and belongs wholly to the 
latter. It originates among the 
mountains in the north part of New 
Hampshire, and, for some distance, 
forms tlie boundary between that 
state and Canada. After running 
between New-Hampshire and Ver- 
mont, it passes through Massachu- 
teiXs and Connecticut, and falls into 
Long Island Sound. The breadth 
of this river, wheil it first washes 
Veroiont, is about 150 feet ^ and, in [ 

the course of 60 miles, increases t# 
390 feet. In Massachusetts and 
Carmecticut its breadth may be es- 
timated from 450 to 1050 feet. Thft 
depth of the river, below the head 
of boat navigation, may be stated to 
vary from five to twelve feet. This 
river is navigable for vessels draw- 
ing ten feet water, 36 miles, to Mid- 
dletown ; for small sloops, 50 miles 
to Hartford ; and by means of canals 
and other improvements, it has been 
rendered passable for boats to Xh% 
Fifteen Mile Falls, 260 miles fur- 
ther. There are, in this river, many 
rapids. The most considerable are 
Bellows^ Fal ls,between Rockingham 
and Walpole, N. H., (jsee Rocking' 
ham,) Queechy Falls, just below th«l 
mouth of Queechy river, White 
River Falls, just above the mouth 
of White river, and the Fifteea 
Mile Falls, which extend from Bar- 
net to Luiicnburgh. The perpen- 
dicular height of the falls, which 
have been made passable by dams 
and loeks, between Springfield* 
Mass. and Hanover, N. H. a dis- 
tance of 130 miles, is about 200 
feet. There are, in this river, sev- 
eral bars of sand, over which boats 
pass with difficulty in low water. 
At such times a bar between Deer- 
field and JIfontague, Mass., renders 
jthe river . fordable. Connecticut 
j river reeeives from Vermont, be- 
ginning at the north, Nulhegan, 
Passurapsick, Wells, Wait's, Om- 
pomponoosuck. White, Queechy, 
Black, William's, Sexton's and West 
rivers ; and from New-Hampshire, 
Upper and Lower Amonoosuck, 
Israel's, John's, Mascomy, Sugar, 
Cold, and Ashuelot. rivers. Be- 
tween Vermont and New-Hamp- 
shire this river is crossed by 14 or 
15 bridges. The flats, along thft 
river, are, in some places, low anci 
extensive ; in others, the banks aro 
high and rocky. The intervals aitt 





not surpassed in fertility and beauty 
by any in the United States. In{ 
«pring^, the river overflows its ba;:ks 
through a distance of 300 miles. 
The scenery, along this JVtte of 
JSCtW'EngUmdt is variegated by a 
succession of neat and pleasant vil- 
lages, and is charming beyond ex- 

CoRiJVTH, a post township six 
miles square in the central parts of 
Orange county, is in lat. 44*^ S> and 
long. 4° 2&\ and is bounded north- 
erly by Topsham, easterly by Brad- 
ford, southerly by Vershire and 
westerly- by Washington. It lies 
21 miles southeast from Moutpelier, 
12 wescerly from Haverhill, N. H., 
and 41 north from Windsor. It was 
chartered by New-Hampshire, Feb, 
4, 1764, to Messrs. Ward, Taplin 
and others. A confirmation grant 
was, afterwards, procured from New 
York, by Henry Moore and others. 
In the spring of 1777, previous to 
the settlement of the town, Ezekiel 
Colby, John Nutting and John Ar- 
mand, spent several weeks here in 
manufacturing'maple sugar. They 
started together from Newbury, 
with each a five pail kettle on his 
head, and with this load they trav- 
elled, by a pocket compass, 12 miles 
tlu*ough the wilderness to the place 
of destination near the centre of 
the township. This year, Mr. Col- 
by moved his family into Corinth, 
which was the first family in town. 
The next year, 1778, Mr. Nutting 
moved his family here, and Mrs. 
Colby was delivered of a son, 
Henry, the first child born in town. 
In 1779, Messrs. Edmund Brown, 
Samuel Norris, Jacob Fowler and 
Bracket Towle, moved their fam- 
ilies here, and the same year, Mr. 
John Aiken, of Wentwprth, N. H., 
erected the first grist mill, which 
^ent into operation the year fol- 
lowing. Previous to this, the set- 

tlers had to go to Newbury, 13 
miles, for their grinding. In 1780, 
several other families caAiein,aDd 
the town was organized. Georgt 
Banfield was first town clerk, and 
David McKeen first constable, and 
John Nutting first representative, 
all chosen this' year. Some time, 
this year, Lieut. Elliot was station- 
ed here witl^ 20 men to defend tht 
inhabitants against the Indians and 
tories.. and built a small fort. lo 
1781, Col. Wait and Major Kmgs- 
bury, with two companies of sol- 
diers, under Capts. Seal j and Nelson, 
built a fort near the centre of the 
town, and made this their head 
quarters. October 16, of this year, 
five men, from this fort, viz ; Moiss 
Warner, John Barret, John Sar- 
geant, Jonathan Luoe and Daniel 
Hovey, being on a seont, and pro- 
ceeding down Onion river, were 
fired upon in the township of Je- 
richo by a party of 16 tones. 
Warner, Sergeant and Barret wero 
wounded, the latter mortally. He 
lived about 40 hours and was buried, 
near the margin of Onion river in 
Colchester. The others wereev- 
riedto Quebec, and kept till the 
next spring when they were suffer^ 
ed to return. In 1782, a British 
scouting party from Canada, abont 
20 in number, under Major Breck- 
enridge, after annoying the settlers 
of Newbury, killing one man and 
taking another prisoner, proceeded 
to Corinth, where they compelled 
the settlers to take the oath of alle- 
giance to the British king. ThA 
religious denominations are Con- 
gregationallsts, Methodists, Free- 
will Baptists and Christians. A 
large portion of the people of this 
town have always been Congreg^- 
tionalists, bjut they have not till 
lately been formed into a regular 
church. In the summer and au» 
tumn of 1819, the Rev. Charles Y» 





Hiace, (then a candidate,) preach-, cultivation, and there arc few lot 
d here about four months, during; of 100 acres, if any, in town oa 
/^hich time there was something of. which there are not some improve- 
. religious revival, and on the 10th imeuld. The soil consists of a dark 
f October of that year, a church, loam, mixed with a small portion 
onsisting^ of 12 members, was or-Jof sand, is easily cultivated and is 
anized. On the 25th of January, Ivery productive. The land was 

820, tlie Rev. C. Y, Chace was or 
laiued and settled as pastsr of this! 
harch and society. This church,' 
.t present, consists of 33 members. 
L'hey have a meetinghouse at the' 
entre of the township, the frame' 
►f which, was erected and covered 
;bout the year 1801, and remaincd| 
vith litUe else done to it till 1820,' 
vhen it was nearly finished. The: 
Vethodists, Freewill Baptists audi 
[Christians being mostly in the bor-| 
lers of the town, and connected 
rith those of the same order in the| 
iiyacent towns, their numbers are 
iot easily specified. The Freewill, 
baptists have a meetinghouse near, 
he west line of the town, the other, 
ocieties are destitute. There are; 
wo preachers, beside the one above | 
iamed,viz; Elder Nathaniel Bolles, 
■"reewill Baptist, and Elder Zac- 
iheus Wells, Christian. In 1804, 
he canker and dysentery were very 
ktal here to a great number of per-i 
ions, mostly children, and manyi 
Eunilies lost from one to three ofj 
their number. On the 26th of 
JVfarch, 1824, Mn. Jane Brown, re- 
lict of Mr. Samuel Brown, died in 
thi« town aged 101 years and seven 
Dionths. She was a native of Ire- 

originally timbered with hard 
wood, except on the streams, wher* 
there was a mixture of hemlock, 
spruce and fir. There is nothings 
peculiar in its mineralogy. Small 
but handsome ilpecimens of felds- 
par, garnet, serpentine hornblende, 
mica and rock crystal have been 
found. The rocks are principally 
granite and mica slate. This town- 
ship is well watered by Wait's riv- 
er, which runs thrpugh the north- 
east part and by several of its 
branches. One branch from Tops- 
ham passes through a small village 
in the north part of the town^ip 
known by the name of TaplirCf 
Mills, where G. Taplin, Esq. has 
erected a grist, saw and fulling mill 
and a carding machine. Another 
branch rises in Washington, passes 
through the south part of this town» 
and unites with Waif's river in the 
western part of Bradford^ MiW 
Brook also rises in Washington^ 
runs through the centre of Cormth« 
and joins the last mentioned branch 
in this township near a place called 
Cwricr^s MilU. There are some 
other streams on which mills and 
other machinery are erected. There 
are in town one attorney, three phy- 

iaiwi, emigrated to Chester, N. H., sicians, three merchants, tea black<^ 
^th her husband about the yearj smiths, one tavern, three distilleries,, 
iT..« , , , ., , . " ggy,, tanneries, three carding ma-^ 

,^753, and had, since tlie death of 
>er husband, lived in this town; 
"Out 20 years* The physicians, in' 
^ia town, are Joshua Tenney, Ep-j 
**^ith and John U. Fosher. The 
^t'face of this township is general- 
J" very uneven and broken, and the 
l^vations abrupt, yet the land is, 
^ almo9t eyery part, susoeptible of 


chines, five clothier's works, six 
grist mills, eight saw mills, and six- 
teen school districts and schooli 
houses. Population, 1820, 1307. 

June, 1824* W. s. 

Cornwall, a township- in the 
central parts of Addison county, is: 
in lat. 43'' 57' aud long. 3"^ 46Vaa& 





19 bounded north by Weybridge 
east by .Afiddlebury and Salisbury, 
south by Whiting^ and west by 
Bridport and Shoreham. It was 
chartered November 3^ 17G1, to 
"Ellas Reed and his associates. It i» 
75 miles north of Bennington, and 
36 south of Burlingfton. The set- 
tlement was commenced in 1774, by 
Asa Blodg^et, Eldad Andrus, Aaron 
Scott, Nathan Foot, William Dou- 
glass, James Bentley, James Bent- 
ley, jr. Ebenezer Stebbins, Thomas 
Bentley, Samuel Blodgctand Joseph 
Troop. When STiconderoga was 
abandoned to the British in 1777. 
the settlers all fled to the south, and 
did not return till after the war. 
In the winter of 1784, about 30 fam- 
ilies came into the township from 
Connecticut. The town was or- 
ganized in Jllarch of this year, and 
Joel Linsly was first tov^n clerk, 
and Hiland Hall the first represent- 
ative. The Congregational church, 
in this town, was organized in July, 
1785, and in 1787, they settled the 
Rev. Thomas Tolman, who was 
dismissed in 1790. The Rev. Ben- 
jamin Wooster was ordained over 
this church February 22, 1 797, and 
dismissed January 7, 1802. The 
Rn\ Jedediah J?U5/ine/Z was instal- 
led May 25, 1803, and this year, 
their meetinghouse was erected. 
The church, at present, consists of 
about 250 members. Elder Henry 
Green was settled over the Baptist 
church and society, in 1809, and 
dismissed February 28, 1824. The 
Baptist meetinghouse was erected 
in 1807. This church consists of 
about 200 members. These are 
the only churches. There have 
been no less than nine considerable 
revivals of religion since the town 
was organized, which were in the 
years following, 1785, 1794, 1801, 
1806, 1810, 1812, 1814, 1817 and 
1Q21. One person has died, in this 

town, aged 106 years, and there are 
two now living who are upwaidi 
of 90. The physidana are Fred- 
erick ForcU Thomas S. Matthewi 
and Oliver J. Eelle. This is a veiy 
handsome towuhship of land, aad 
the surface is generally iQvel. Le- 
monfair river crosses the nerthweit 
corner, and Otter creek waeheet 
part of the eastern boundary. Nt 
good mill privileges. This town- 
ship, by charter, comprehended 
that i)art of Middlebary, which liei 
west of Otter creek, including the 
mill privileges on the west side of 
the creek at MiddleburyfeUU Cal- 
careous spar, in very beautifiil, 
transparent, rhomboidal crystals, u 
found in the western part of this 
township. Along Otter creeks in 
the southeast part, is a large swanp 
covering several thousaiid acres. 
There are here seven school dis- 
tricts and school houses, one eton, 
two taverns and one tannery. Pop- 
ulation, 1820, 1120. 

May, 1824. 

Coventry, a township in Or- 
leans county, situated in lat. 44^ 53^ 
and long. 4"^ 4V, contains about 35 
(square miles. It is 49 miles north- 
easterly from Montpalier, and k 
bounded northeast by Salem, south- 
east by Brownington, southwest by 
jlrasburgb, and northwest by New- 
;port. It was granted October 23^ 
J1784, and chartered 1785, to Mi^r 
jElias Buel, of Coventry, Con., and 
others. I'he first settlement of the 
town was begun about the year 
1800, and it appears from the cen- 
sus of this year that there were, at 
this time, seven persons in town. 
The first settlers were S. and T* 
Cobb, Samuel Wells, John Farm- 
worth, Jotham Pierce, JosejAi. 
Marsh, John Ide and others. The 
town was organized in March, 1803* 
and Joseph Marsh was first towsi. 
clerk, jfhe religious deuomkuiUoiB^ 





are Baptists and Cong^egationalists. 
The Baptist church consists or43 
OQiembers, over which the Rev. 
John Ide was ordained June 20, 
1815. The Rev. Lymar\ Case was 
settled over the CongNegational 
church, which consists of id)out 35 
members, in March, 1823. There 
was a considerable revival of reli- 
-^on here in 1816. Barton and 
iBIocik river run northerly through 
-this town into Memphremagog lake. 
These streams are from four to eight 
rods wide, and very deep near their 
mouths. There are good mill priv- 
ileges in ti^s town on Black river, 
and likewise on some of the emaller 
streams. The other waters are 
South bay of lake Memphremagog, 
and two small ponds. The soil is, 
Ifeoierally, very good. Near the 
lake it is, in some places, clayey, 
and on Black river it is, somewhat, 
sandy, but through the township, 
generally, it consists of a deep rich 
loam. Its timber is mostly maple 
and beech, with some elm, bass- 
wood, birch, hemlock, spruce, fir, 
cedar, Szc. The eastern and middle 
parts of the town are very even ; 
the western, soi/aewhat, broken, but 
not mountainous. The town is di- 
vided into five school districts, four 
of which have schoolhouses. There 
ire two physicians, two ministers, 
one store, one tavern, three saw 
mills, one grist mill and one fulling 
Bull. Population 282. j.s. 

Oe/o6er 15,1823. 
CovsvTRT Gore, a tract of 
SOOO acres of land belonging to 
Coventry, lying in Orleans county, 
s fsw miles to the southwest of that 
^Wn. It is bounded north by New- 
Port, east by Irasburgh, south by 
'^ellyvale and west by Troy- 

CaArrsBiTRT, a post township in 
^Heans county, is in lat. 44° 39' 
**V1 long. 4® 32', and is bounded 
'''^rthby Albany, east by Greeus- 

borough, south by Wolcott, and 
west by Eden. It is situated 25 
miles south from Canada line and 
the same distance north from Mont- 
pelier, and is nearly at an equal dis- 
tance from Connecticut river on 
the east and lake Champlain on the 
west. It was granted November 6, 
1780, and chartered by the name of 
Minden, August 23, 1781, to Tim- 
othy Newel, Ebenezer Crafts and 
their associates. Nathan Cutler 
moved his family into this township, 
in the spring of 1789, and spent the 
following winter here. Their near- 
est neighbours were Mr. Shepard's 
family in Greensborough. Novem- 
ber 27, 1790, the name of the town- 
ship was altered to Craftsbury. In 
179 1, Col. Ebenezer Crafts removed 
his family from Sturbridge, Mass., 
and was followed by a large num- 
ber of settlers from that and other 
towns in Worcester county. The 
town was organized in March 1792, 
and Samuel C. Crafts was first town 
clerk. It was represented the same 
year by Ebenezer Crafts. In the 
settlement of new townships it gen- 
erally requires some time for the 
character of the people to become 
established. The settlers, collect- 
ing from different parts, bring with 
them their peculiar habits, opinions, 
and prejudices, and considerable 
time will be required for them to 
assimilate. But where an individ- 
ual of wealth, enterprise and edu- 
cation leads the way, he will give 
character to the people who settle 
around him. They will look up to 
him for advice in all cases of doubt 
and difficulty, and the disorder and 
strife so common in new settled 
places will be avoided. This was 
peculiarly the case in Craftsbury. 
For some years this settlement re- 
sembled the patriarchal institutions 
of ancient times. Col. Crafts was 
the patriarchal head of the little 





community, and as he was eminent- 
ly serviceable to the settlers of this 
part of the state, we fhall give a 
brief sketch of the most important 
events of his life. He was born at 
Pomfret, Con. September 3, 1740, 
O. S., and after completing his col- 
legiate course at Yale College, en- 
gaged in mercantile pursuits in his 

Vermont. After exploring^ differ^ 
ent parts, he selected this place, 
which now beara his name, and mads 
arrangements for its speedy settle- 
ment. In the "winter of 1791, he 
sat out y ith his family, and after 
the inconveniencies of seFei^ 
weather and deep snows in an im« 
settled country, he arrived on tbft 

native town, liere, at the age of loth of February, at the place of dai* 
ii^, he was married to Miss Mehe-|itination. The road, at this timCi 
tabel Chandler, a young lady of terminated at Cabot. From thence, 

respectable family, and soon after 
removed to Sturbridge, Mass., 

a distance of 20 miles, the femalei 
of the family were drawn on band 

where he engaged in the same pur-jisleds. The hardships and privt- 

suits. Here, by his assiduity iii 
business and strict integrity, he ac- 
quired wealth and respectability. 
At the commencement of the Rev- 
x>lirtion, he marched to Boston at 
the head of a company of cavalry, 
where he was stationed till - that 
place was evacuated by the British, 
in 1776. In 1786, and 7, that part 
of the state, where he resided, was 
thrown into confusion by the insur- 
rection of Shays and his infatuated 
followers. At this crisis, he com- 
manded a regiment of cavalry, 
•which was called out under Gen. 
Sullivan, and was of essential ser- 
vice in putting down the insurgents. 
Among his acts of generosity and 
public spirit, may be mentioned that 
of purchasing, in conjunction with 
Jacob Davis, Esq. a large and com- 
modious mansionhouse, lands and 
appurtenances in Leicester, valued 
at J'3000, and presenting them to 
the Academy established in that 
town. In consequence of this and 
other acts of generosity, and the 
vicissitudes to which mercantile 
pursuits are always liable^ his affairs 
became, somewhat, embarrassed. 
At this juncture, he determined to 
bring his business to a close, and, 
with what remained of his proper 
ty, which was still considerable, to 
try his fortune in the &ew state of 

tious attendant upon the settlement 
I of all new countries, are, somewhat, 
I similar, and the settlers of-Crafb- 
jbury suffered their full proportioo. 
But with the example and assist-^ 
ance of Col. Crafts, they oveix^ams 
jail difficulties, and under his aus-. 
[pices the town settled rapidly, aol . 
I the people became prosperous aod 
happy. He lived to sec his childret 
settled around him under favour- 
able circumstances^ to see the toWBt 
which he ever regarded with ft- 
temal affection, maintain a respect- 
able standing among those in tlM 
vicinity, and died lamented and ei* 
teemed by all who knew him. May 
24, 1810, in the 70th year of h» 
age. Col. Crafts was a man of m^ 
common decision and energy of 
character. After maturing hii 
plans, he carried them into execu- 
tion with a perseverance, which 
overcame every obstacle. He "WU 
jflrm and inflexible in his principle! 
land opinions. In religion he was a 
jconstant supporter of the Calvi- 
inistic doctrines, in politics, a dedd* 
led opponent of Jefferson^s adminif- 
Itration. He was kind and gene- 
! reus to the poor, and has leftsei' 
leral monuments of his liberality, 
I which will cause his name toba 
jheld in grateful remembrance. Hf 
ileft, by will, te the Congregational 





irch, in Craftsbury, of which he 
s a member, 50 acres of land, 
i avails of which, whenever a 
nister of that order, " reputed or- 
xlox in the faith of the g^ospel,*' 
all be settled over said church, 
all be appropriated *^ in furnish- 
^ a. communion table, in a sort 
cent and becoming, for the use of 
id church, and in purchasing two 
Ter tankards for sacramental use 
ith the following inscription ; 
ioen hy Ebeneser Crafts for the 
re of the Sanctuary^ A, D» — ^^ 
J another item he bequeathed to 
le town |400, to be put to use till 
&e interest should equal tlie prin- 
Lpal, and then to be appropriated 
) the purchase of a church bell and 
Lock. Tlie Hon, Samuel C, Crafts 
I the son of Col. Crafts, was bom 
it Woodstock, Con., in 1768, and 
Mfw resides in this town. He grad- 
uted at Tale College, but relin- 
(vished the study of an honorable 
profession to accompany his father, 
It the age of 22, into the wilds of 
Vermont. In 1793, he was member 
Bfthe Convention, which formed 
^ present Constitution of the 
^te, and after filling a succession 
^ important offices, he was, in 1816, 
iected representative to Congress, 
V'hich office he continues to hold. 
^h» religious societies^ in Crafts- 
^Qry,are Congregationalists, Meth- 
|<lists, Baptists, Covenanters, or 
*Qotdi Reformed Presbyterians and 
^iiiversalists. The Rev, William 
t. Chapin was settled over the 
Congregational church, September 
^ 1822. They have a handsome 
Meetinghouse situated in the vil- 
^. Elder Daniel Mason is set- 
k^ ovei the Baptist society. The 
Iher societies are only occasional- 
^ supplied with preaching. The 
^resbyterians are a branch of the 
tev. James Milligan's church in 
;y6g^. The professioaal men, 

besides the above named, are Au- 
gustus Young, attorney, and Daniel 
Dustin, physician. This township 
is well watered by Black river, 
which is formed here, and by its 
several branches, which afford nu- 
merous mill privileges. Black riv- 
er was known to the natives, who 
formerly inhabited this part of the 
country, by the name of Elligo* 
Sigq. The current of this stream 
is very slow, and the bottom of it a 
dark clay. A boat of three tons 
burthen was once built at Greens- 
borough, launched upon this stream 
at Craftsbury, loaded with two tons 
of merchandize, and navigated by 
Lieut. Lyford*, Josiah Elkins and 
two others, to Memphremagog lake. 
They had to unload and draw the 
boat about 40 rods at Irasburgh 
and Coventry. Wild branch, a 
tributary of the Lamoille, rises in 
Eden, and passes through the west- 
em part of this township. T^here 
are here five natural ponds, viz; 
Ellig^, {see Elligo^) Great and Little 
Hosmer, Cedar and Duck Pond. 
Tlie streams and ponds abound witk 
excellent trout. Near the centre 
of the township, on elevated ground, 
which affords ah extensive prospect, 
lies the village^ consisting of about 
20 dwelling houses, a meeting- 
house, a town house, a hall for Bap- 
tist meetings, a brick school hpuse^ 
two taverns, four stores, two ash- 
eries, one tannery, a shoemaker^s, 
saddler^s, blacksmith *s, cabinet mak- 
er^s and cooper^s shop. It is, prin- 
cipally, situated around a green, 80 
rods in length, and 24 in breadth, 

* Lieut, Lyfotd was one of the 
first settlers of Cabot, He teas of 
\the line ofJ^imrod and a mighty 
hunter. The early settlers relate 
many wonderful stories of his coiy- 
flicts \oith the Indians and with th^ 
[blasts of the forests 





and is called ^^ The Common^'* from 
the circumstance that tliis land was 
held in common by the proprietors. 
The elevation, on which the village 
stands, is almost insulated by Black 
river. {See Map.) There are, an 
liually, manufactured, in this town, 
48 tons of pearlashes and 50 tons of 
oatmeal. Tliese articles are usual- 
ly carried to Montreal, distant 
about 90 miles, on the market road, 
which passes through this town, 
from Newbury to that place. 
There are, in town, five school dis- 
tricts, six saw mills, two grist mills, 
two clothing works, one carding 
machine, one oil mill, one hulling 
mill, at which oatmeal is manufac- 
tured, and one pottery. All these, 
except two saw mills, are on Trout 
brook, a principal branch of Black 
river. Population, 1820, 633. 

August^ 1824. J. A. p. 

Dakbt, a post township in the 
south part of Rutland county, is in 
lat. 43° 21' and long. 3° 57', and is 
bounded north by Tinmouth, east 
by Mount Tabor, south by Dorset 
and west by Pawlet. It is 34 miles 
north from Bennington, and 18 south 
from Rutland. It was chartered 
August 27, 1761, and contains about 
39 square niiles. The settlement 
of tliis township was commenced 
about the year 176S. In 1791, 
there were upwards of 1200 inhab- 
itants. Otter creek runs nearly on 
the line between this township and 
Mount Tabor, but there are no 
streams of much consequence with- 
in the township. The most con- 
siderable are Mill river, which rises 
in the southwestern part, and falls 
into Otter creek in Mount Tabor 
and Flower branch, which rises in 
the northwest part and falls into 
Pawlet river in Pawlet. These and 
a branch of Otter creek, in tlie 
northeastern part, are all sufUcient 
lor mills. The surface of the town- 

jship is uneven, and some parts of ii 
mountainous. South mountain Rnd 
spruce mountain are the principBl 
elevations. The soil is well adapt* 
ed to the production of grass, tod 
there are here some of the largeit 
dairies in the state. No less thta 
100,000 lbs. of cheese, and batter ia 
proportion, have been carried from 
this town to market in one year. 
There are several caverns in tbi> 
township, which are considerate 
curiosities, but they have never be» 
thoroughly explored. One of them, 
in the southeastern part« desoendi 
like a well into the solid rock. It 
is said that a person was let dova 
by a rope 150 feet perpendicularly 
into this cavern without discovering 
any bottom. Speciinena of galent* 
or sulphuret of lead, are found here. 
A society of Quakers, or friends, ii 
!thc only religious society in tows. 
They have a meetii^houde in the 
eastern part. The Methodists are ] 
tlie next most numerous denominft* I 
tion of Christians. In the western 
part of the township is a springt 
which is nearly sufficient to carry a j 
mill, where it issues from the fiiot 
of the mountain. . SThe physiciaM ] 
are Abraham ^ocke, Eli Leamedt 
■Harris Otis and George Tuttle. 
;The town is divided into 13 school ; 
districts. T^ere are two grist millii ^ 
five saw mills, six stores, two tar* 
erns, six tanneries, one distillery« 
one trip hammer, and two wooUtt 
factories, with clothing works aiid> 
carding machine at each. Popollki 
tion, 1820, 1607. 


Danville, a post towu&bip uA 
the shire town of Caledonia countli 
isinlat. 44"^ 26' and long. 4'*^» 
and is bounded north by WbeeloidJh 
northeast by St. Johnsbury, aoattn 
least by Barnet, south by PeacbMli 
'and west by AValden, Goshen GM 
land ^ pftrt of Cabot. It is 25 mflil 







Least from Montpelier, twenty- 
northwesterly from Newbury, 
60 from Boston. This township 
panted October 27, 1786, and 
tered to Jacob Bailey, Jesse 
'^enworth and others, October 
1786. Some difficulty havings 
*u respecting the lands, the pro- 
tors took out a new, or quieting^ 
tier. October 29, 1792, "Waldeu 
^ ^as annexed to this township, 

since that jLime, one half of 
"^eysburgh. The other half was 
^xed to Peacham. Sargeant 
^i^ill commenced chopping in this 
*^hip in 1784. The next year 
'^rles Hacket brought the first 
^ttiaainto town. In 1786, about 
families removed here, but they 
• left in the fall except Charles Si- 
•Ud Daniel Cross. They retum- 
With others in the spring of 1787, 
lifrom this time the ingress was 
fy rapid. In 1789, it was estimat- 
that there were no less than 200 
lilies here. The consequence of 
rapid an increase of population 
« an extreme scarcity of provi- 
Els. Large quantities of corn and 
«r provisions were brought from 
tez county, Jifas. whence many of 
settlers had emigrated, a distance 
nearly 200 miles, through roads, 
ich were scarcely passable. The 
t mills in this town were a saw 
I g^st mill, erected in 1787, by 
rid Whitcher. The same year, 
rch 20, the town was organized. 
raham Jtforrill was the first town 
rlf and the first representative. 
1790, improvements had been 
imenced on nearly all the lots in 
n. The religious societies are 
thodists, Congregational ists and 
Itists. 'i'here are two .?tf"ethodist 
Bchers, viz. Elder David Kill' 
»!, and Archelaus Sias, The 
K Edward Hollister^ preaches to 
Congregational society and El- 

ittwi^ Fisher to the Baptist. 

The .Vethodists and Congregation- 
alists have each a handsome meet- 
inghouse situated ' in the village. 
There are in this town six physi- 
cians and three attornies. The 
physicians are Uri Babbit, Samuel 
Collins, Olney Fuller, Oliver Morse, 
Eldad Alexander, jr. and Benjamin 
Sibley. The eastern part of this 
township is beautifully diversified 
with hills and vales, and is a fine 
farming country. TTie western 
part is more broken, the soil harder 
and less productive. It is watered 
by Merritt's river, a considerable 
mill stream which runs through the 
south part, and by several smaller 
tributaries of the Passu mpsick, 
which rise in the north part of the 
township. In the southeastern part 
is a medicinal spring strongly im- 
pregpaated with sulphureted hydro- 
gen gas and iron. Joe's pond lies 
mostly in the western part of the 
township and covers about 1000 a- 
cres. It discharges ils waters into 
the Paseumpsick by Merritt's river, 
or Joe's brook. Danville village is 
very pleasantly situated nearly in 
the centre of the township on ele- 
vated land and in the midst of a 
beautiful farming country. It con- 
tained in 1820, 2300 inhabitants. 
The public buildings are a Congre- 
gational and JHfethodist meeting- 
house, a courthouse and jail. 
These buildings are small, but the 
three former are finished in a very 
neat and modest style. There is 
an elegant simplicity displayed in 
the finishing of the Jtfethodist chap- 
el which does honor to the judg- 
ment and taste of those who design- 
ed and executed it. 2'here U a 
weekly papef, called the ^ North 
Star^'' published in this village by 
Ebenezcr Eaton, and the only 
printing establishment in Caledonia 
county. There are in Danville, 
15 school districts and schoolhouses^ 






seven stores, two taverns, ten saw,! 
five grist and two fulling mills, twoj 
carding machines, one clover mill,! 
one pottery, three tanneries and 17! 
distilleries, which are in operation; 
a part of the year, but work little 
besides potatoes. Pop. 1830, 2300. 
September 1823. 

DEEaFii'.LD River, rises in the 
north part of Stratlon, and runs 
south through Somerset into Sears- 
burgh, thence southeast into Wil- 
mington, thence southwesterly thro"! 
the corner of Whitingham, and; 
leaves the state after running threei 
or four miles on the line between 
Whitingham and Readsboro'. Af- 
ter entering Massachusetts, it takes 
a southeasterly course and falls into 
Connecticut river, between Green-, 
field and Deerfield, about 18 milesj 
below the south line of Vermont. 
It runs about 28 miles in Vermont, 
and waters about 320 square miles. 
Its whole leugfth is about 50 miles. 

Derby, a post township in the 
northeast part of Orleans county, is 
in lat. 44° 58' and long. 4° 46', and 
is bounded north by Stanstead, in 
Lower Canadei, east by Holland, 
south by Salem and west by Mem- 
phremagog lake, which separates it 
from Newport. It extends seven 
and a half miles on Canada line, 
and five miles and seven chains on 
Holland line, and is 52 miles north- 
east from Montpelier. It was char- 
tered to Timothy Andrus and his 
associates, October 29, 1779, con- 
fining, 23,040 acres. The fu*st set- 
tlement was made here in 1795, by 
Alexander Magoon, Henry Burrel, 
and the Hon. Timothy Hinman. 
Much praise is due to the latter for 
his persevering industry in making 
roads and furnishing other facilities 
for the settlement of the country, 
but no peculiar circumstances are 
known to have attended it. £mi- 
g;rant9 from Connectieut and other 

^places soon made it a flouridiing 
town.~ It was organised March 2^ 
1798, and Timothy Hinman wh 
first town clerk. For some yeui 
this place was visited by hnntii^ 
|]iarties of the St. Fraoceis Inditnii 
'who formerly possessed all the nortb 
{part of this state, -with whom tomr 
jtrade in peltries was carried on. 
iThey were generally peaceable ud 
•friendly. In 1808, Elder Samad 
j Smith, was settled over the Bapliii 
church and society in this toviii 
and he died in 1810. The Rer. 
Luther Leland was settled overthi 
Congregational church in 1810, ani 
died in November i8S2. AmeeU 
jinghouse 44 by 54 feet, \raf con- 
ipleted in 1820, on a small emineoGSi 
jnear the centre of the town. Tlw 
iabove are the only regular dioroiw 
es, but there are some Episcopaliui; 
Methodists, Qdakers, &c Then 
are here three attomies and tvt 
physicians. The physicians are Lv 
ther Newcomb & Mosea F. Colefa^ 
This town was a port of entiy b 
the late district of Mempfarenmgiqgi 
and a collector's oflice is still knflt 
here by David M. Campi,£sq. Dep* 
uty Collector. The surface of tin 
township is very level, more lo thai 
any other in the counter* Then 
are some plains of several hnndnt 
acres extent, and where the luA 
rises, the elevations are g^mdnal ani 
moderate and hardly deserve tbi 
name of hills. The land isifdl- 
timbered, principally with reek a** 
pie and other hud wood, except il 
the vicinity of the lake, where niK 
state of nature, large tracts HMt 
covered, with white and nonnf 
pine, intermixed with some lA 
oak, spruce, hemlock, fir, t&^ 
&c. Cedar swamps of from ooiil! 
to acres are found in various ptfW 
The soil is fertile and abundaiidf 
prod ucti ve. The river Cljrde «•• 
es through the south part of tti 





»wnsbip in a northwesterly direc- 
ou, affording numeroas mill seats, 
alem pond throug^h which Clyde 
ver passes is partly in this town- 
lip, and is four miles long and 
iree broad. Hinman^s pond, near 
le centre of the town is one and a 
>artht mile loog^, and three fourths 
f a mile wide, and empties into Sa- 
>m pond by an outlet half a mile 
»ng^. There are several other 
reams, two of which &re sufficient 
>r mills. There ai:e in town six 
;hool districts, three schoolhouscs, 
ve mercantile stores, three saw and 
wo grist mills, two carding ma- 
tiines and two fulling mills. Pop- 
lation 1820, 925. D. m. c. 

Mfvetnbcr, 1823. 

1>£\t£Y8BURGH, was a tract of 
310 acres, lying between Danville 
od Peacham, chartered to £lijah| 
^ewey and associates, February 28, 
782. It W8S organized -as a town. 
Old in November 1810, divided by 
at of Legislature, and one half of it 
onexed io Danville and the oth- 
r half te Peacham. 

Dog Rivkr, is formed in North- 
eld, by the union of several streamsj 
*oni Roxbury, Brookfield, &c. and 
ikiqg a northerly course tbroughj 
Serlin, fiedls into Onion river,' 
uree quarters of a mile below thel 
'illage of Montpelier. Its length; 
I about 12 miles, and it waters a- 
out 80 square miles. 

DoRSKT, a post township in the 
orth part ef Bennington county, is 
I lat 43'? 16' and long. 3^ 57', and 

bounded north by Danby, east by 
eru, south by Manchester and west 
y Rupert. It wis chartered Aug. 
0, 1761, and contains about 41 j 
[uare miles. The first settlementj 
ras made in 1768, by Felix Powellj 
om Massachusetts, Isaac Lacy,: 
cm Connecticut, and Beujamin: 
aldwin, Abraham Uaderhill, John! 
[aaley and George Gage, from. N.j 


York. The town was organized in 
1769, when Asa Baldwin was chos- 
en town clerk. Cephas Kent was 
the £rst representative. In 1781, 
the Rev. Elijah Sill was settled o- 
ver the Congregational church and 
society here, but the time of his dis- 
mission is not known. In Septem- 
ber 1796, the Rev. JViUiam Jaekion 
was settled over this church and 
still continues their pastor. The 
first and present minister of the 
Baptist society, is YA^er Cyrenui -M* 
Fuller^ settled in 1818. There 
were powerful revivals of religion 
here, in 1803, 1817 and 1821. The 
epidemic of 1813 was very mortaL 
About 40 were victims to it. The 
practicing physicians, are Alpheus 
Morse, John Sargeant, jr, and W«J- 
ter S. Shimmy. There are no con- 
siderable streams in this township. 
Otter creek heads in Mount Tabor, 
runs southwesterly two or three 
miles, into Peru, then west three 
fourths of a mile into this township, 
when it takes a northerly direction 
through a considerable natural 
pond, and leaves the township near 
the northeast comer. The Batten- 
kill heads in this township, on the 
flat about 25 rods south of the bend 
in Otter creek, and runs ofi" to the 
souths. Another branch of this 
stream rises in the southwestern 
part, and unites with it in Manches- 
ter, Pawlet river, rises in the 
northwestern part, and passes off 
into Rupert. Tliese streams afford 
a number of mill privileges. Thif 
township is considerably mountain- 
ous. Dorset mountain lies in the 
north part, and extends into Danby, 
where it is called South mountain. 
Equinox mountain lies partly in the 
southwest corner. In this township 
are several remarkable caverns. 
One in the south part, is entered by 
an aperture nearly 10 feet square, 
'^ which opens into a spacious room 





nine rods in lengflh and four wide. 
At the further end of this ai)arlmeut 
are two opening^s which arc about 30 
feet apart. The one on the right 
is three feet from the floor, and is 
about 20 inches by six feet in length. 
Itleads to an apartment 20 feet long, 
12 wide and If high. From this 
room there is an opening sulBcientj 
to admit a man to pass through side-; 

sliip. Several branches of Wat 
rfver and a brancii of Deerfield river 
rise here, and afford several mill 
privikges. Serpentine, chlohtt 
I slate, kc. occur in this townbbip. 
I Population, 1820, 8S9. 

DwMMERSToir, a post township 
in the eastern part of WindhaiM 
county, is in lat. 42° 5& and loop. 
14° £4/, and is bounded north hj 

is a passage to another considerable 
room, in which is a spring of water. 
This cavern is said to have been ex- 
plored 40 or 50 rods without arriv- 
ing at the end." There are in this | 
township, nine school districts, eight! 
schoolhouses, two meetinghouses,! 
two grist and scveo saw mills, one 
woollen factory, one furnace, one 
tannery, two taverns, one store, one i 
distillery, one pottery, two fulling' 
mills, and one carding machine. 
Population 1&20, 1359. 
Jtme, 1824. 
Dover, a township in tlie cen- 
tral part of Windham county, is in 
lat. 42° 58' and long. 4° 9', and is 
bounded north by Wardsborough, 
east by Ncwfane, south by Wil- 
Biington and a part of Marlborough, 
and. West by Somerset. It was 
granted November 7, 1700, as a part 
«f Wardsborough. October 18, 
1788, Wardsborough was divided 
into two districts, oedlcd the north 
and south district. In 1810, the 
louth district was constituted a sep- 
arate town by the name of Dover. 
Dover is 13 miles northwest from 
BratUeborough, and 18 northeast 
from Bennington. For, an account 
of the settlement of this township, 
$ee Wardsborough. There are no 
etxAiderable streams in this town- 

ways about 20 feet, when it oiiens;. Putney and Brookline, east byCoa- 
into a large hall iiO feet long and ^j uecticut river, which eeparates it 
wide. The other ax)erture from: from Westmoreland, P(. H., soutk 
the first room is about as large as a by Brattleborough, and west by a 
common door, and leads to an apart- part of Marlborough and Newtane. 
ment 12 feet square, out of which! It is 92 miles south from Mon^elier, 

and 31 east from Bennington, and 
was chartered Deoember 26, 175^ 
21iis was one of the first settled 
townships in the state, but we have 
not been able to obtain a particular 
account of the circumitancet at- 
tending its settlement and £ubce- 
quent history. It contained, in 1791, 
upwards of J 500 inhabitants. This 
township is watered by West river, 
which etiters it from Newfane, and 
passes through it in a southeatterly 
direction into Brattleborough, and 
by several small streamB, some of 
which fall into this, and others inta 
Connecticut river, affording a coa- 
siderable number of good sites for 
mills. The surface of the town* 
ship is broken. Th» rocks, 'vriiich 
constitute Black mountain, near tha 
centre of the township, are an im- 
mense body of granite. A range of 
argillaceous slate passes through this 
township from south to north, and ii 
considerably quarried for roof slate 

Primitive lime- 
stone occurs in beds. Specimens of 
tremolite, limpid quartz^and galena, 
or the sulphuret of lead, are also 
found here. There is a number of 
mills and other machinery. P(^- 
latiou, 1820, 1658. 

DuNCAirsBOROuoH.— -The name 
of tbifi township was altered ta 





Newport, October 30, 1016. See\ 
X^eicport. I 

Dux BURT, a township in the' 
western part of Waishing^ton county,) 
is in lat 44-' 10' and long;. 4^ 8', and} 
is bounded north by Waterbury andj 
a part of Bolton, from which it i?! 
separated by Onion river, east by; 
Moretown, south by Fayston, and| 
west by Huntino^ton and a part of 
Bolton. It is 13 miles west from, 
Montpeliei*, ^ southeast from Bur-< 
liBg^on, and 100 north from Bcn-| 
niog^ton ; and was chartered Junej 
7, 1763. The selUemsnt of iliisj 
township was commenced about 30 1 
years ago. In 179-1, there were 31* 
inhabitants. The south and west- 
em part of the township are moun- 
tainous and incapable of settlement. 
Nearly all the inhabitants are con- 
fined to the murofin of Onion river, 
and the eastern border of the town- 
ship. This townsliip is watered by 
Onion river, which forms the north- 
ern boundary, by Duxbury branch 
and several small branches of Mad 
river. The town is divided into 
four school districts, and there are 
here three saw mills. .The natural 
bridge, over Onion r: ver, is between 
this town and Waterbnry, and near 
it are some curious cavcras. Popu- 
lation, 1S20, 440. 

EAgT-HAVEJT, a township in Es- 
sex county, 45 miles northeast iVom 
Jtfoatpelier, chartered October 22, 
1790, to Timothy Andru3 and as^ro- 
ciates, and contains 30 square 
miles^ ft is bounded northwesterly 
by Newark, northeasterly by Ran- 
dom and Ferdinand, so'itheast by 
Granby, and southwest by Victory 
and Burke. This town is very 
little settled, tliere being" only 34 
inhabitants in it, in 1020. Passump- 
sic river passes through the wester- 
ly corner of this town, and a branch 
of Moose river rises in the eastern 

Ed BIT, a township intlie western 
part of Orleans county, is in lat. 
44^ 4!^ nud long;. 4° 25, and is 
bounded northerly by Kellyvale, 
easterly by Craftsbui-y, southerly 
by Uydepark and westerly by Bel- 
jviderc. It is 30 miles north from 
.iMontpelier, and 37 northeast from 
I Burlington ; was granted Novem- 
,ber 7, 1730, and cliartercd to ** Col, 
Scth Warner and his associates, our 
jwoilhy friends, the officers and sol- 
diers of his regiment in the line of 
;the continental army," August 28, 
jl781, containing 36 square miles. 
i'i*he first settlers of this township 
|were Thomas II. Parker and Moses 
■Wentworth from llubbardton^ 
..Vaas., and others from the south 
land central part of N. [I. The 
■first proprietors' meeting was held 
|at Wolcott, August 1, 1799. Tha 
I town was organized Jtfarch 31, 
11802, and Moses Wentworth was 
'first town clerk. It . was first re- 
, presented, in 1803, by Thomas H. 
'Farker. There are- two religious 
'societies in this town, Congregatio»- 
^alists and Jtfcthodists. The Rev. 
i Joseph Farrer was settled over the 
i Congregational church and society, 
{in December, 1811, and dismissed 
jin 18 15. The streams, in tliis town- 

ship, are small but numerous. Wild 
'Lratidi and Green river rise in the 
Icastem part. The former runs 
through tlie corner of Craftsbury, 
;and the latter through the corner of 
I Uydepark, and both fall into the 
river Lamoille in Wolcott. They 
are both considerable mill streams. 
I The branchy which is the outlet 
jof North pond, runs across the 
•northwest comer of Hydepark, 
land falls into the Lamoille in John- 
jsou. North pond is two miles long 
jand of very unequal width. A 
:tongue of land extends into it from 
'the south three quarters of a mile^ 





which is, in some placet, no more 
than two rods wide, and on which 
g^ow larg^c quantities of blue and 
black whoi'tlcberrics. These ber- 
ries are found no where else in this 
part of the country. The town- 
ship is considerably mountainous. 
Mount Norris and Hadley mountain 
lie on the north lino of the town- 
ship, and partly in Kelly vale. I^tl-! 
viderc mountain lies partly in tbej 
northwest corner of tho townsiiip,i 
and its summit is probably the hi^h-l 
est land in the county excepting*! 
perhaps Jay Peak. In the weateroj 
part of Eden is some g^ood tillag^e 
laud. The eastern part, being the 
dividing^ vidge between the waters 
of lakeChamplain and ./ITemphre- 
ma§og, is moist and cold but good 
for gviizing. No town in the vicin- 
ity furnishes in propoftion *o its 
wealth and number of inhabitants, 
.<>o many and so good beef cattle as 
this, for market. Hocks, principal- 
iy, loica and chlorite slate. There 
are here five school districts, and 
three schoolhouses, and one saw and 
one grist mill on the outlet of North 
pond which affords several good 
mill seats. Population, 1820, 201. 

August^ 1824. I, A. p. 

Ellig'o Pond, lies partly in 
Greensborough and partly in Crafls- 
bury. It is about two miles long 
and half a mile wide, and has two 
outlets, one to the north and the 
other to the south. The northern 
outlet constitutes one of the head 
branches of Black river ; the south- 
em, aAer passing through Little 
Elligo Pond, communicates with the 
river Lamoille in Hardwick. The 
scenery about Elligo Pond is ro- 
mantic and beautiful. The eastern 
bank presents abrupt and, in some 
places, perpendicular rocks of con- 
siderable height, while the western 
rises gradually, and is covered with 
a luxuriant growth of forest trees. 

twhich eontrast finely with the 
naked cliffs of the opposite shore. 
Near the centre of the pond are 
two small islands. This pond is a 
favourite resort for the sportsman 
and the admirer of nature in her 
'own simplicity. Its waters abound 
with fine trout, and its banks with 
,a plenty of gam*, ft was formeriy 
la favourite hunting ground of the 
1st. Francois Indians, to whom the 
jnortbern part of Vermont once bc- 
ilonged. These Indiana called this 
'pond Elligo ScooUon^ and hence it 
is now sometimes, but improperly, 
cB.\\ed JElligo Scollandt j.a.t. 

Elmore, a township, six miles 
square, in the northwebtem part of 
Washington county, is in lat. 44^ 
29' and long. 4^ 2b\ and is bounded 
north by Wolcott, east by Wood- 
bury, south by Worcester and west 
by Morristown. It is 17 miles north 
from Montpelier, and 33 east {mm 
Burlington; was granted Nov. 7, 
1780, and chartered to Col. Samuel 
Elmore and his associates, August 
21, 1781. The settlement of this 
towrnship was commenced in July« 
1790, by Martin and Jesse Elmorei 
James and Seth Olmstead and Aaroa 
Keeler,from Sharon andNorwalk<» 
Con. The town was organiieti 
Ijuly 23, 1792. Joseph Leech w»^ 
jthe first town clerk, and Martin El"" 
I'more the first representative. Tt^^ 
iCongregationalists and Methodist^ 
!are Sie most numerous denomin^-' 
(tions of Chribtians. Fordway, or 
■■Elmore, mountain lies in the nortl^' 
west part of the township, and is * 
considerable elevation. The re" 
maining part of the surface is ac- 
cessible and not very uneven. It 
is mostly timbered with hard woodi 
and the soil is of a middling quality* 
A part of the waters of this town- 
ship pass off to the north into the 
river Lamoille, and a part to the 
south into Onion river. Mead's pood 





lies in the north vrestern part, and 
covers about 300 vlcx^s. There are 
three other small ponds within the 
township. Iron ore of an excellent 
quality is found here in abunvlance. 
It is said to yield from 60 to 70 per 
cent of pure iron. There are in 
town three school districts and 
school houses, one grist mill and one 
saw mill. Population, 1820, 157. 
Jvme^ 1824. j. b. 

* Unosburgh, a post township in 
the northeastern part of Franklin 
county, is in lat. 44^^ 52^ and long. 
4^ ir, and is bounded north by 
Berkshire, east by Montgomery and 
a part of Richford, soutlv by Bakers- 
field and west by Sheldon. It is 35 
nUcs northeast from Burlington and 
43 northwesterly from Montpclicr ; 
^«^ granted March 12, 17W), and 
chartered to Roger Enos, and asso- 
ciates on the 15lh of May following, 
^e settlement of this township was 
Commenced in the spring of 1797, 
^ Amos Fasset, Stephen House, 
Martin D. foUett and others, most- 
ly enugrants from other townshipc 
^ this state. The town was or- 
l^nized in March, 1798, and Isaac 
«. -Farrar was chosen first town 

iu^' ^' ^'^^ ^^^ represented in 
?^« ftU of the same year, by Will- 
JMn Barber. There are three re- 
^ous societies here, viz. ; Congre- 
^**ona[igtg^ Baptists, and Episcopa- 
..^^^ besides some Freewill Bap- 
'^J? aiid Methodists. The Congre- 
ption^ church was formed Octo- 
^^ ll, 1811, and originally consist- 
^f four male and six female 
j^'^ibers. In May, 1814, the Rev. 
*^es Parker, moved into the town 
J^. took charge of this church, 
•U^h continued under his pastoral 
^^till 1821. On the 3d of July, 
1^' The Rev. Thomas Skellon was 
"^alUddOver this church and socie- 
ty &nd still continues. From the 
^"*t of NoTcmber, 1818, to the 11th 


of July, 1819, there were 42 mem- 
bers added to the church, and from 
the 4th of March, 1821, to the 2d ol" 
September of the same year, 52 
members were added. The present 
number, belonging to the church, is 
139. The Congregational meeting- 
houtie was completed in 1821, and 
stands near the centre of the town-> 
ship. In October, 1823, FMer Lu^ 
ther Cole was ordained over the 
Baptist church and society. This 
church consists of about 50 mem- 
bers. The town has, ever since 
its settlement, been remarkably 
healthy. The phjrsicians are, Eli-, 
phaz Katon and David Packard, jr. 
The surface ef this township is 
pleasantly diversified with hills anil 
vallies ; but the soil is better adapt- 
ed to the production of grass than 
grain. It is well watereil by Mis- 
jijisque river, which run* through 
Ithe north part, by Trout rivej\ 
which runs across the northeast 
corner, and by two considerable 
streams, whi<^h run through the 
south part. These streams afford 
numerous and excellent mill privi- 
leges. On the falls in Missisque 
river, in the northwest part of the 
towusliip, are now in operation one 
woollen factory, 1 clothier *s works^ 
one carding machine, one grist and 
saw mill. On Tyler^s branch in 
the southerly part of the township 
is a valuable grist mill with three 
run of stones ; also, a saw mill and 
carding machine. Besides the a- 
bove, there are in town, one grist 
land two saw mills. The town ia 
divided into 12 school districts, in 
nine of which are good schoolhouses. 
There are here, tliree stores^ t^a 
taverns, and one distillery. Popu- 
lation, 1820,932. W. p, 
June 1824. 
Essex, a post township in the 
central parts of Chittenden county^ 
is i& lat. U^ 31' and long. 3<3 54', 





and is bounded north by Westford, 
east by Jericho, south by Williston 
and BurliDg^n, from which it is 
separated by Onion river, and west 
by Colchester. It is eight miles 
northeast from Burlington, and 32 
west from Montpelier, and was, 
chartered June 7, 1763. The first 
permanent settlement was made in 
this township, in 1783, by Messrs. 
Smijths, Winckel and Willard. The 
first settlers were principally from 
Salisbury, Con. In 1 789, there was 
a very great scarcity of provisions 
in this patt of the country, and the 
settlers suffered extremely on that 
account. This town was organized 
March 22, 1786, and Elkanah Bil- 
lings was the first town clerk. It 
was first represented by Bartimeus 
Willard. The Congregational 
church was organized in this town 
about the year 1790; The Rev. 
Asaph Morgan was ordained over 
it in August, 1804. This church, at 
present, consists of about 160 mem- 
bers, and their meetinghouse is sit- 
uated in a small village at the cen- 
tre of the township. The Baptist 
church was formed about the year 
1800, and now consists of about 60 
members. They have no settled 
minister, but are generally supplied 
with preaching. Their meeting- 
house is also at the centre, and was 
erected in 1822, Mr, Castle died 
in this town, in 1823, aged 98 years. 
Mr. Knickerbackor is now living 
here at the age of about 94 ypars. 
The epidemic of 1812 and 13 was 
very mortal, and in one of those 
years carried off about 40 persons. 
The physicians are Mason Mead, 
Harmon How, Ira Hatch and Leon- 
ard Tubbs. There are no moun- 
tains, and but few hills in this town- 
ship. The south and western parts 
are timbered principally with pine, 
the soil is dry and sandy, but pro- 
duces good r-^e and coru. The re- 

maining part of the township 
timbered with hard wood, andia 
more natural to grass. Onion riy^ 
er washes this southern boundary ^ 
On this river are here two fall* . 
The lower, called Hubbell's fall» 
afford several valuable mill prir- 
ileges. Brown's river rises in Uik.- 
derhill and Jericho, enters this towim.- 
ship from the latter, and, after nm- 
ning across the northeast comer aik^ 
through Westford, falls into tbke 
river Lamoille in Fairfax. Indian 
river, called here Steven's brook^' 
and Alder brook have on each, two 
saw mills, and crooked brook, bai 
one. On Onion river are beaatifui 
tracts of interval. The town i 
divided into ten school districts, k 
which are nine good schoolhouses. 
There are here one g^ist mill, seycn 
saw mills, one fulling mill, one card- 
ing machine, two stores, five tavenis, 
one distillery, and two tanneries. 
TTiere are two small villages. Thatf 
at the centre, contains two meetings 
houses, a store and tavern. Popu- 
lation, 1820, 1089, 
August, 1824. 
Essex County, lies in the north- 
east corner of the state, and was in- 
corporated by act of the Legislature, 
November 5, 1792. It is bounded 
north by Lower Canada, east and 
south by Connecticut river» which 
separates it from Coos county, n.H. 
southwest by Caledonia county, and 
west by Orleans county. It is about 
45 miles loog from north to south, 
and 23 broad from east to west, ly« 
ing between 44° 20' and 45® north 
lat. and between 4° 47' and 5° 34' 
east long. This county is the leas^ 
populous in the state. There are. 
several towns which are entirely 
destitute of inhabitants. The set- 
tlements are mostly confined to the 
towns lying along Connecticut riv^ 
er. The county is in general very 
uneven and the soil rocky auclua^ 





luctive* It comprehends that 
L of the country called by the 
-sns, the upper Coos,* which lies 
the west side of Connecticut 
ir. Nulhegan river is the prin- 
tl stream, which is wholly with- 
the county. This and several 
Lller tributaries, of the Connect- 
t, water all the eastern parts, 
(sumpsic and Moose river, rise in 
southwestern part, and Clyde 
er and several streams, which 
i off to the north into Canada, 
ter the northwestern parts. Its 
re town is Guildhall. The Su- 
pine Court commences its session 
re, on the Tuesday next follow- 
J the fourth Tuesday of Septem- 
r, and the County Court, on the 
ird Monday of June, and fourth 
onday of December. The G rand 
St of the county, for 1823, was 
U,022. Pop. 1820, 3334. 
Fairfax, a post township in the 
uth part of Franklin county, is in 
t. 44^ 42' and long. 3° 56', and is 
funded north by Fairfield, east by 
letcher, south by Westford, and 
est by Georgia. It is situated 1 8 
iles northeast from Burlington, 
Id 37 northwest from Montpelier, 
id was chartered August 18, 1763. 
foadstreet Spafford and his two 
>ii8, Nathan and Asa, came into this 
jWDship from Fiermont, N. H., in 
^83, aqd began improvements, 
'jbey soon after removed their fam- 
ies here. A Mr. Eastman started 
om N. H., with them, with his 
^ily, but died on the road, and 
lu buried in a trough on the flats 
^ Johnson. Hi^ family came to 

* Coos is an Indian word xchieh 
pafies crooked and was pronounced 

if it contained but one syllable. 

was Of plied to Connecticut river ^ 
th above and below the 15 mile/alls^ 

aecownt of the numerous crooks 

i wMing' in that ttr^m* 

Fairfax, and his widow is still liv* 
ing here.' TTie town was organized 
March 22, 1787, and Thomas Rus- 
sell was first town clerk. The first 
saw and grist mill were erected by 
John Fasset. The religious denom- 
inations are Baptists, Congregation- 
alists and Episcopalians. The first 
settled minister was Elder Amos 
Tuttle. He was settled over the 
Baptist church in 1806, and dis- 
missed about the year 1811. The 
Baptists have now no settled min- 
ister. Elder Tuttle and Elder 
Butler reside in town. The Rev. 
Eben H. Dorman was settled over 
the Congregational church and so- 
ciety in 1814, and dismissed in 1823. 
A meetinghouse is now building by 
the Baptists and Congregationalists 
in conjunction. The epidemic of 
1813 prevailed here and was very 
mortal. Physicians Shelomith 
Hall and Theodore England. The 
surface of this township is generally 
level, and the soil light and easily 
cultivated, producing good com and 
rye. Its principal streams are the 
river Lamoille, which runs through 
the south part, and Brown river 
and Parmellee's and Stone's brook, 
its- tributaries, all of which afibrd 
good mill privileges in this town-, 
ship. The great falls, on the La^ 
moille, are situated near the east 
line of the town, and are a consid^* 
erable curiosity. The town is di-. 
vided into eleven school districts, 
each of which has a schoolhouse^ 
There are here two small villages, 
townhouse, five saw and two 
grist mills, two clothier's works, 
two carding machines, three stores, 
three taverns, two tanneries and 
two potteries. Population, 1820, 

May, 1824. 
FAiRf ii:LP, a post township near^t 
ly in the centre of Franklin county^ 

and iadudioi; SmiUifiQldt Yihiok 



■was aaoexeii IQ it by net of Legis- 
laturs in 1793, oonUio! about 60 
-tquftN mild. It is litualed about 
a7 mile! norlheiat from Burliugtot 
in lat. M" 49' uid long. 4= 1', ant 
13 liounded north by Sheliion, easi 
by JjakersAeld. aonth by Pletcbei 
and Fuirfuit, bdJ west 1)7 9t. Albam 
■nil Swanton. It "wu ciiarterei; 
August IB, 1763, »dJ slanted t" 
Samuel Himgerford, itnd bis 
oialea. Thefiritsettlarofthis 
Taa Mr. Jo»ph Wheeler. 
jsoved into tbirn with hJ! fiaily iu 
Murch, 17SB. la ifOe, Hubbar.1 
Barlow and Audrev BraiUey, with 
ieveral other!, moved into the town. 
Smithfield Beadcn, wat the ttr^l 
child born here, in the pari called 
gmilhheld. The propvietors maJe 
Lim D present of 100 ocrei of land. 
The lirat Iowd meeting wis held 
■ad the Iowa ot^^ized in March, ' 
1790. EdmUDil Town waf the first 
town clerk. M r. Ebeneier LobdoU 
IB B7 years old, and is the oWcsl 
person in town. He u one of the 
first setUert and a itill able lo la- 
bour on bis farm. I'here are i 
CongregBtit>nal,8 Baptist, an Epii- 
copal and a Methodist church if 
this town. The Jiev. Benjamir, 
Wooilrr, wai seltled over the Coo- 
ETegatioDal church in 1B05. H« 
was the lir!t and atiU continues thi 
only settled minister in town. AT 
ierhaae HiU and Jama Covet, be- 
longing' to the Methodist connexior 
reside in this town. The Baptisl 
and EpiBcapsl churohea are desti- 
tule. An Academy was incor- 
porated here in 1808, and a. con- 
venient bnilding has been erecLeiJ 
for ilsacrnmmoJatiun. Iilaekcrtrk\ 
is jt considerable stream, which ia- 
lUea from Metcnif poud iu f letcher, 
vid rum through this township, af- 
Jiffdiogan exculleot^and A>rinill9. 
PuT^akl river is a tmall atream, 
vhich alwi t»ke* iU ris* ia Flctch- 

and passes through the towa 
■ its ceutre, afforiiing sei 
1 mill privileges. These ilri 
unite and fell iulo Mis-Msque u,„ 
■n Sheldon. Smitlifield pood, lyin 
Q the westerly part tst the town, n 
iboul three miles long and one ind 
it half brond. At the outlet ii M 
'xcelleut stnud for mills, and anoth- 
er on the same, stream abont tin)' 
niles below. The township wii 
iriginally covered principally wfth 
hard-wood. The snrfaee is uneven, 
. Jitlle of it JO brokan at Jo 
be unfit for cultivsHon. Th* soil, 
generally good. The towi 
ided into 15 school districts, wfU 
comfortable fchoolbuiise in aidi. 
The public building! are no Acadi- 
townhouse and Episcopsl 
'ch. The practicing physidiO; 
.he Hon. Joseph D. Fnmsworti^. 
Chester, Abel and T" 
mberlin. There are in 
e stores, two diftiUeriea, (att 
: and nine saw and two falliii( 
!, one carding machine, one {or- 
I and two lanneries. Papula- 
tion ISSO, 1573. The present pop- 
ulation, 1824, shout 1700. 

Jan. 1S24. j.ii._. 

FjiA-HAVCir, a post township it 

a western part of R utlaud coonlj, ■ 

in lat. 43° 36' and long. 3° 44; 

.d is bounded north by Beotm 

St by Casttelon and a part ot ' 

inline J, south by PoiiUncyriroU 

which sepamtes it from Hamptm 

N. Y., and west by Wert Havts. 

It is 60 miles south from BurlingtHi 

BQd52.N. from Bennington, and** 

charlered, October ill, 1779, Kl 

Ebenezer Allen and his asio 

Jlie BcWemeiit wSf commenced tW 

, r b^ Jnhn and WilliHI 

M eacham , Ol i vev C le veland, Josejl 

BnUardand Jos-ph Haskins,ira 

fanuhei. to 1783, Col. Mit> 

thew LyoD, Sila^ Saflbrd and ol' 

moved iuto town, ta/X the foi 


■ e ss 




ced erecting; mills. The 
lers were from Connecticut 
sachusett!*. The town was 
d in 1783. Eleazer Dud- 
first town clerk, and Mat- 
on first representative, both 
bis year. Silas Safibrd was 
td the first justice of the 
hich office he held 40 years 
'ely. Col. Lyon, who has 
ured in the political world, 
itive of Ireland. He emi- 
:o thia country, when 16 
I, and was sold in Connec- 
his passage. The Congre- 
jt is the only denomination 
tians, which has formed a 
church and society in this 
There are, however, some 

Methodists, Episcopalians 
irersalists here. The Rev. 
'ushman was ordained over 
i^regational church and so- 
1808. He was the first and 
kly settled minister in town, 
as a revival of religion here 
mother in 1816, and another 

In 181 6, about 100 joined 
agregational church, and 
Gin 1821. The epidemic 
and 13 was very mortal 
id in 1822, tlie dysentery 
lemic, and, in many cases, 
The physicians are William 
and C'harles Bachus. The 
>f the township consists of 
nd vales, but tliere is no- 
re which deserves the name 
mtain. The soil is various 
g of gravel, sand and marl, 
le rivers, tlie soil is alluvial 
^ productive. The timber is 
mock, .beech, maple, wal- 
iternut, button wood, &c. 
icipal streams are Poultney 
ieton rivers. The former 
ong the mountains in the 
t, and divides this town- 
n New -York. The latter 
m principally from a larg;e 

spring in the west part of Rutland. 
About one mile above Fair- Haven 
village it receives the waters of 
lake Bombazine, and one mile west 
of the village it joins Poultney riv- 
er, and, after running three miles 
further, falls into East bay. Be- 
tween the junction of these streams 
and East bay are two considerable 
falls. (See Pouliney River.) la 
th6 village of Fair-Haven, on Cas- 
tleton river, are two falls, on which 
are a paper mill, a rolling and slit- 
ting mill, an extensive nail factory, 
a grist and two saw mills, a forge» 
clothier's works, a trip-hammer 
shop and a small furnace. Nails 
and paper are annually manufac* 
tured here to a large amount. la 
the lower part of the* village are 
about 12 or 15 dwelling houses, and 
about the same number in the up- 
per part. The latter are built a- 
round a handsome Green, contain- 
ing ten acres, and elevated about 
60 feet above the bed df the river. 
On the north end of the green 
stands the Congregational meeting 
house, a handsome building erected 
in 1811. The town is divided into 
four school districts, in three of 
which are good echoolhouses. 
There are, in the district which in- 
cludes the village, t80 scholars be- 
tween four and eighteen years of 
age. In addition to the above, there 
are, in this town, four saw and two 
clover mills, two taverjas, four 
stores, two distilleries and four tan- 
neries. Population, 1820, 714. 
AugusU 1B24. 
Fairlee, a post township in the 
east part of Orange county, is in lat. 
43° 56' and long. 4^ 46', and is bound- 
ed north by Bradford, east by Con- 
necticut river, which separates it 
from Orford, *r. h., south by Thet- 
ford and west by West-Fairlee. It 
is 35 miles north from Windsor and 
17 from Dartmouth College. It 





was chartered September 9, 1761, 
to Josiah Chauncey, Joseph Hub- 
bard and bthers, a nd iaclnding West- 
Fairlee, was laid out six and a half 
miles square. The settlement was 
comjnenced in 1768, by Sam. Miller, 
Samuel Bcntly, William and David 
Thompson, Noah Dewey and Joel 
White. About the year 1775, Sam- 
uel Smith was chosen town clerk, 
and held that office till his decease 
in March, 1820. Feb. 25, 1797, 
the western half of this township 
was set oi* and constituted a sepa- 
rate township by the name of West- 
Fairlee. The division line was run 
from north to south through the 
centre of the original township. 
T'he greater part of the inhabitants 
of this town are Congregational ists. 
In 1 806, they erected a meetinghouse, 
but have never had a settled minis- 
ter. Previous to the year 1815, the 
inhabitants of Fairlee and West- 
Fairlee constituted but one militia 
CDRxpany. In that year the militia 
of Fairlee were organized into a 
separate company, which has now 
liipon its roil about 80 men. Fair- 
lee is in general mountainous and 
broken, and much of it unfit for cul- 
tivation. T^he mountains in some 
places approach very near Connec- 
ticut river, andlbrm almost perpen- 

dicular precipices several hundredrSS square miles: It is b< 

feet in height, particularly a little 
north of Fairlee meetinghouse. 
The timber is mostly pine and hem- 
lock. Fairlee pond is about a mile 
west of Connecticut river, and is 
two miles long and three fourths of 
a mile wide. In 1809 Samuel Mo- 
rey, procured a number of pickerel 
from a pond in Rumney, jr. h., and 
put them into Fairlee pond. In 
October following the Legislature 
of Vermont, passed an act for the 
preservation of the fish in this pond 
for two years. Since that time 
they have increased very rapidly 

and are found to be of an es 
quality. A bridge counec 
town with Orford, w. h. 
are in this town, one grist, ( 
ling, and five saw mills a 
carding machine. FopulatK 
about 475. 

Mareh^ 1824. 

FATSTOJtr, a township, m 
square, in the southwest co 
Washington county, is in ] 
13' and long. 4° 5', and is b- 
north by Duxbury, east by 
field, south by a part of ^ 
and Lincoln, and west by H 
ton. It is situated 25 miles 
east from Burlington, and 16 
west from. Montpelier. 1 
granted February 25, and chi 
February 27, 17^ to El 
Walbridge and his associates, 
township began to be settled 
the year 179». In 1800, ther 
1 8 persons in town. The toi 
lying on the western range 
Green Mountains, is bigft 
broken, and much of it incap< 
being settled, or cultivatsd. 
streams are small and are ti 
ries of Mad river. Popo 
1820, 253. 

Ferdinand, an ximiA. 
township in Essex county, cl 
ed October 13, 1761, and conl 

northerly by Wenlock, east< 
.Waidstone, southerly by ( 
and East-Haven, and wesle 
Random. This township is 
ed by the principal branch ol 
stream. The surface of thi 
ship generally is either moua 
or swampy. 

Ferrisburgh, a townshi] 
northwest comer of Addison • 
is in lat. 44^ 12' and long. 3° • 
is bounded north by Chariot 
by Monkton and New-IIavei 
by Waltham, Vei^ennes an 
ton, and west by lake Cha 





lich separates it from the state of 
iV-York. It lies 19 miles south 
>m BnrUng^Q and 34 west from 
Mitpeiier. R was chartered J one 
1 1762, to seTeral persons by the 
ne of Ferris, and others. More 
A half of Verg^nnes was taken 
n this township* The first per- 
oent settlement in this township 
I made in 1784 and 1786 by Mr. 
utL, Abel Thompson, Gideon 
vley, Timothy Rogers, Joseph 
iUon, Jona. Sexton, and Zuriel 
I Absalom Tapper, emig;rants 
■DL Bennington, in this state and 
m Connecticut. Tlae town was 
riu&ized in 1786. J. Sexton was 
Meu first town clerk, and Abel 
lOQipton first representative. 
^ reli^ous denominations are 
{>tiBts, Methodists, Cong;reg;ation- 
flts and Friends, each of which is 
ined into a choroh. The latter 
v« a meetinghouse and the form- 
hold their meetings in the town- 
iQ»e. Elder Butler was settled 
^ the Baptist church in 1816, 
tA dismissed in 1818. In 1820, 
i«y settled Eider J. A, Dodge, 
^u church at present consists of 
'•Ut40 members. The township 
tt always been considered healthy, 
^ several have died here of ex- 
^viie old age. There are a consid- 
fibie number now living here be- 
*«eii 70 and 00 years old. Noah 
ffter, a soldier of the French and 
^lutionary wars is living here, 

r9S, Dan. Davis, 89, and his wife, 
SThey were among the first 
ttters. The epidemic of ] 8 12 and 
t, was very mortal here and car 
Ml off between 00 and 70 persons, 
ostly adults. Jonathan Cram, i& 
• o^y physician. This township 
watered principally by Otter, Lit- 
I Otter and Lewis creeks. Otter 
lek enters the township from Ver- 
niiee, and after running north- 

tlie southwest part falls into lake 
Champlain about thr^e miles south 
of the mouth of Little Otter creek. 
Little Otter and Lewis creeks, run 
through the township in a westerly 
direction, the former through the 
middle, and the latter through the 
north part. I'he mouths by which 
they are discharged into the. lake, 
are within 80 rods of each other. 
Otter creek is navigable eight miles 
to Vergennes, and Little Otter creek 
three miles, by the largest vessels 
on the lake, in Little Otter creek 
are (bur, and in Lewis creek three 
commodioos falls on which mills 
and other machinery are erected. 
Large quantities of pike, bass, &c. 
are annually taken in the spring of 
the year about the mouths of these 
streams. About three miles north 
of the southwest corner of the town- 
ship is one of the best harbours on 
the lake, called Bason harbour. 
Five miles northwest from Ver- 
nnes, and a short distance south 
of the mouth of Little Otter creek, 
is a ferry across the lake, which is 
here something more than twe 
miles wide. This place is known 
by the name of Orog futrbow^ tak- 
ing its name from the landing plaoe 
in Essex, on the New-York side. 
From Vergennes to Essex, by this 
ferry, the distance is but nine miles, 
while it is 16 miles by McNeirs fer- 
ry in Charlotte. The surface of 
the northeastern part of this town- 
ship is somewhat hilly. The re- 
maining parts, especially the west- 
ern, are remarkably level and 
smooth. The uplands are timber- 
ed mostly with maple, beech, bass- 
wood and butternut ; the level and 
low lands are timbered with pine 
interspersed with oak, walnut, &c. 
No township in the state has afibrd- 
ed more or better timber for the 
Quebec market than this. The soil 

0t0rly About •eight miles, aorossljis very vaneus, some parts of it he* 





ing clayey, while pthers consist of 
rich muck, which is easily tilled 
*nd very productive. In ^voura- 
ble seasons crops of most kinds are 
abundant. In 1823, one acre here 
produced 120 bushels of coi n, which 
cost ten days labour and two bush- 
els of plaster of Paris, (gypsum). 
The same kind of soil has produced 
50 bushels of wheat, 70 of oats, &;c. 
per acre. It is a good grazing town- 
ship, and large numbers of fat cattle 
«Lre yearly driven from it to market, 
it is divided into eleven school dis- 
tricts, each of which is furnished 
with a schoolhouse. f here are 
here two grist and Ave saw mills, 
ona woollen factory, one store, three 
taverns and two tanneries. There 
have been three forges here, but 
neither -of them is now in operation. 
Pop. 1820, 1581. 
January, 1824. 
Fletcher, a township in the 
central parts of Franklin county, is 
in lat. 44^ 42' and long. 4^ 3', and is 
bounded north by Bakersfield and 
Fairiield, east by Coit's Gore, south* 
•east by Cambridge, and southwest 
by Fairfax. It lies 22 miles north- 
cast from Burlington, and 35 nortli- 
west from Montpelicr. It was 
panted jN^ovember 7, 1780, and 
<-.hartered to Moses Robinson, John 
Fay and others, August 20,1781. 
The river Lamoille just touches 
upon the southern extremity of tliis 
township. Metcalf pond is about 
one mile long from north to south, 
and one third of a mile wide 
from east to west. It discharges its 
waters at the south end forming one 
of the head branches of Black 
creek. This stream runs a south- 
easterly course about two miles into 
Cambridge, and, after crossing the 
comer of that township, returns 
again into Fletcher, and passes off 
to the north. Fairfield river also 
riies in Fletcher, and is joined in 

Fairfield by Black creek. Stoned 
brook waters the western part. The 
surface of this township is consider- 
ably broken, and it is thinly inhab- 
ited. It is divided into seven school 
districts, -and there are here twt 
saw mills and one tannery. Popa- 
lation, 1820, 497. 

Franklin, a post township ii 
tlie north parth of Franklin count;, 
is in lat. 44"^ 58' and long. 4° S*, and 
is bounded north by Don^ Pateat 
in Canada, east by Berkshire, sooth 
by Sheldon, and west by Highgate. 
It lies 36 miles northeast from Bur- 
lington, and 51 northwest kta. 
iVdontpelier, It was granted Octo- 
ber 24, 1787, and chartered to Jon- 
athan Hunt and his asociates, 
March 19, 1789, by the name of 
H untsburg. SThe settlement of thii 
township was commenced, in 1789, 
by Samuel Hubbard, Samuel Peck- 
ham, David Sanders and- John 
Bridgeman, mostly emigrants from 
Massachusetts. The town was or- 
ganized in 1793. £benezer Sanden 
was first town clerk, and Samuel 
Feckham first representative. Tbe 
religious denominations are Con- 
gregationalists, Methodists, Episco- 
palians and Baptists. The firif 
physician was Ebenezer Marvin, 
and Ebenezer Marvin, jr. was tbo 
first attorney. The river Rocher 
rises in this township and fidls into 
Missisque bay in Highgate. Itii 
also watered by several smsll 
branches of .Afissisque and Pike 
rivers. The township is injured 
very much by a large pond, #bieh 
lies near the centre. There areii 
the town five schoolhouses, om 
grist and one saw mill. Popul»< 
tion, 1820, 631. g.H. 

May, 1824. 

Franklin Countt, is situited 
in the northwestern part of tfie 
state, and is bounded north bj 
Lower Canada, east by Orleam 





'county, south by Chittenden county, 
and west by G/and Isle county, 
from which it n separated by a part 
of lake Cbamplain. It is situated 
between 44^ 31' and 46° north lat. 
■and between 3° 43" and 4° 23^ east 
\oxkg. extending^ about 34 miles from 
east to west and about 33 from 
Aiiorth to south, and containing; 730 
■qoare miles. It was incorporated 
Norember 5, 179^. St. Albans isj 
.the sbire town, and is a place of| 
■considerable business. The Su- 
preme Court sits here on the last 
-Tuesday save one in December, 
•mnd the County Court on the se- 
oood Monday of .Varch, and last 
JIfbnday save one in September. 
The Missisque river waters the 
'Borth part of this county, and the 
ItfOOkoille the south part. The east- 
em part extends onto the western 
orange of the Green Mountains, and 
is high and broken ; the western 
part is generally level and is a very 
dme fiirming country. The settle- 
ment of the county was commenced 
immediately ajter the close of the 
> revoluticmary war, and it is now 
•rapidly increasing in population and 
wealth. Very &e marble is found 
' in great abundance in Swanton, 
•i and laige quantities of iron ore in 
%' fiigiigate. Tliere is one printing 
-' establishment in the cojimty at St. 
Albans, f^ich issues a weekly 
paper, commenced in 1823. The 
Crrand List of the county for 1823, 
was 1160,063. Population, 1820, 


GsoRGiA, a post township in the 
southwestern part of Franklin 
county, is in lat. 44° 44' and long. 
3<> 60^, and is bounded north by St. 
Albans, east by Fairfax, south by 
Milton, and west by lake Cham- 
plain. It lies 18 miles north from! 
Burlington, and 41 northwest from 
Montp^ier. It was chaptered Au- 
ffOft 17) 1763« and contains about 


36 square miles. The settlement of 
this township was commenced, in 
1784 and 1785, by Andrew Guilder, 
from Agremont, Mass., and William 
Farrand, from Bennington, Vt., with 
their families. During the two 
following years a great number of 
families, mostly from Bennington 
and the western part of Massachu* 
setts, moved into town, and a con- 
siderable number of young men, 
without families. The first settlers 
of Georgia had their share of those 
privations and hardships, which are 
incident to the settlers of new town- 
ships. They, at first, had to go to 
Burlington and Plattsburgh for their 
grinding, -but the population in- 
creased so rapidly that mills were 
soon erected. The town was or- 
ganized March 12, 1788. Reuben 
Evarts was first town clerk, and 
James Evarts first representative. 
The Congregationalistsand Baptists 
are the most numerous denomina- 
tions of Christians. There are also 
a small Methodist and Christiaa 
society. The Rev. Publius Virgil 
Bogue was settled over the Con- 
gregational church and society^ 
October 8, 1802, and dismissed Oc- 
tober 8, 1810. The Rev. Eben H. 
Dorman was ordained over this 
church, November 15, 1815. The 
church, at present, consists of about 
100 members. Elder Roe well 
Mearse was settled over the Baptist 
church, July 1, 1807. Elder A. 
Sabin, a Baptist, resides in town, 
but preaches in Cambridge and 
Westford. The Baptist church con- 
sists of 72 members who reside in 
town. There was a powerful 
awakening here in 1815 and 16, and 
a large number added to the sever- 
al churches . The epidemic of 1 8 1 2 
was very mortal here. About 30 
persons died in the space of three 
months. The physicians are Abel 
and Horace P. Blair and Hereules 





Washburn, rhc river Lamoille, i water, 
whick runs through the southeast 
«orner of the to'WDship, is the prin- 
cipal stream. In the northeast part 
is a pond covering 30 or 40 acres. 
It is surrotinded by high lands, ex- 
cept a narrow outlet to the north, 
and is bordered by a grove of al- 
ders. The mill privileges are nu- 
merous, there being no less than 12. 
The soil is sandy in the south part, 
and the timber principally pine. In 
the north part it is a gravelly loam, 
and the timber mostly hard wood. 
The rocks, in the western part, are 
limestone, in the eastern part, slate. 
The soil is, in general, rich and pro- 
ductive. There are some tracts 
timbered with hemlock, and some 
oedar swamps near the lake. Over 
what 13 called Stone Bridge brook, 
in the Southwestern part of the 
township, is a natural bridge 12 or 
14 feet wide, and the top of it seven 
or eight feet above the surface of 
the water. The vndth of the arch 
is 40 or 50 feet and its height but a 
few inches above the surface of the 

7'he last mentioned ma- 
chine carries itHa. augers, two of 
which are hollow, and are employ- 
ed in boring the tenons on the 
spokes. Population, 1820, 1703. 
June, 1824. jD. L. 

Glasten^itrt, a township in 
Bennington county, is in lat. 42^ 
58' and long. 3° 57', and is bounded 
north by Sunderland, east by Som- 
erset, south by Woodford, and 
west by Shfd'tsbury. It lies nine 
miles northeast from Beimington, 
and 25 northwest from Bratttebo- 
rough, and was chartered August 
20^ 1 761, containing about 40 square 
miles. A great part of this town- 
ship is high broken and incapable 
of ever being settled. Settlements 
were early commenced here, butthe 
population has never yet amoant- 
ed to 100 persons. Tlie waters 
in the eastern part flow into Deer- 
field river. From the other parts, 
jthey pass off to the south and west 
linto the Walocmsac. The streams 
are all small. Pop ulation, 1 820, 48. 

Glover, a township, six Bifles 

stream. Just below the bndge on isquare, in the southern part of Or- 

this brook stand a saw and fulling 
jxfill and a carding machine. A 
large and elegant meetinghouse was 
completed in this town, in 1802, and 
around it is a small village^containing 
a number of dwellinghouses, stores, 
shops, &c. There are thirteen 
school districts, twelve school- 
houses, three grist mills, two of 
which are of stone, eight saw, one 
oil and six fulling mills, three card- 
ing machines, four stores, thi*ee tav- 
erns, two distilleries, two tanneries, 

leans county, is in lat. 44^ 40^ and 
long. 4^ 4I\ and is bounded 
north by Barton, east by Sfaefi&eld, 
south by Greensborough, and west 
by Albany. It lies 33 mUes north- 
east from Jlfontpelier, was granted 
June ^7, 1781, and chartered to 
Gen. John Glover and his associates, 
November 20, 1783. The settle- 
ment of this township was com- 
menced about the year 1797. by 
Ralph Parker, James Vance, Sam- 
uel Cook and Samuel Conant. The 

and a waggon manufactory. The {, settlement advanced very slowly 
latter contains a great variety of [for some years. In 1 800, there were 

machinery among which are a saw 
mill for sawing felloes and other 
small stuff, a lathe for turning naves, 
and a machine for boring naves, 
felloes and the round tenons on the 
endJ! ef the spokes, ajl dnvea by 

38 persons in town. Tlie people 
are of all the religious sects com- 
mon to the state,and are consequently 
without a meetinghouse or settled 
minister. There is preaching of 
some kisiil here aimast eyer;^ Sab: 





bath. The surface of the town- 
fhip is very uneven, consisting of 
hills and vallies. In the south part 
is a small mountain called Black hill. 
The town is watered principally by 
the head branches of Barton river. 
Branches of the Passumpsic, La- 
moille, and Blacjc river, also rise 
here. There are four natural ponds 
'which lie within this township, viz ; 
Glover pond in the northern part, 
Daniel's pond in the western part, 
Chamber^s near the centre, and 
JMfad pond in. the southeastern part, 
all of which discharge their waters. 
into Black river. Long pond, now 
better known by the name of Run- 
ouNiypond, was situated partly in 
this township and partly in Greens- 
borough. This pond was one and a 
half mile long, and about half a mile 
wide and discharged its waters to 
the south, forming one of the head 
branches of the river Lamoille. 
On the 6th of June, 1810, about 60 
persons went to this pond for the 
purpose of opening an outlet to the 
north into Barton river that the 
mills, on that stream, might receive 
from it an occasional supply of 
water. A small channel was ex- 
cavated, and the water commenced' 
ranning in a northsrly direction. It- 
happened that the northern barnp.r; 
of the pond consisted entirely of 
quicksand, exeept an encrusting or 
clay next the water. The saml; 
was immediately removed by the 
current and a large, channel formed. 
The bason formed by the encrusting 
of clay was incapable of sustaining' 
the incumbent mass of waters and 
it brake. The whole pond imme-! 
diately took a northerly course, and,| 
in fifteen minutes from this time, its! 
bed was left entirely bare. It was, 
discharged ^o suddenly that the 
country below was instantly inun- 
dated. The deluge advanced like 

ewall of waters, 60 or 70 feet in 

height, and 20 rods in width, level- 
ing the forests and the hills, and 
Ailing up the vallies, and sweeping 
off mills, houses^ bams, fences, cattle, 
horses and sheep as it passed, for 
the distance of more than ten miles, 
and barely giving the inhabitants 
suifieient notice of its approach to 
escape with their lives into the 
mountains. A rock, supposed to 
weigh more than 100 tons, was re- 
moved half a mile from its bed* 
The waters (noved so rapidly as 
to reach Memphremagog lake, dis- 
tant 27 miles, ia about six hoars 
from the time they left the pond* 
Nothing now remains of the pond 
but its bed, a part of which is cul- 
tivated) and a part overgrown with 
bushes and wild gprass, with a small 
brook running through it, which ia 
now the head branch ef Barton 
river. The channel, through which 
the waters escaped, is 127 feet ia 
depth and several rods in width. 
A pond, some distance below, was, 
at first, entirely filled with sand, 
which has since settled down, and it 
is now about one half its former di- 
mensions. Marks of the ravages 
are still to be seen through nearly 
the whole course of Barton river. 
The soil, in the middle and western 
part of Glover, is, in general, wet 
and cold, but very good for gtazing. 
On the river It is dry and warm, 
and better adapted to the produc- 
tion of grain and Indian corn. 
There are in the township about 
1000 acres of land belonging to If^ 
old Vermont State Bank. Some 
iron ore has been dis6overed, and 
sulphur springs are common ; also 
several beds of marl, which makes 
excellent lime. The peojple here 
manufacture nearly all their cloth- 
ing, and considerable qramtities of 
pot and pearl ashes, beef, pork, 
butter and cheese are produced for 
the market. There are, in town. 



T. ■ t . 



eight schoolhouses, three grist, 
three saw and oiib fulling mill, one 
tannery and two small distilleries. 
Population, 1820, 549. J. o. 

October^ 1823. 
Goshen, a township in the south- 
eastern part of Addison county, is 
in lat. 43° 56' and long. 4°, and is 
bounded north by Ripton and Uan- 

first commenced. Mary^ thedau^- 
ter of Mr. Sabin, was the first child 
born. here. 7'here are oow 15 fian- 
jilies living on this gore all except 
one at the west end. There were 
formerly several families on the 
,east end, but all, excepting out, 
have now lefl. A considerable ele^ 
vation separates the two setfie^ 

cock, southeast by Pittsfield andhments. In the northeast corner tf 
Chittenden, southwest by Brandon} the g^ore, is a pond covering about 
and Leicester^ and northwest by Sa-i'sO acres. It is watered by a brancb 

of the Lamoille river. One sav 
mill is the only water machinery. 
The other gore pf this name is sit- 
uated in the southwest comer of 
Caledonia county, and contains 
|2«^2B acres. It is bounded north 
a new charter November 1, 1798. jj by Marshfield and a part of Harris' 
November 9, 1814, the northern! 'g:ore, east by Harris' gore, south by 
half of Philadelphia was annexed |i Orange, and west by Plainfield. 

lisbury. It lies 31 miles soilthwest. 
from Motitpelier, and 43 northwest 
Irom Windsor ; was granted Feb- 
ruary 23,1782, chaptered to John 
Rowell, William Douglass and oth- 
ers, February 2, 1792, and received 

to this township. No permanent 
settlement was commenced here un- 
til .about the year 1800. Consider- 
able part of it is mountainous, but 
there is some very good land 
and the settlement has advanced 
considerably within a few years. 
Leicester river rises in Hancock, 
and runs through the township in 
a westerly direction. Philadelphia 
river- originates in the south part. 
Iron ore and the oxide of manganese 
are found here. It is divided into 
six school districts, and contains two 
sawmills. Population 1820,290. 

GosHEX GoR]|;. — There are two 
gores of this name, and both in Ca- 
ledonia county- The largest con- 
tains 733^ acres, and is bounded 
north by Wheelock, east by Dan- 
ville, south by Walden, and west 
by Greensbotough. A settlement 
was commenced on the west end of 
this gore, 1801, by Messrs. Clark 
and Cushman, who soon abandon- 
ed it. The next year, Elihu Sabin, 
Esq. moved here, and was soon fol- 
lowed by other families. Mr, S. 
is still living on the place where he 

Gunner'*s branch passes through 
the south part of this gor^. 'tinb 
gore is inhabited by six or seven 

September, 1823. 
Grafton, a post township in the 
north part of Windham county, is 
in lat. 43° 11' and long. 4° 21', and 
is bounded north by Cheater, east 
by.Rookingham, south by Atheiu 
and Acton, and west by Windham. 
It lies 36 miles northeast from Ben- 
nington, and 22 southwest from 
Windsor. It was chartered, April 
6, 1754, and rechartered, Septem- 
ber 1, 1763, by the name of Tom- 
linson, and contains about 40 square 
miles. A Mr. Hinkley and two 
other fiimilies came into this town- 
ship about the year 1768, and hepnk 
a settlement on what is called Hink- 
ley brook. They however soon a« 
bandoned it, and no permament set- 
tlement was made till 1780. In the 
spring of this year Amos Fisher, 
Samuel Spring, Benjamin Lather- 
bee and Edward Putnam moved in- 
to the township from Winchester, 
Mas. Aaron Putnam was appoint*^ 





ed town clerk at the time the town 
▼as org^ized and Thomas Kenaey 
was the first representative. The 
religious denominations are Cong^re- 
gationalists and Baptists. The 
former church consists of 84 mem- 
bers, and the latter of 61. The 
Rev. William Hall was the first 
settled minister. He was settled 
over the Congregational church, 
November 6, 1788, and dismissed in 
1810. The Rev. WiUiam Goodell 
Was ordained over the'same church 
September 29, 1814, and dismissed 
April 1 1, 1822. The church is now 
dilute. Elder Shumway was 
ordained April 26, 1810, and preach- 

three feet long, and three or four 
inches square. They are sold at 
the manufactory completely pre- 
pared to be put down^ at the astonish- 
ingly low price of ^1,00 per rod* 
They are found to be much more 
durable and less liable to get out of 
repair than wood and impart no 
unpleasant taste to the water. In 
connexion with the steatite are 
found fine green laminated talc» 
chlorite^ potstone and crystals of 
jactynolite and bitter spar. The 
ipotstono is of a greenish gray col- 
;our, and is less frangible than the 
steatite. The crystals of actynolite 
are large and of a light green col- 

•d to the Baptist church about two our. • Those of bitter spar are of 
years. July 7, 1819, Elder John| different sizes, presenting rhomboid- 
R. Dodge was ordained over the! al surfaces and are embedded in the 
baptist church, and was dismissed steatite. They are usually perfect, 
Sept 2fti 1822.. The Congregation- but not transparent. Their colour 
tlists have a meetinghouse, erected is a light gray^ and their lustre more 
in 1792, and the Baptists, one, built pearly than that of calcareous spar» 
in 1814. The physicians are, Rul- Their structure is distinctly lamin- 

ferfield and Ira Sherwin* The 
township is watered principally by 
Sexton's river, which is formed 
here by the union of s^everal branch- 
«B. A branch of William's river 
mna through the north part nearly 
purallel to the north lino. These 
streanuF afford several very good 
mill privileges. The township is 
considerably uneven, and it abounds 
in a great variety of minerals. 
^ About two miles south from the. 
Congregational meetinghouse is an 
iaunense quantity of excellent 
iteatite, or soap stone, which is 
inarrled to great extent. Large! 
Uoela of it are removed from the! 
ledge by saws, wedges and bars, and' 
tnuMported about a mile to a mill,! 
whKmt machinery is moved by wa-| 
ber» where it is sawn. It is theuj 
Bunifiustaced into aqueducts^ wa-l 
Mr pomps, jambs, ovens, mantlel 
jjeew, itoves^&c. The blocks sawn 
ifld bored for aqueducts, are two or, 


ated, and they dissolve without effer- 
vescence in diluted nitric acid. 
Cyanite, or sappare, is found about 
one mile southwest from the meet- 
inghouse on the farm of a Mr. 
Spaulding. It is of a light blue 
colour, and is in compressed hexa- 
gonal prisms in mica slate and in 
massive garnet. There is another 
locality of it about one rilile east 
from the ceatre of the township 
where it is embedded in quartz* 
Garnets abound both in talcose and 
mica slate and hornblende- is very 
common. Also the sulphuret of 
iron in small brown cubes, plumose 
mica on mica slate, limpid quartz in 
transparent crystals, greasy and 
milky quartz, schorl and precious 
serpentine* The schorl is three 
miles west from the meetinghouse 
in quartz and mica slate. It is ia 
triangular prisms, bevelled at their 
lateral edges, and striated longitu-^ 
dinally, having triedral terneiQae-^ 





lions. The serpentine is all in one| 
mass, of 30 or 40 tons weight, lying| 
On the western declivity of a small 
hill, and in full view from the meet- 
ing;hoase. Its interior is Of a uni- 
ifbrm dark green eolour. It is hard 
to break, and its fracture splintery/ 
There are two small villages ; one 
at the centre and the other at the 
junction of the two branches which 
form Sexton's river. There are 11 
school districts, ten schoolhouses, 
three grist^ five saw and two fulling 
mills, two carding machines, three 
stores and two tanneries. Popula- 
tion, 1820, 18^2. 

Granby, a township in Essex 
county, situated in lat. 44° 35' 
and lo«g. 5° 5', contains 36 square 
miles. It lies 47 miles north 
east from Montpelier, and is bound- 
ed northeast by Ferdinand and 
Maidstone, southeast by Guildhall, 
southwest by Victory and north- 
west by East-Haven. Chartered 
October 10, 1761. A considerable 
aettlement had been formed in this 
town previously to the year 1800, 
and the numbers continued to in- 
crease with considerable rapidity 
till after the year 1810. But when 
the cold seasons commenced ihe 
people began to abandon their set 
tlements, and continued to leave 
the town, till 1816, when there were 
only three families left, and the 
town lost its organization. After 
this period th^ numbers b^an to 
increase, and the town was reor- 
ganized in December, 1821. A 
branch of Paul's stream, one of the 
head brancl^es of Moose river, and 
some other small streams rise in this 
town. The country around Gran- 
by is ft wilderness, or very thinly 
inhabited, and consequently there 
is no travelled road leading through 
the town. Population, 1820, 49. 

Granp ISI4JE:, a post township in 
%aad Isle cvuuty, ia in lat. 44^ 43' 

and long. 3° 38', and is bounded o& 
all sides by lake Champlain, exo^ 
the south, where it is bounded if 
South Hero. It lies 50 miles north- 
west from .Afontpeliep, and 18 froa 
Burlington ; and was granted ia 
connexion with South Hero, Octo- 
ber 27, 1779. The settlement of 
the township was cemmenced aboit 
the year 1783^ by Alexander GoP' 
don, William Hazen and LambertoB 
Allen, emigrcmts from New-Hamp- 
shire, and the southern parts of this 
state. '^ For some years afler tite 
settlement commenced, many cir* 
cumstances tended to prevent ih 
progress. Sickness, with its con- 
comitant missries, presented tha 
most formidable obstacle. Fever 
and ague and billions ievera, en- 
gendered by the noxious Tapovrs 
from the surroimding waters and 
the low and mashy grounds, were 
very prevalent, and were &tal ia 
their ravages. No age, 6r sex, wis 
exempt from their attack. In addi- 
tion to this, the settlers ofti^n suMer* 
ed from extreme scarcity of provi- 
sions. Hunting and fishing werOi 
for some time, their only means of 
gaining a subsistence. These o\h 
stacles eooled their ardour aid 
damped their ambition. , Previous 
to the year 1809, this township eon- 
stituted a part of South Hero. This 
year, it was erected into a separate 
township by the name •f Middle 
Hero, and was organized. The flat 
town clerk was James Brown, and 
the first representative Asa Lysii> 
i^fovember 5, 1810, the name was 
altered to Grand Isle. The reli- 
gious denominations are Congrcga* 
cionalists, Methodists and Quatos 
or Friends. The Rev, Asa LyoUft 
Congregationalist, resides intowiii 
and preaches a part of the time, 
but has no organized church. The 
Methodist society is regularly or- 
ganited and is supplied by i^io^rait 





preaclien. The public bailding^s 
ate a meetinffhouae and a town 
house. MelviQ Barnes, jr., ia the 
practicing; physician. There are 
aereral small streams in this town- 
ship, on one of which stands a fine 
grist mill, which does a larg^e 
amotint of business, it being the 
only one in the county except a 
irindmill. There are some consid- 
erable hills, but nothing; which de- 
serves the name of a mountain. 
7*he soil is rich, and is not surpassed 
in fertility by any part of the state. 
It produces com and g^rain in abun- 
dance. Fifty bushels of com per acre, 
and 25 of rye and wheat are ordinary' 
crops. Among' the minerals arcj 
marble, limestone, rock crystals,; 
sulphuret of iron, &c. The town- 
ship produces a great variety of 
fruits, among which it yields apples 
in abundance. Orchards which 
produce apples sufficient for 100 or 
150 barrels of cider, are common. 
The timber is various consisting of 
beech, birch, maple, oak, ash, elm, 
pine, &c. There are here five 
school districts, as many school- 
houses, two taverns and two tan- 
neries. Population, 18^, 898. 
Jvntt 1824. H. B. 

G&AJTD Isle Couittt, is bound- 
ed north by Lower Canada, on the 
north line of Alburgh ; the rest of 
the county consists of islands, which 
are embosomed in the waters of 
lake Champlain. It lies between 
44*^35' and 45"=? north iat. and be- 
tween 3^ 35' and 3° 43" east long., 
being ^ miles long from north to 
south, and about five miles wide, 
and containing 82 square miles. It 
was incorporated November 9, 1802. 
No permanent settlement was made 
in this oounty until after the dose 
of the revolutionary war. The 
streams here are all small, and there 
can hardly be said to be a good mill 
l^civilege ia tbe county. There is. 

(however, one grist mill, which does 
considerable business, and one or 
two windmills. Tlie surface of the 
county is generally level, and the 
soil very rich and productive. The 
first settlers of this county were 
subject to fevers and other diseases, 
induced by the noxious exhalations 
from the stagnant waters, but, since 
the lands have become generally 
cleared and cultivated, the inhabit- 
ants have become more healthy. 
North Hero is the shire town. The 
County Court sits here on the last 
Monday save one in February, and 
the last Monday of September. 
Causes proper for the Supreme 
Court are entered and tried in the 
county of Franklin. The Grand 
List of the county, for 1823, was 
$41,862. Population, 1820, 3527. 

C RF.BN MouwTAiirs. — Set Gen- 
eral Fietv^page 10. The principal 
summits of the Green Mountains 
are Shrewsbury peak in Shrews- 
bury, Killington peak in Sherburn, 
Camel's Rump in Huntington, 
.Mansfield mountains in Mansfield, 
Sterling peak in Sterling, and Jay 
peak in Jay. 

Green River.— There are two 
small streams of this name. One 
rises in Eden, passes through the 
corner of Hydepark, and falls into 
the river Lamoille in Wolcott. The 
other originates '^ in Marlborough, 
and, after running through a part of 
Halifax and Guilford, passes ofi'into 

Grkensborough, a post town-^ 
ship, six miles square, lying in the 
southeastern part of Orleans coun- 
ty, and situated in lat. 44° 36' 
and long. 4° 37'. It is bounded 
northerly by Glover, easterly by 
Wheelock and Goshen gore, south- 
erly by Hard wick, and westerly by 
Craftsbury and a small part of Wol- 
cott. It lies 27 miles northeasterly 
from Montpelier, «a4 7^ ouie& xiorth 





from Windsor. This township was 
granted November 6, ITCO, and 
chartered August 20, 1781, to Har- 
ris Colt and his associates. Messrs. 
Tolman and Wood visited this 
town, and spent three days here, in 
the spring of 1787. In December, 
1788, tlie Hon. Timothy Stanley 
lost his foot by frost, attending a I removed their families here. Thii 

!in this town. The proprietors vot- 
jed him a present of 100 acres of ' 
land. In 1790, Mr. Joseph Stanley 
removed his family here, and the 
same year the Hon. Timothy Stan- 
ley erected the first saw mill on the 
outlet of Caspian Lake. In 1791, 
Mr. Law and three Messrs. Hilbi 

meeting of the proprietors of this 
township at Cabot. The first set- 
tlement was begun in Greensbo- 
rough, in the spring of 1789, when 

year Mr. T, Stanley erected a house ' 

and grist mill, and removed his fiun- 

ilyhere in 1792. In 1795, there 

were 23 families and 108 persons m 

Messrs. Ashbel and Aaron Shepard 'town. The first town meeting wis 
removed, with their families, from jjheld, and the town organized, March 
Newbury to this place. The hard- 29, 1792. Doctor Samuel Hunting- 

ships which the first settlers of this 
town had to endure, were very con- 
siderable. In coming into tlie town, 
the women had to proceed on foot, 
and all the furniture, belonging to 
the two families, was drawn upon 
three hand sleds, on the crust. Both 
families consisted of five persons, 
Mr. Ashbel Shephard and his wife, 
and Mr. Aaron Shepard, his wife] 
and one child. Mr. Aaron Shepard' 
removed his family to Coos in Au- 
gust, and did not return till March, 
when his brother, Horace Shepard 
and family, returned with him. 
Thus were Mr. Ashbel Shepard and! 
his wife left frem August till March, 
with no other human being in the 
town. Their nearest neighbors 

ton,''' one of the early settlers, and 
Elder Grow, a Baptist preacher, 
are the only professional men in 
town. The denominations of Chris- 
tians are. Baptists, CoDgregation- 
alists, and jyiethodists. The Rer. 
Salmon King was settled over the 
Congregational church hereabout 
the year 1 808, and continued a few 
years. The surface of this town if 
uneven, but the elevations are not 
generally abrupt. The land is weU 
timbered, mostly with hard wood^ 
except on the river and aboat iti 
head waters, where it is almost tso^ 
tirely hemlock, spruce, cedar vod 
fir. The soil is of a middling qual- 
ity, but on account of its being sitp 
uated about the head waters of 

were Mr, Cutler's family, in Crafts- 1 several considerable rivers, much of 
bury, which had removed there theijthe land is wet and coldi, and the 
preceding autumn, and Mr. Web- j crops are liable to suffer by frost, 
ster's family, in Cabot. Mr. Shep-] The river Lamoille is formed by 
ard brought all his grain from New-j the union of several streams in thii 
bury, a distance of more than 40 
miles, of which he drew it 16 miles 
vpon a hand sled, with the snow 

between four and five feet deep. Inljthe east into the Lamoille, afford- 
the same manner^ he drew hay for! lag a number of valuable millpri^ 
the support of a cow, from a mea-| ileges. This pond is about three 
dow of wild grass, three miles dis-| miles long, and one and a half broad, 
tant. On the 25 th of March, Mrs. I 
Shepard was delivered of a son, 
William Scott^ the first child born 

town. Caspian Lake^ or L. Beai^ 
tiful, lies in the south part of thii 
town, and discbarges its waters to 

Elligo pond, lying mostly in tht 
* Since deceaseds 





Krestem part of this town, is about 
a mile loog^, and forma the head 
waters of Black riv^. Runaway 
Pond (see Ghver) was partly in 
this town, and was formerly the 
soiirce of the Lamoille. The wa- 
ters, which supplied this pond, now 
run northerly, forming the head 
branch of Barton river. There are 
several other small ponds in the 
north part of the town, which, at 
present, form the head waters of 
tiie Lamoille. There are, in this 
town, eig^t school districts, six 
flchoolhouses, two ^st mills, three 
taw mills, one fulling mill, and one 
carding machine. Population, 1820, 

Sepltmber, 1823. 
Grotow, a township ia the south 
part of Caledonia county, is in lat. 
44*> 14' and long. 4=> 41', and is 
bounded north by Peacham, east by 
Ryegate, south by Topsham, and 
West by Harris' gore. It lies 16 
miles cast from Montpelier, and 16 
northwest from Newbury. It was 
^raated, November 7, 1780, and 
chartered to Thomas Batterfield 
and his associates, October 20, 1789, 
containing 28300 acres. The first 
vote of the proprietors, for survey- 
ing the lands, was passed August 
12^ 1787. The settlement of the 
township was commenced about the 
same time by Messrs. James, Ab- 
>>ott, Jtfbrse and Osmore. John 
James was the first male child bom 
in town. The town was organized 
March 28, 1797, and Nathaniel 
Knight was first town clerk. The 
wife of a Mr. Page, in this town, 
was, in 1819, delivered of four male 
children at a birth. A Mrs. Gile 
died here, in 1823, aged 91 years. 
The religious denominations are 
baptists and Methodists. The min- 
isters are Elder James Bailey, Bap- 
f^t, and Elder S. Lathrop, Meth- 
odist. Physicians Benj. P. Smith 

and Reuben W. Ilill. The sur- 
face of this township is generally 
uneven, rough and stoney. There 
is, however, some very good land^ 
both in the ncJrtheast and south- 
western parts. The timber is most- 
ly spruce and hemlock interspersed 
with maple, beech and birch. This 
township is watered by Wells river 
and some of its branches, which af- 
ford several good mill privileges. 
There are also several natural 
ponds. Wells river pond, through 
which' Wells river passes, is in die 
north part, and is three miles long 
and three quarters of a mile wide. 
Little pond, in the southeastern 
part, covers about 100 acres, and 
lies in the course of Wells river. 
Kettle pond, so called on account of 
Mr. Hosmer, a hunter, haviug k>st 
a small kettle in its vicinity, lies in 
the northwest comer, and covers 
about 40 acres. The south branch 
rises in Harris' gore, and running 
nearly east throu^j^h the south part 
of the town, joins Wells river juet 
below Little pond. In the south 
part of Lhe to\7nship is an exten- 
sive bank of white clay or marl, 
which is a very good substitute for 
chalk, and which has been used in- 
steact of lime mortar in plastering, 
and is said to answer a very good 
purpose. There are here five school 
jdistricts and schoolhouses, three 
igrist, four saw and two fulling mill?, 
two stores, one tavern, one carding 
machine, one tannery and one dis'* 
tillery. Population, 1820, 595. 

September^ 1824. J. D. jr. 

Guildhall, a post and shire 
township in Essex county, situated 
in lat. 44° 32' and long. 5° 14' 
containing 19,477 acres, or thirty 
square miles. It is fifty miles 
northeast from Montpelier, 25 from 
Danville and 83 from Windsor, It 
is bounded north by Maidstone, east 
by Conuccticut river, south by Lu- 





nenburgh, and west by Graaby, and 
lies opposite to Lancaster in New- 
Hampshire. G uildhall was chart- 
ered October 10, 1761, and granted 
to Elisha Hall and bis associates. 
The first settlement was commenced 
in the lower part of this town, 
which was then thought to be a 
part of Lunenburgh in 1764, by 
David Page, Timothy Nash and 
George Wheeler. In 1775, Enoch 
Hall, Micah Amy and James Ros- 
brook joined the settlement ; £lea- 
zer Rosbrook and Samuel Page, in 

1 778, and David Hopkinson, and 
Reuben and Simeon Howe, in 

1779. Jtfr. Simeon Howe was the 
earliest settler, who is now living 
in town. The first settlers suffered 
severe privations and hardships for 
a number of years. They brought 
their grain and provisions, in ca- 
noes, ^om Northfield in Jtfassachu- 
setts, a distance of more than 150 
miles. During the revolutionary 
*«rar, they were in continual alarm« 
and frequently annoyed by the In 
dians and tories, who killed their 
cattle, plundered thehr houses, and 
carried a number of the inhabitants 
into captivity. The first town 
meeting recorded was in Jlfarch, 
1785. But it appears from the rec- 
ords, that the town had been pre- 
viously organized. The denomina- 
tions of Christians are Congrega- 
tionalists, Jfethodiste and Baptists. 
The Congregationalists have a 
meetinghouse, and on the Slst of 
August, 1808, they settled the Rev. 
Caleb Surge for their pastor. He 
was dismissed in Jtfarch, 1814, but 
no one has yet been settled in his 
place. There have been two coun- 
ty grammar schoolbouses erected in 
this- town, both of which were con- 
sumed by fire. The surface of this 
^own, except on the river, is uneven, 
.hard and rocky. The intervals 

L mad flats are easy and fertile. 

i leges, 

Bumside and Cow mountain, a; 
considerable elevations. Conne 
ticut river washes th6 east side 
this town. Its other waters ar 
Cutler's Mill brook, on which mil 
have been erected, and BuHuu 
brook, on which also, are mill prn 
There is a small village] 
northeast corner of the towi 
containing a court-housd, jail, tie 
law offices, two stores, and atai 
em. The court-house is a smai 
one story building. The jail is i 
wood and is a decent building tw 
stories high. At this village is 
convenient bridge across Connecti 
6ut river, and there is no other be 
tween this and Canada line." Thei 
is another bridge, connecting thi 
town with Lancaster, near th 
southeast corner. T\ie town is di 
vided into four sehool districts, ij 
which are three scboolhousei 
There are here two physicians, tnji 
attornies, one minister, two storn 
one tavern, one grain mill, one n« 
mill and one fulling mill. Popoli- 
lation, 1820, 529. 
September^ 1823. 
GviLFORto, a post town in th* 
south part of Windham county, %\ 
in lat. 42^ 47' and long. 4® 22', tti 
is bounded north by Brattleboroitti^ 
east by Vernon, south by Leyw* 
Mas. and west by Halifax. Itte 
50 miles south from Windsor, tA 
31 east from Bennington. It KM 
chartered April 2, 1754, to 54 pi* 
prietors, principally of Mas. andeov 
tained 23,040 acres, When 
the town was a perfect wilderness, 
by the charter, the graiitees 
to hold their first meeting for 
choice of officers, &c. on uie first 
May, 1754, and on the first Ta 
of March ever thereafterwi 
It seems the town was first 
ed by and under, the very gnuit 
self. Power was given to 
grantees to transact ^ biuooMl 





town as a majority should see 

subject only to the control of 

Parliament of Eng^land. Ttiis 

Le enterprising; band, composed 

Samuel Hunt, John Chandler, 
vid Field, EUjah Williams, Mi- 
1 Rice, Ira Carpenter and others, 
irin^ little to fear from the nom- 
1 power of Parliament, in the 
Lderness of Vermont, assumed the 
Le, which was virtually created 

their charter, of a little Inde- 
tident republi(j. By the records 
their i^rst meeting^, they appear 

have been governed by certain 
mmittees, chosen for the purpose 
surveying the lands, laying roads, 
awing the shares or lots, taxing 
e rights, &c. ; but their greatest 
»ject was to procure and encour- 
<^ settlers. These meetings were 
Kid at Greenfield, Northfield, 
tinadale or Brattleborough, until 
785, when their first meeting was 
eid at Guilford. There was a 
o&dition which, if not performed, 
re&t to defeat the grant. The 
TiBtees were to settle, clear and 
Dltilrate, in five years, five acres 
If every 50 in said township, Al- 
UH^ much time and money were 
kent in making roads and clearing 
vida, yet on the 20th of March, 
r64) the grantees by a special com- 
ittne chosen, petitioned the gov- 
^Dor of V. H. for a confirmation of 
Mir grant, and an extention of the 
bet stating that the intervention 
r «a Indian war had made it im- 
!ieticable for them to flilfil the 
ttditiona of the charter. Their 
fajer was granted and the time 
r Mttiing- the town, extended to 
m flnt of January, 1766. From 
• time the charter was confirm- 
\ m. 1764, the town began to be 
pidlj settled by emigrants from 
aHii^uisetts and other New-£n- 
HB^atates. Through the policy 
odiginfti proprietorSf the first 

settlers begun upon lots of 50 acrei), 
in order to fulfil the condition of the 
grant. So rapid was the increase 
of population, that the town soon be- 
came the largest in the state as te 
number. Yet there was not a single 
village in the township, or rather 
tlj^e whole township was a village — 
all the hills and vallies were smok- 
ing with huts. By the charter 350 
acres were called a share, and all 
the proprietors shared alike. The 
reservation in the charter consisted 
of ** one whole share to t^e society 
in England for propagating the gos- 
pel in foreign parts. One to the 
first settled minister of the gospel—- 
and one whole share for a glebe, for 
the ministry of the church of En- 
gland, as by law established.*' The 
governor was not unmindful of his 
own interest. He reserved 500 a- 
cres to be located by itself, for his 
own. The town was laid out into 
50 and 100 acre lots. The public 
rights were fairly located, but that 
of the royal governor fell upon the 
only mountain in town, which still 
bears the name of authority upon 
the map — ** Gov. Mountain." Al- 
though no reservation was made in 
the grant for the use of schools, yet 
one whole share was located for 
that purpose. That was a just and 
generous act of the proprietors, but 
it was not the same liberality that 
governed them, when they located, 
sold and settled one whole tier of 
hundred acre lots north beyond the 
extent of their charter. That 
was the case and tlie same is held 
by the town to this day. ** All the 
pine trees suitable for ma3ting the 
royal Navy" were reserved to his 
Majesty. This shews the attention 
the English nation paid to the Na- 
vy. One hundred miles from the 
ocean, where no such timber grew, 
was that reservation ^ade. What 
has been related, with a little 





** proclamation money," was the 
price of the charter. The first settle- 
ment was made by Micah Rice and 
family in 1760.* His widow is stUl 
living^ in her 86th year. Soon after 
followed Jonathan fiig^ow, John 
Barney, Daniel Lynds, Wm. Bige- 
low, Ebenezer Goodenoug^h, Paul 
Chase, Thomas Cutler, John Shep* 
ardson and others. They came in- 
to town by the way of Broad brook, 
beginning at the mouth of that 
stream on Connecticut river in Ver- 
non, and passing up on the banks of 
tho same, found their way into town. 
That was then the only road, and 
eiren that was impassable with 
teams. The first settlers had either 
to boil or pound their corn, or go 
15 miles to mill with a grist upon 
their backs. It appears by what 
records can be found, that the town 
was wholly governed by a set of 
officers, chosen annually by the peo- 
ple under their charter, until the 
19th May, 1772, when the inhabit- 
ants at a *^ district meeting assekn- 
bled-^ in the district of Guilford, 
Tdted, that Guilford was in the 
county of Cumberland and province 
of New- York, and chose officers of 
the town, agreeably to the laws of 
that province. At that meeting a 
record was first made in a regular 
town book, which was purchased 
by the original proprietors some 
years before. By that record it ap- 
pears, John Shcpardson was chosen 
*' dibtrict clerk, John Barney super- 
visor,*^ &c. and the meeting was 
then adjourned to a day after the 
annual meeting by the charter. 
Having renounced their char- 
ter and there being no government 
^hich really exercised authority 
over them, they continued to legis- 
late for themselves, and tradition 

* CompanUi had entered and clear" 
«d mwA^ lasid befgrt iluU time* 

says that good justice was done, yet 
one principle of the charter was 
still adhered to, none but proprie* 
tors, or those who held under then, 
had a right to rule, or vote in their 
meetings. Thus was this little te- 
public regulated by a town meeting, 
which was adjourned from time to 
time, without interruption firom t- 
broad, or contentions at home, until 
the year 1776. Then the townwu 
beset with violent tories and Torken 
on the one side, and brave whigs 
and Ivewstatesmen on the other. 
The whigs, united with those ep- 
posed to the claims of the state <£ 
New- York, that and the socceediDg 
year, . out voted the tories and ths 
Yorkers. In 1776, the town^voted 
to pay the expenses of Benjamii 
Carpenter, their delegate tc the 
Westminster Convention in 1775. 
They voted to raise nine soldien 
for the continental army, equip 
ithem with arms and powdor, gift 
them a bounty of 41, ^ bay money,' 
by a tax upon the inhabitants oiim 
town, and it was done. They ilw 
resolved, that *^ no man shoald vote 
for town officers, who was not qiat* 
ified according to the directiM of 
the ContinenUl Congress." Under 
that resolution, their oomnuttMi 
chosen for the purpose, exelnM 
tories from the polls, vi et amk 
and the poor, if qualified^ partio- 
pated in the government. Thelidt 
of the town as belonging to the sbito 
of New- York, was left oat of fhi 
records. * To give some idea of tks 
laws passed by the old repablieif 
Guilford, we will quote the feUo1^ 
ing, passed the next year, 1771 
^^ footed, not to let any person^TOti 
in this meeting, but such as hsn 
40 pounds real or personal eM^* 
Voted^ John Barney and Benji 
Carpenter a committee to go 
Windsor, in June next, to hear' 
[report of^e ageot sent to C< 





•concerning a new state. Fotcd^ 
tbat any person, who shall for the 
futare, pretend to hold lands hy 
buth-ftnce possenion^ shall be dealt 
with by the town, as a breaker of 
the peace of the town, and a riotous 
person, &c. Attest — 

** Elijah Wflch, T, ClerlcJ'^ 
They further chose a committee 
to establish the price of labour, all 
kinds of produce, ^ods, wares and 
merchandise. The report of the 
committee was fidopted as the law 
of the town. All the articles men- 
tioned were a legal tender for debts, 
-with a penalty of the article sold, 
or the value thereof, with costs. 
The pmiishment of oiSenders, was 
Tarious, such as, ^ beech sedL^'* fines, 
ice. but the most disgraceful of all 
was to be compelled to embrace the 
Liberty-Pole^ with both arms, the 
time specified by the committee of 
inspection, or judges. There was a- 
^m an entire change of politics, in 
1778. It appears by the records, 
that a warrant and notification for 
a town meeting was sent from the 
^Coancil of Bennington,'' and a 
meeting hdid upon the same, wheo 
it was ^ Voied^ not to act agreeable 
lo said warrant," and the meeting 
wea disaolved. In 1779, after doing 
Hm caatomary town business, ^ Vol- 
^ Level Bullock, Timothy Root 
and Henry Sherburn, a committee 
to delGsftd the town against the pre- 
tended state of Vermont, and to re- 
present the town in county Commit- 
tee.**" "Henry Sherburn, Joseph 
jEUiot and Hezekiah Stowell," all 
"violent "Yorkers, were chosen to 
take special care of the powder and 
lead) and other town stores" — and 
the meeting acyoumed to the next 
year. In 1780, a like meeting was 
held. There ia the following rec- 

* Set SUM* Vermont State Fa- 
fer$fp. 106. 

■ N 

ord for 1781. "Then all the peo- 
ple met together that means to stand 
in opposition against the pretended 
state of Vermont, and acted on the 
following articles, viz." Among oth^ 
ers see the following — " Voted to de- 
fend themselves against the insults 
of the pretended state of Vermont. 
Voitd^ Peter Briggs and William 
Bullock for a committee to send 
to Charlestown Convention," (See 
Slade'i State Papers^ p, 1 28.) Foted, 
that Hezekiah Stowell keep the 
names of those that are against ^aid 
pretended £tate,''&c. Also,May 1782. 
" Then the people met in general, 
and voted to stand against Uio pre- 
tended state of Vermont, until the 
decision of Congress be known, with 
lives and fortunes, Voted to receive 
the instructions which came from 
New- York, &c. Voled^ and chose 
Henry livens, Daniel Ashcraft and 
Nathan Fitch, to forbid the consta- 
ble acting." These appear not to 
be regular meetings of the town, 
bat of the Yorkers, who had gotten 
possession of the town books and 
stores, by a majority of votes in '78. 
They in turn excluded the other 
party from the polls, by force of 
arms. Frequently a company of 
armed Yorkers came from Brattle- 
borough, to stand seutry at their 
meetings, when skirmishes ensued 
and hostile shots were exchanged. 
The whigs and Vermonters, also 
kept up their system of govercment 
by regular and stated meetings, but 
their records were lost, as Will be 
related hereafter. In their turn 
they sent hostile scouting parties to 
Brattlcborough, to the assistance of 
their friends in that town. The 
following is a correct account of one 
of these skirmishes. It is taken 
from an English Magfizine, printed 
in London, in May, 1784, and was 
copied into the Magazine, from the 
South-Carolina Gazette, of Feb. 2. 




^4n our last we intimated a diseatis-llslate, paid without compulsion^ 
faction having arisen between the jwhile the property of the Yorkers, 
government of the state of Vermont iboth real and personal, was sold at 
and the lower part of tlie county of 'the post for taxes. For that reason 
Windham, relative to the jurisdic- Ithe said committee was chosen "to 
tion of that state — we now are able forbid the constable acting'^ and 
to give the following particulars. Itheir doings were spread upon the 
On the 18th ult. the party who 'records of the town, by proclama- 

oalled themselves Yorkers, headed 
by a certain captain (Nathaniel) 

tion as follows. " To all thi: officers 
of the civil authority under the pre- 

Carpenter, of Guilford, attacked the tended state of Vermont. You are 
Inn of Josiah Arms, of Brattleboro\l -hereby forbid to proceed a^inst 
the quarters of J. Farnsworth, Ksq.l'any person, or persons, that owns the 
Commissary General, Major Boy -^i jurisdiction of the state of New- 
den, Capt. Waters and Lieut. Fisk, ,York, according to what is recom- 

of the state troops, and demanded 
the immediate delivery of Capt., 
Waters, on which Gen. Farnsworth 
expostulated with them for some 
time to no effect, when being exas- 
perated they fired about thirty balls 
through the house, wounded Major 
Boyden in tlie leg, and shot a trav- 
eller through the thigh. Finding 
themselves unable to tesist numbers 
(the troops being quartered about 
a mile distant,) Capt. Waters vol- 
untarily resigned himself up to the 
party, who immediately carried him 
into the state of Massachusetts ; but 
being pursued by a few Vermonters 
from Guilford, were overtaken the 
next day at Northampton, and 
Capt. Waters released. On the 22d, 
Lieut. Fisk, with a party of ab«ut 
40 men, having patrolled to Guil- 
ford, was fired upon by a number 
of Yorkers, and Lieut. Fisk, and 
several others wounded — Lt. Fisk 
was wounded in the groin supposed 
mortally. On this intelligence, a- 
bout 50 Green Mountain Boys ap- 
peared, when the whole body of 
Yorkers (who before held their 
head quarters at Guilford,) dispers- 
ed." The Vermonters had a Sheriff, 
in Guildfoinl, and their party, also, 
had a constable, who continued to 
collect taxes for the support of Iheir 
ok use. Those friendly to the new 

mended ia a handbill, by Congress, 
jbearingdate June 2, 1780, and we 
ido hereby forbid the constable ?oi- 
,duing those numbers hereby given 
ihim," (referring to certain lots on 
Ithe plan of the town) "and we 
•hereby forbid you upon yourcp- 

" ^Tenry Evfjts,* } CommUtu 
" Daw. Ashcraft, > m.^,^ » 
" Nathan Fitch, )^/^"^ 
" A true record, — Attest, 

" Samuel Bixbi, 7'cwn ClerV 
The Yorkers held a like meeting 
in 1783, April 29, and adjourned to 
their annual meeting in 1784.t 
From 1778 to 1783 the^ town was 
governed, principally, by th«r 
former laws. Botli parties had 
jtheir committees, and the Yorkeri) 
jalthough in authority, could not 
Igovern the to^^n, yet in connexka 
Iwith the tories, prevented any thkiC 
being done under the direction aofl 
jgoTernment of the New State, A- 
jbout this time all was confusion tfld 
'terror. All went armed to da ft ad 
themselves against their rnumJMi 

* ff. Evens was one. of thejkt 
who were banished and their pftjh., 
erly cor\fiscaled, — See Slade*9 F*lli .. 
Papers, (177.) 

\\ \ See God. CKUlefndmU 
rWstrance, kc, same ^^S^ 







VermoatenaodwUig^ajpiiDst York-:|pentancG. lu the winter ol* 1784, 
era and tones. Each party sulicitcJ jthe troeps Imviii;^ loft the tuwn, the 
their friends in the la&zua^e of former scenes revived. Cupt. Klijah 

Knig^hts was sent from Rockin«^hani 

Ecriptore, **• Come over 

and help. 
08.^ Insach a distressed and wretch- 
ad sitoatioo, were the people of. 
GailfonI ; numbering^, at that timej 
about mo inhabiUnts. Relatives, 
and neig^bora were at war with 
«»ch other. Physicians were notj 
alloired to visit the sick without a 
pass from the several comoiittees. 
Handbills, from all quarters, intlam-_ 
ed the minds of the people. Social: 
order, was at an end, and a club- 
•law about g^oing into operation, 
when, lockily, in the summer ofi 
1783, Col. Ethan Allen arrived in' 
town with one hundred Vermont- 
«rs, from Bennington. Allen made | 
proclamation to the people, as fol- 

with a company of New State troops 
to quell the insurrection, by orders 
from Gen. S. R. Bradley. Knio^hts 
arrived in Guilford in the month of 
January, when the snow was about 
four feet deep upon a level. On the 
5th of ^arch, while pursuin;; the 
Yorkers in their flight before him 
to Massachusetts, a akiruiish ensued, 
near the south line of this state, in 
which the Yorkers lost one killed, 
Daniel Spiccr,* and some wounded. 
Capt. Kui^hts, on hearing thui an 
army were coming from Ma:^sachu- 
setts to revenge the death of Spicer, 
retreated in great ha.<te to lirattle- 

. * » , , borough. Afterwards, in 1784, the 

lows: «i^ Ethan Allen, dcrterc, thatijtown, relieved from martial law, 
'ij^essthepeopleof Guilford peace-ljheld a meeting, when the Yorkers, 

who were all at the polls, chose 
Hugh Sto well moderator. Although 
a majority, through fear, they 
voted to adjourn to the 8th Jliue 
then next, without doing any busi- 
ness. This was the last meeting of 
which we have any record until 
Jlfarch, 1791, when the town, for 
the first time, was duly organized 

•Wy submit to the authority of Ver- 

^"^t, tiie same shall be made as 

desolate as were the cities of Sod- 
om and Gomorrah by G — ." On| 

^e arrival of those troops, the tories,| 

uQt few in number, were silent, the 

Forkera were -.more rouglily hand- 
led. They having* fired at Allen 
and his troops, when coming into 

town, he was determined to humble j I under the conistitutioa and laws of 
them. Some were made prisonersJithe state of Vermont. William 

ethers put under bonds for thoirj 
good behaviour, and all obliged to; 
procure good supplies and quarters! 
for his troops. The constable found. 
it an easy matter to collect his taxesj 
under Col. £. Allen^s martial law,| 
and he was not very scrupulous a-| 
bout the sum assessed inthe tax-bill, j 
Produce, horses, cattle and sheep,; 
and whatever could be found of the! 
most violent Yorkers was takenj 
without weight or measure. Hon.! 
Stephen R. Bradley and Ira Allen; 
succeeded the Col. and quartered 
with some troops in town for several 
laonths, bringing the Yorkers to re- 

Bigelow was chosen town clerk, 
who came peaceably into possession 
of the papers and records of the 
town, that were to be found. Dur- 
ing seven years, from 1784 to 1791, 
there are no records of the proceed- 
ings of the town whatever, tra- 
dition says, that both parties held 

* Spicet* was an inhabitant of 
Massachusetts. It is said that a 
brother to him was afterwards killed 
in the Chayse Insarreetion^ who 
had on the same great coat^ and the 
fatal ball passed through the tamt 





public and private meetings duringj 
that time, but it was a perfect rule' 
of anarchy. The Yorkers, altboug^h 
they had the town books, dared not' 
record their proceedings in them,! 
and both sides kept secret their ownj 
records. During: this confusion and: 
jealousy, one party stole the records 
of the other, and hid them together! 
with their own, many deeds and! 
proj)rietors' papers, under the earth 
in the pound, in order to conceal' 
them from the other. There they 
lay.through some sad misfortune, un-, 
til they were totally spoiled. When; 
discovered and dug up, they could; 
not be read. During that time, the 
Yorkers having been so closely pur-; 
sued by the military and civil au-1 
thority of Vermont, and their prop- 
erty mostly confiscated, fled to the: 
state of New- York, and settled up-j 
on the grants made by that state to; 
the New- York sufferers. Almost a 
whole township, now called Bain> 
bridge, was first settled by emigrants 
fr.)tA Guilford. This accounts for: 
tii8 so rapid decrease of the popu- 
lation from 1784. While the to^ivn' 
was independent of any power su-! 
perior to the town meeting assem-] 
bled^ refugees from the neighboring! 
states flocked into it, but when the: 
law came, they fled. The violenti 
Yorkers found but little peace un-j 
der the energetic and persevering 
measures of the States' Attorney of; 
Windham county. To him the 
people of Guilford are indebted fori 
the establishment pf law and order, 
without the effusion of blood, and' 
the dispersion of the riotous. Migra-j 
lions have not only been westward,' 
but northward & eastward. Most of, 
the towns, in the northern and mid-| 
die parts of this state, contain inhab-. 
itants from old Guilford. Althoughj 
the town has decreased in popula-, 
tion, it has increased in opulence.! 
Where one farmer now occupies' 

and improves, formerly lived half 
a dozen, or more, and you now see 
one respectable dwelling, instead of 
as many log-huts. Since 1791, 
there has been notliing remarkable 
in the history of the town. From 
that time, the inhabitants haye sap- 
ported the character of free and in- 
dependent farmers, very jealous of 
their rights, and for majiy years, 
noted for their strong prepossessions 
in favour of the political school of 
Jefferson. The Hon. Benjamin 
Carpenter was a member of the 
first convention in Vermont, held at 
Dorset, 1776. In those trying times 
with the brave sons of the Green 
Mountains, where they had not only 
to oppose the powerful state «f 
New- York, the claims of New- 
Hampshire and Massachusetts, tbt 
tories and Yorkers at home, and the 
menacing threats of Congress a- 
broad, but the power of his majes- 
ty's legions in war, that brave pa- 
triot, with an allowance of three 
days provisions upon his back, 
would cross the Green Mountains 
on foot by marked tr^es, to atten4 
the Legislature at Bennington, for 
the purpose of devising ways and 
means of defence against all the 
enemies of the state. As delegate 
to the Assembly, as a member of 
the Council, and Lieut. Governor 
of the state, he deservedly holds a 
conspicuous place in the early his- 
tory of the same.^ Hon. John 

* Upon a large white marble tonA 
stone^ in the west pari of GuUfordt 
is the foUotoing inscription inserttd 
here for its curiosity, 


Bom in Rehoboth^Mass, A,D, 1726. 
A magistrate in Rhode^Jsiand in 

A, />. 1764. 
A public teacher of the rightwumn^ 





Shepardson, bom A. D. 1718, was 
a firm patriot of the revolutioa, andj 
held the offices of Judge of the Sup- 
reme Court, and member of the 
' Council for several years. Died, 
A. D. 1798. Hon. Samuel Shep- 
ardson born, A. D. 1757, was a 
useful member of society, and had 
the honor of sitting; as a member of 
the Council for several years. Died, 
A, D. 1813. Hon. WilUam Bige- 
low, one of the first settlers of the 
town, and always a fatiier to the| ers, 76 in number, only three are 

people, born in 1751, was a judge ot 
(he County Court, which office he 
held with good reputation to him- 
self, and died, 1 8 14. Among the ear- 
ly settlers of the town, since 1796, 
mig^ht be mentioned the names o£ 
the Hon. Royal Tyler, Hon. James 
Elliot^Uon. Richard Whitney, Hon. 
Micah Town&hend, Hon. Henry 
Seymour, Hon. Gilbert Denison, 
Hoa.Samuel £lliot,Hon. John Noyes 
and maay others of less note who 

are mostly identified with the his- 
tory of the state, but who have since 
removed from the town. Guilford 
was the birth place of Henry Deni- 
son, Esq. the late poet of Georgia. 
The Rev. Royal Girley was the 
first settled minister in Guilford. 
He was of the Congregational order 
and received the right of land re- 
served and located for that purpose. 
He was settled in the year 1775, and 
died soon after. Of his covenant-- 

jin able advocate to his last for De- 

And the equal rights of man. 
Removed to this tawn^ A. D, 1770, 
Wcu a Jield officer in the revolution 

ary toar^ 
A founder of the first constitution 

and government of F'ermont. 
A Councillor of CevJiors^ in A,D. 

.4 metnber of the Council^ and 
Lieut. Governor of the Stale in 

A. D, 1779, 
A Jirmprofessor of Christianity in the 
Baptist church 50 years. Left this 

And 146 persons of lineal posterity^ 

March 29ih, 1804. 
AgedlS years 10 nwnths and 12 days, 

with a strong 
Mind and fall faith of a more 
Olariotu state hereafter. 
Stature about six feet — weight 200. 
Heath Ikod no t error, 



now living in town. He was a 
young man of science and much re- 
spected for his pious and amiable 
deportment. The second of the: 
same order, was the Rev. Henry 
Williams, who was settled in 1779* 
Tlic Rev. Bunker Gay, of Hinsdale^ 
preached his ordination sermon* 
His text was " Deat/t in the pot,^ 
He was a violent Yorker, and whea 
the town submitted to the state au- 
thority he fled with his political 
brethren. The third, the Rev. Eli- 
jah WoUage,. was settled in 1794, 
and dismissed in 1799. The next of 
that order was the Rev. Jason 
Chamberlain. He was settled in 
1807, and in 1811, being elected 
professor of the learned languages 
inthe University of Vermont, by^ 
his request, was dismissed. After<» 
wards the Rev. Elijah WoUage re- 
turned and was received for atime^ 
but dismissed, ia 1818. An Epis- 
copal society was formed in the 
east parish, November 8, 1818, and 
on the 8th of May, 1819, the Con- 
gregational society voted to unite*, 
with the Episcopal society, and in- 
vited their minister, tlie Rev. A. L. 
Baury, to perform divine service at 
their meetinghouse, in the centre of 
the town, half of . the tims. An 
Episcopal society was formed for 
that purpose, and a union of the 
two societies was effected, and so 
has continued to this time. Thek 





present minister, is the Re<o. Samuel 
B.Shaw, whom they contemplate 
settling; soon. The Baptists are the 
most numerous. Amon^ the Elders 
who liave had the care of churches 
in this town, may be mentioned the 
names of Willis, Hicks, Snowe, 
Allen, Packard, Leland and Buck 
lin. Elder AnUierst Lamb offi>- 
oiates at this time at the new Bap- 
tist meetinghoube, in the west part 
of the town. His society is larg^. 
Elder Benjamin Bucklin has the 
care of a small church in the south- 
west corner of the town, where 
they have a small house for public 
worship. Yet, owing to his old age 
and declining health, he preaches, 
but seldom. The Methodists are 
many, but scattered. Elder Asa 
Hains is their minister. There were 
a few of the Dorrilites,* in the south- 
east part of this town. As a par- 
ticular description has never been 
given, it may not be improper to 
give some account of the sect. 
Their founder was one Dorril, one 
of Gen. Burgoyne's refugees. He 
flourished in Leyden, Mass., in the 
years 1797 and 98, and was a great 
impostor. He pretended to be pos- 
sessed witli supernatural powers, 
and, having the attributes of Deity, 
it was not in the power of man to 
hurt him. He and his followers 
abstained from eating flesh ; made 
use of neither foovl nor clothing, 
which was procured at the expense 
of life, and, if they had full faith io 
him, he assured them in the name 
of God, they should never die. 
They put ofl* their leather shoes and 
had others made of cloth or wood. 
Oue was a blacksmith ; he procur- 
ed and used a pair of cloth bellows, 
and all lived upon milk and veget- 
ables. They discarded all reVela- 

* Sec Hannah Adams'^ d^nitions, 
laicsi edUiazu 

tion except what Dorril reeeini, 
set at defiance all tiie laws of biio, 
and were governed in all their oob> 
duct, as they expreved it, *^ by tho 
light of nature." Meetings wen 
held once a weelr at which thtir 
worship consisted in eating, dtiak* 
ing, singing, fiddling & dancing lod 
hearing lecture* from Dorril, wbs 
was well qualified for that purpoMk 
I They had a- covenant by whioii 
they placed a large share of their 
property in common stock, and the 
blacksmith became their txeasnrer. 
In a short time Dorril collected a 
large society, among whom were 
some very reupeotable fiuniliee ia 
the towns of Leyden and Benurdh 
ton, Mass. People went from all 
the neighboring towns to hear snd 
see the marvellous doings of I>orrfl 
and his associates. At length, st 
one of their meetings, a goodly 
number having assembled, i>onil 
opened with music, Sic, and- begu 
to deliver his lectures. At tbet 
meeting one Gapt. EsMtkiel Fcdmt 
of Leyden, attended as a spectator. 
He was a man of good sense, of a 
giant frame, and had a coontenaim 
that bespoke authority. Whee 
Dorril came to the doctrins ti 
his mysterious powers, he bid 
no sooner uttered the wordS|**BO 
arm can hurt my flesh," than Foster 
rose indignant at his blaspheinj,ud 
knocked down Dorril with his fiiL 
Dorril, afirighted and almost seMS> 
less, attempted to rise, when hs re* 
ceived a second blow, at whieh he 
cried for mercy. Foster progwed 
to forbear, on condition that he 
would renounce his doctrines, yet 
continued beating him. Soott a 
short parley ensued, when Dorril 
consented and did renoiinoe hii 
doctrines in the hearing of all bii 
astonished followers. He further 
told them that his object was to 
whsitfcols he could oi«Jqqo( 





kind. His followers, chagrined and 
mahamed at beings made the dupes 
of Buoh a base fellow, departed in 
peace to their homes. Dorril pro- 
mifed his adversary, upuu the pen- 
altiee of his liie, never to impose 
upon the people more. That same 

by the orig^inal proprietors, leaves 
$131 still annually in the treasury, 
arising from the glebe and ^hool 
lots. The funds of the latter were 
.'nearly lost to the town as follows : 
•In 1777, the toTvn voted to sell those 
jlands, amounting to 350 acres, and 

Dorril is now a miserable, drunken >put the money at interest for the ben- 

paupeFf maintaineil by the town ol 
iieydea. The autlior had this re- 
lation from said Foster and many 
other respectable witnesses. Should 
any one doubt it, the reader may 
rest assured *iiat one half it not told 
of the base imposition of Dorril. 
There are £)ur buildings for public 
worship. Two for Baptists, one 
for Congregationalbts, and one for 
Episcopalians. The most elegant 

is the Episcopal church. It was ito the town. In 1^18, a " Fe- 
bailt in 1817. It is said by all good .male Bible and Prayer Book Soci- 

efit of schools. It was done, and the 
price of the lands received in specie, 
which was lent by the whig admin- 
istration of the town, in 1777, to the 
recruiting officers, for the purpose 
of tempting tlie soldier to inlist mto 
the service of his country. In pay- 
ment of the loans continental bills 
;were received, which turueil out to 
be of little or no value. Small as 
is the fund, it has been of great use 

ety'^ was established lor the purpose 
of distributing those precious books 
to the poor of tlie town, and at the 
same time a Sundav school was 

judges to be a fine specimen of 
architecture. The town have a 
neat and convenient house, built in 
1021, ibr doing public business, sit- 
uated near the centre. There is a jformed, both of which, under the 
villa^ at the west, one at the south,' 'care of the Episcopal church, are 
eoe at the east, and one at the cen-.|still flourishmg. A Library, con- 
tre of the town; the two latter!|sistingof about 300 volumes* styled, 
much the largest, yet neither con- |^ Guilfoyd Social Library,*' estat- 
tainingmore than 25 or 30 houses, lished in 1790, was sold at auction 
Tbe attomies are John Phelps, east; by vote of the society in 1811], and 
Tillage, Cyprian Stevens, centre of! new books have not yet been re- 
the town. £lijah Welch was thol placed, and it is feared never will be. 

first pbysioian thut settled in town. 
Simon Stevens and Dana Hyde have 
been tho principal physicians for 
■boat 40 years.* They iiave each a 
■oa educated to the profession, and: 
flitablished in town, Benjamin W.I 
Slercas and Dana Hyde, jr.! 
The towo is divided into 15 school: 
fistrictf, in each of which is a :chool; 
I convenient for leaching from. 

So useful an institution ought to 
exist in every town. Such attention 
has been paid to the education of 
youth, that the people are generally 
well informed in those branches of 
learning, necessary in the common 
concerns of lite. The air and 
climate is remarkably pure and 
wholesome. The- oldest people, iu 
the town, cannot reuiembiT any re- 
fiO to 100 scholars. In them schools jjmarkal'le season ol mortality. j>iust 
an kept most of the year. Thei|of ihe iniiabitantshve toa^^ood old 
public school fund has amounted toj age^ and'ihu physicians reniaj k that 

MIO yearly, aribing from the lands. 
f^om that sum deducting tiie rents of! 
^pft^iegmtioa rights, jf79, uken up[ 

not one to a hundred die uunuullY«. 
[t 19 noV, unftv>ui\uviii v\xVjcn<w v^\ \v^^« 
pie lo \we Vo vXw.^^g;^ ^! \Vt^ ^<gME3k. 

• /UffitrS/Mon^/cvens^dicd August 15, lVS5i4^ aged ^^.^ 



ylie entth is nalHinlly covered w 
a deep, etropg and nuh loil, nitl 
tulfieienL mixture of earths to 

> ll'roin the tcorchiug' rayg of tlie sua, 
but the rooti prevent the grauul 
from wathing. Free rtom rock!, 
sluinpB nod Bhruba, moat of the hills 

mil m sumiDBr prese 
UIOBt deliglitfill scene 
is hill; but not muur 
It "Gov. Mt." 

sycBniore s 

^. _ . Its leBcliiqg. 'I'he hills 
tnoke cicelleut tweet pastures, sad 
thelowlunda are fine for tiUuge. 
The farOiB eousiit of from one lo 
tliruugh the y£Br,i root 10to4Clc 
wilb oilier stoclc luificient Ibi 
concerna of the farm. Beside. 
farmer keeps about 20 iheep for liii 
foindf use. Uf late yeariieoaie b( 
the more iriie have turned their at- 
ttnlioa lo tlie • ruiaiug of aheep, for 
which tlie hillH are best suited. 
The land is naturally cerered witti 
maple, hemlock, ash, bass, butter- 
nut, elm, beech, wnluut and birch 
A tew treaa of black oak, locust aad 

ire liHUid. 3'he musi 

la the maple. The Girm- 
en Cake as much pains to keep 
aad preserve au ^rdianlDf tnagile 
Kl of apple trees, frooi whioh each 
iDaaufacturcs froui .lU tu j(H> lbs. ul 
■ugar annually, tEioilly for their owi 
use, butwheu |ilealy, it become: 
an article of L-umoLerce. . Beiid< 
butter anil cheeia, lur which th( 
toiTO is BOlamous,'' it produces tieef, 
pork, poullrj and the hni 
hones fur matKel. Cider 
plenty, it is scarcely wortli making 

except for home wneumption. All Oo tlTe east aide' of the 
Itinds of iTTiin are nuaeil, but not IQ 'ruflje of argillaceoua slnle, which l> 
plenty lor tUb market. VVhcat iloes.lnianulBcturBj into roof ai^ wridns 
BOlgroW well Upon the old fields, ji ate. Rolling rocks of granite.irMI 
Apples, peathes, jiluuiba, pears, jhuge mnwes tu smBll pebbles, «p- 
BherriesBiidfiuiiicea grow and bear ||,ear<mnlmo»t every lot. OdwM 
well. Aa tlie stumps aud roots de-jjfew lota is liiiieatone,iina on olhMV 
cajr. some of the mils are wasiitd byhbog iion ore^but ncitheraufBcientlj 
Iho rnin? and have docreaaed m; ,„ire and plenty (lir maoufac- 
valuo. The prudoQt larmecs havol turc. Gneiss and hornbleadl 
eel out shade trees upon their liill;.IUa(e, with those above meationcd, 
which Lot only preserve the gn.a^ eom],owtheprinoipal rockaintown. 

''KocUs fil all kinds are not aufficient- 

• The tovn ranlaim, at UiU lme,\iy picuiy for the nse of the farntit 
oieufUVOMtM. ||witltout much expense, la U» 

ealleJ, estendia^ 
{the whole len^h of tlie town uorlh 
' lad south, is Ihe largest hill. Itii 
, ibout, one mile wide, Jescendins 
igrudUBUy to the east and south, ai^ 
.except the blulTs on the went side, 
ia cleared and cultivated. liLvea the 
west tide is covered with, excellenl 
limber. On the lop of this hill lire 
some of the greatest dairy-farm- 
era iu town. There, you may liter- 
aUy tee "cattle upoa a thou nod 
hilla." The ractJ are principally mJ 
■late, lyiog in tight ledges, ioti 
■peiied wrth strata of quartz, a 
rujmitw IroBi north to south. I'hey 
(lip about 35^ from a perpendicular 
lo the wesf, projecting above the 
9ur&ce on the we;t side of the 
ledges. Impure garoeU are plen^ 
in the mica slate, and some gonl 
specuneni of rock crystal have 
t^een found. Quartz and scborl, lit 

having all the appearance of Ian. 





tlxe southi^^cst corner of thisj 
&ship. Emerson's branch runs 
r^easterly and joins White river 
ocUester, the sixth branch runs 
tieasterly and falls into White 
r laear the northeast corner of 
towja^ and Leicester river runs 
tei'ly into Otter creek. Middle-! 
J ^iver also heads in the western' 
t of the township.. These j 
se-tna afford several 
\ privileges. The whole of the 
jrftsKip lies upon the Green Moun-| 
kX**^ but the principal ridge is onj 
^e "Western ^ide. The suriace of j 
ic township is high and broken,' 
jo-d but a small portion' of it suit-' 
fc.Y)le for tillage; it, however, pro- 
duces good grass. The tiinber, on 
tbe highest sufiamit8,is mostly spruce 
•pd hemlock, on other parts prin- 
cipally beech, maple, &c. The 
town is divided into three school 
Jiatricts, in two of which are school- 
*k)U8es. There are one grist, two 
•*lw, one clover and one fulling 
^ill, one carding machine, two tav-. 
^os, two blacksmiths, two carpen- 
ters and one wheelwright. Popula- 
ion, 1820, 442. o. d. 

January^ 1824. 
BU.RDWICK, a post township in 
he western part of Caledonia 
ounty, is in lat. 44° 31' and long, 
o 35'^ and is bounded northeast by 
Sreensborough, southeast by Wal- 
len, southwest by,.Woodbury, and 
lorthwest by Wolcott. It lies 21 
oiles northeast from Jtfontpelier, 
ind 73 north from Windsor. It 
ras g^nted November 7, 1780, and 
(bartered August 19, 1781, to Dan- 
i>rth Keyes and his associates, con- 
fining 23040 acres. Soon after 
he township was chartered, a man, 
>y the name of Safibrd, made a be- 
^nnihg here, but was soon discour- 
iged and left the place. About the 
rear 1790, the first permanent set- 
lemeiit was made by several fam- 

/ilies of the name of Norris from 
New-Hampshire. A Mr. Page came 
in about the same time, and also a 
number of families, by the name of 
Sabin, soon after, among whom was 
Mr. Gideon Sabin, whose wife wa« 
the mother of 26 children. The 
town was organized^n 1795. Paul 
Spooner was first town clerk, and 
also the first representative. The 
very good! Baptists formed the first religious 
society soon after the settlement 
commenced and settled Elder Amos 
Tuttle, who continued their minis- 
ter several years. In 1804, a Con- 
gregational church was organized, 
which, at first, consisted of 12 mem- 
bers. By the year 1810, it had in- 
creased to 30 members, when there 
was a powerful awakening, and 70 
more were added to their number. 
In 1811, they settled the Rev. Na- 
thaniel Rawson, jr., who continued 
their pastor a little more than six 
years, and was dismissed. On the 
third of January, 1822, the Rev, 
Jacob JST. Loomis was ordained over 
this church, which, at present, con- 
sists of about 130 members. There 
is also a Freewill Baptist and a 
Methodist society. Elder Mark 
J^orris is minister of the former. 
There is, in town, one good meet- 
inghouse, and the frame for a sec- 
ond erected. The physicians are 
Car on Smith and Nathan B. Spauld- 
ing. The surface of the township 
is pleasantly diversified with large 
swells and vales, but no part of it is 
mountainous. The principal stream 
is the river Lamoille, which enters 
the township from Greensborough, 
and, taking a circuitous course, 
passes through it in a westerly di- 
rection into Wolcott. This and 
several of its tributaries furnish a 
number of excellent rail! privileges. 
The surface of the land is, in gen- 
eral, smooth and the soil good. 
The timber is a mixture of maple, 





beech, birch, hemlock, spruce, &c.! 
This, like the other towns in its vi-! 
canity, has its sulphur springs.! 
Ilazen's road passes throug^h the 
northeast part ol' the township, on! 
which is a small villag;e, which is a! 
place of some business. There are. 
in town nine school districts, seven 
jchoolhouses, four stores," three tav-; 
erns, two tanneries, eight saw, two 
grist and two fulling mills, and two; 
carding machines. Popiflation^ 
1820, «67. 

Augusts 1824. 

Harris' Gore, a tract of land 
containing 6020 acres, lying in the 
southwest corner of Caledonia coun- 
ty, is bounded northwest by Marsh- 
field and Goshen Gore, northeast 
by G rolon and southwest by Orange. 
It was granted February 25, 1781, 
and chartered to Edward Harris,; 
October 30, 1801. It is mountain- 
ous and uninhabited. Gunner^s 
branch originates iu this gore and 
uni^s with Stevens' branch in 

Hartford, a post town of Wind- 
sor county, is in lat. 43° 40' and 
long. 4P 33', and bounded north by 
Norwich, east by Connecticut river 
which separates it from Lebanon, 
N. H., south by Hartland and west 
by Pomfret, It lies 14 miles north 
from Windsor, and 42 southeast 
from Montpelier. It was chartered 
July 4, 1761, to 60 proprietors and 
contains about 46 square miles. 
The first settlers were Elijah Solo- 
mon and Benajah Strong. They 
emigrated from Lebanon, Con., and 
came into this township with their 
families in 1764. The next year 
they were joined in the settlement 
by 12 other families. The town 
was organized March 8, 1768, and 
Elijah Strong was the first town 
clerk. In 1775, Amos Robinson 
was chosen to go to Westminster, 
and Stephen Tilden was delegate] 

to the Convention, holden at >V 
minster, January 15, 1777, "Wh 
declared the independence of V 
mont. I'he religious denominsti* 
are Presbyterians, Congr^tiaO 
lists, Methodists, Baptists, Uoiver^ 
jists and Christians. The tb^ 
'former have regular churches. 1** 
[Rev. Thomas Gross, was the (L- 
settled minister. He was aetti ^ 
over the Congregational chiir^ 
June 7, 1786 and dismissed iaFe^ 
jruary 1808. The Rev. w^tu/w B» 
\sen^ was settled by the same chwC 
May 28, 1812, and is their prnee 
minister. There is a Congregatioc 
al meeting at the centre of the towi 
and one belonging to the Presbyti 
rians in the north part. No paw 
has lived in town to exceed U 
years of age, but several have lite 
very nearly to that age. The ej 
demic of 1812 and 13 was very mo 
tal, and about 60 died of it Tl 
Physicians are Dan Wright, Dav 
Ingraham, James Tracy, Thorn 
Carter, Ira Tenney and Sama 
Sargeant. Joseph Marsh, Esq. 
very prominent personage in t 
early history of Vermont, was a r« 
ideut of this town. He was be 
at Lebanon, Con., in January^ 17*. 
and removed to this township 
1772. In 1775, he was choseo 
delegate from the county of Ciu 
berland to the convention of t 
province of New- York, on inatti 
relating to the revolution, muolii 
the eastern part of Vermont, at ^ 
period acknowledging the autbffi 
ty of that province. He wai ; 
member of the convention, whifli 
formed the first constitution of ?« 
mont, in 1 777 ; the first Lieut Gei 
ernor of the state, which office I 
held for several years in succewoi 
and was some years chief judge 
the county court for the county 
Windsor. He was many yesn 
professor of the christian religic 





d here in January 1810, in 
oyment of its hopes and con- 
is, at the advanced ag^e of 
•s. This township is water- 
White and Queechy rivers, 
are the only streams of con- 
ce. White river enters the 
lip near the northwest comer 
Is into the Cennecticat about 
ddle of the eastern boundary, 
iieechy river runs through the 

into which the machinery is soon to 
be removed and g^eat additioni 
made to it. Mr. L. is also, about 
puttings 20 looms into operation^ 
which are to be moved by water. 
Q^ueeehy village is situated around 
a considerable fall in Queechy river, 
about five miles from its mouth, 
and contains two stores, a tavern, 
a Woollen factory, pottery, mills 
and as great a variety of mechanics* 

part. They both afford very shbps as any other village of its size 

)le privileges for mills and 
machinery driven by water, 
alarly at the places called 

I river village and Queechy 
!. The surface of the town 
cen, but the soil is rich and 
, aud produces good grass and 

The gulf formed by the 
e of Queechy river, through 
siderable hill is a curiosity, 
is about one mile below 
hy village. T^ere are evi- 
.ppearances of there having 
a considerable pond here, 
was emptied by the wearing 
of the channel. The timber 
icipally white pine, beech, 
and birch. There are sever- 

II villages in town, the larg- 
e White river village and 
ihy village. White river vil- 
s pleasantly situated on the 

of White river about one 
rom its mouth, and contains a 
tavern, post office, two law- 
tffices, a cotton factory and a 
7 of mills, machinery and me- 
;'s shops. The river is here 
1 by a new and handsome 
. In the cotton factory which 
r in operation, are 662 spjn- 
rhich spin 10 hundred weight 
•n per week. Mr. Lyman, 
oprietor, haa, the present sea- 
rected a new and spacious 
ag of brick, 85 feet long, 42 
uud three stories high, and ca- 
of containing 4000 spindles, 

in the state. In the woollen facto- 
ry are in operation 125 spindles and 
eight looms, two of which are mov- 
ed by water. In this village is an 
iron copperplate- printing press, at 
which is printed Hutchinson^s edi- 
tion of Whitelaw's large map of 
Vermont. At the mouth of White 
river is a small villa, and the land- 
ing place for goods from the river, 
Here is also a bridge across Con- 
necticut river called Lyman's bridge. 
The Messrs. Lyman's reside here. 
There are in town 17 school districts 
and schoolhouses, one oil, three 
grist, 12 saw and three fulling mills, 
two carding machines, one cotton 
and oneNvooUen factory, four stores, 
three taverns, two distilleries, four 
tanneries and one pottery. Popu- 
lation 1820, 2010. 
August^ 1824. 
Hartland, a post town in the 
eastern part of Windsor county, is 
jin lat. 43° 34' and long. 4° 30', and 
is bounded north by Hartford, east 
by Plainfield, N. H. from which it 
is separated by Connecticut river, * 
south by Windsor and west bj; 
Woodstock. This township lies 50 
miles southeasterly from Montpe- 
lier and 62 northeast from Ben- 
nington, 100 from Boston, 230 from 
New- York and 427 from Wash- 
ington city. It was chartered by 
the governor of n. h., July 10, 1761, 
by the name of Hertford, contain- 
ing 25,350 acres. The charter was 





confirmed by New- York, in 1766.'j!ver8alists, Congregational ists and 
The name was altered to Hartland,'' Baptists. There are two houses for 
June 15, 1782. The settlement of || public worship, one erected in 1788, 
the township was commenced in ; and the other in 1^22. The latter 
May, 1763, by Timothy Lull from jbolongs principally to the Univer- 
Dummellton, in this state. At this isalists. Elder IHmothy -Chrov bas 
time there were no inhabitants onilbeen for many years minister of the 
Connecticut river between Charles-]! Baptist church in this town. The 
ton, then No. 4, and Hartland. I Rev, Robert Bartlet has been latdj 

A few families had, however, set- 
tled in Newbury, about 40 miles to 
the north of this place. Mr. L. 

settled over the L'niversalist society. 
The other clergyman are the Rn. 
John Smithy Jtfo^M TVtrJbi&ury, and 

moved into the town in the follow- ,Seth E, Winslow. The physicians 

ing manner. Having purchased a log 
canoe, he proceeded in that, up Con- 
necticut river, with his furniture and 
family, consisting of a wife and four 
children. He arrived at the mouth of 
a considerable brook in Hartland, 

are 8. P. Page, Sylvester Marcy 
•and John Harding. This is a rich 
farming township and its surface is 
pleasantly diversified with hills and 
vallies. Connecticut river washes , 
•the eastern boundary, and at'Qoee- 

where he landed his family, -tied hisi'chy Tails on this stream, are several 
t^anoe, and, breaking a junk bottle inlimills, situated on the Hartland-side. 

presence of his little family, named 
the stream LulVs brooks by which 
name it has ever since been known. 

Queechy river runs across the north- 
east corner and Lull's brook throngh 
the southern part of the town and 

He proceeded up the brook about, afibrd some of the best mill privi- 
a mile to a log hut, which had been jlcges in the state. On the lands of 

jjreviously erected, near the place 
now called Sumner's village. Here 
he spent his days and died at the ad- 
vanced age of 81 years. His first 
ohild, bom in town, Timothy Lull, 
id still living on the same farm. 
He was bom in December, 1764, 
on which occasion the midwife was 
Clrawti from Charleston by the fa- 
ther upon the ice, a distance of :23 
miles, upon a handsled. Mr. Lull 
had to sufi^ier many privations and 
hardships for several years ; but 

David H. Sumner, Esq. has recent- 
ly been discoi'^red a valuable bed 
of paint. It is abundant and of an 
excellent quality. The town is di- 
vided into 18 school districts, - in 
each of which is a schodlhoose. 
Here are two small villages; five 
igrist, 14 saw, one clover and three 
jfulling mills, two woollen -factories, 
jtwo distilleries, two tanneries, fonr 
taverns and two stores. Popula- 
tion 1820, 2553. I. w. c. 
September^ 1824. 

possessing a strong constitution andji Harwich. — Name altered to 

a vigorous mind, he overcome all 
obstacles, accumulated a handsome 
property, lived respected and died 
generally lamented. The first set- 
tlers of the township were mostly 
emigrants from Massachusetts and 
Connecticut. The town was or- 
ganized in 1 767, and Zadock Wright 
uras first tovm clerk. 
iciMniinatioQS are Christians, Uni- 

Jtfbunt Tabor. See J^mmt Tkbor. 
Hazen's Road. — See Peaekam* 
Hertford. — This name was al- 
tered to Hartland, by act of the Le- 
.gislature, June 15, 1782. See Hart- 

High GATE, a township in the 
northwest comer of Franklin coun- 
ty, is in lat. 44° 58', and long. 3** 
55', and is bounded north by Daa*t 





^atent, in Lowsr Caaada, east by 
rranklin, south by S wanton and 
)heldon, and west by Missisque bay, 
vhich separates it from the town- 
hip of Alburgh. It lies 33 miles 
Lortheasterly from Burlington, and 
i4 northwesterly from Montpelior, 
md was chartered Aug^ust 17, 1763, 
rjhe settlement of this towsship was 
ommenced soon after the close of 
he revolutionary war by emigrants 
rom various parts. The popula- 
ion, in 1791, amounted to 103 per- 
onfl* The principal religious de- 
lomioations aie Congreg;ationalists 
xkd Methodists. The Rev. Pfiine- 
MS Kingsley is the only clergyman, 
md Doct. Cutler, the only physi- 
lian. A meetinghouse was erected 
lere in 1812. The Missisque river 
inters this township from Sheldon, 
ind, after running some distance in 
he south part of it, passes into 
Swanton, and, after taking a cir- 
ioitous course of several miles, re- 
.anns into Highgate, and pursuing a 
lOBthwesterly course, falls into Mis- 
lisque bay. About six miles above 
^wanton falls, is a fall in the river 
>€ about 40 feet, affording some ex- 
cellent mill privileges. Rock river 
sin the north part of the township, 
Loi has on it one saw mill. The 
>oil is mostly sandy, and covered 
irith pine, except along the course 
)f the Missisque river, where the 
imber is hemlock, ash, &c., and in 
Jie southwest corner, which con- 
stitutes a part of what is called Hog 
(sland, and is marshy. Bog iron 
3re is found in this town in great 
Abundance, and is worked to some 
sztent. There are here six school 
listricts and schoolhouses, two grist, 
:hree saw and one fulling mill, two 
3avdiag machines, one woollen fac- 
tory, one store, two taverns, two 
listilleries, one tannery, and one 
^amace. Population, lii20, 1250.. 

HiNESBURGH, apost township in 
the south part of Chittenden county, 
is in lat. 44*^ 19' and long. 3° S^, 
and is bounded north by St. George, 
a part of Shelburn and a part of 
Richmond, east by Huntington and 
Starksborough, south by Monkton 
and a part of Starksborough, and 
west by Charlotte. It lies 12 miles 
southeast from Burlington, and 26 
nearly west from Montpelier. It 
was chartered June 21, 1762, and 
contains 36 square miles, the lines 
ruuAing due north and south, and 
east and west. This township was 
settled immediately after the close 
of the revolution, but we have ob- 
tained no particulars respecting its 
settlement, or early history. There 
is a Baptist church here consisting of 
about 80 members, and a Congre- 
gational church over which the 
Rev, Otto S, Hoyt has beefi settled 
for several years. This is a fine 
farming town^ip. Its principal 
streams are Piatt river and Lewis 
creek. The former waters the 
northern and central parts, and the 
latter, the southern part. In tho* 
north part is a small natural pond^ 
from which issues one of the prin- 
cipal branches of Piatt river. On 
this stream are several mills and 
other machinery and a pleasant littlo 
village, containing a Congregational 
meetinghouse, two stores, a woollen 
factory, village schoolhouse, &c. 
Population, 1820, 1332. 

Hinsdale. — Name altered to 
Vernon, October 31, 1802. See 

IIoG-IsLAivD, is partly in SWto* 
ton and partly in Highgate, and 
lies between the mouth of the Mis-^ 
sisque river and a creek, which 
makes out of the same, and unites 
with McQuam bay in Swanton. It 
has Missisque bay on the west, and 
contains 10 or 12 square miles. 
MucKof the laAd ia low and xnarshy.. 





lioLLAivD, a township in the 
northeast corner tf Orleans county, 
is in lat. 44° 58' and lon^. 4° 53', 
and is bounded north by Barnston, 
and Staustead, Can., ea^t by Norton, 
south by Morgan, and west by Der- 
by. It lies 56 miles northeast from 
Montpelier, and €1 north from New- 
bury. It was granted March 8, 
1787, and chartered to Timothy 
Andrus and associates, October 26, 
1781>, containing 36 square miles. 
The settlements, in this township, 
have been wholly made since the 
year 1800. The town is organized 
and has been once or twice represent- 
ed. It is watered by several branch- 
es of Clyde river. In the north- 
east part is a large pond, whose 
wutoii fl'jw northwesterly into Can- 
ada. 2 he laud is handsome and 
excellent, and produces wheat, rye, 
oah, bailey, potatoes, grass, fee, in 
abundance. Some of the eastern 
part is low and swampy. Popula- 
tion, 1820, 100. 

HoPKiNSViLLE. — Name altered 
to Kirby in the fall of 1807. See 

HoosAC River, is formed in 
Pownal, and runs northwesterly in- 
to the township of Hoosac, N. Y 
where it receives the river Wa- 
loomsac from Shaftsbury and Ben- 
nington, and, taking a westerly 
course, falls into the Hudson near 
Stillwater. Its whole length is a- 
bout 40 miles, and it receives the 
waters from 182 square miles in 

HuBBARDTOx, a posttownship in 
the northwestern part of Rutland 
county, is in lat. 43^ 43' and long. 
3° 5(y, and is bounded north by 
Sudbury, east by Pittsford, south by 
Castleton, and west by Benson. It 
lies 50 miles southwest from Mont 
pelier, and 50 north from Benning- 
ton. It was chartered June 15, 
1764, t« Isaac Searls, £s<j. and his 

associates, and now contaios aboat 
18,000 acres. It was originally six 
miles square. Some of the north- 
east part is now annexed to Pitts- 
ford, and the north part to Sud- 
bury. The 'settlement of Hob- 
bardtoa wa» commenced in the 
spring of 1774« by Uriah Hickok 
and William Trowbridge, with 
their families, from Sheffield, Mass. 
On the last of August, Jtfrs. Hickok 
was delivered of a daughter, Eli- 
zabeth Hickok, who died in Septem- 
ber, 1776. This was the first hirtH, 
and the first death m the town. In 
1775, Messrs. John Seleck, Samiel 
and Jesse Cburchillv William 
jSpaulding, Benjamin Boardman, 
lAbdial Webster • and Benjamin 
Hickok, moved their families here, 
i These nine families constituted tiie 
I whole population when the Ame- 
iricanarmy, under Gen. St. Clair, e- 
jvacuated Ticonderoga, July 6, 1777. 
On the same day a party of Indians 
'and tories, under a Capt. Sherwood, 
jcame upon the inhabitants of this 
jtownship, and made prisoners of 
I Benjamin and Uriah Hickok, with 
{their families, and two young meS) 
I by the names of Keeler and Eel- 
jlogfg* Uriah Hickok and the two 
young men were carried ta Ticmi- 
•deroga. They were detained aev- 
ieral weeks, when Mr. Hickok made 
I his escape, and the young men were 
■afterwards retaken. Gen. St. Clair, 
jwith his army, passed through this 
township the same day he abandon- 
'ed 7^, and left here Cols. Warner, 
jHale and Francis with their regi- 
!ments as a rear guard. They en- 
[camped on the farm of John Seleck, 
|£sq. near the spot where the Bap- 
jtist meetinghouse now stands. Oa 
the following night Benjamin 
I Hickok, with his own and the fam* 
lily of Uriah Hickok, left th^ 
.homes, the women and children on 
{foot, in order to escape from the 





danger. When they arrived at the |icers and men, advanced to th& 
deserted farm of Jiutia Hickok, in I'charge with such impetuosity that 
Castleton, they stopped for the || the enemy were thrown into diaof- 
remainder of the night, expect- jder and, at first, g^ave away before 
ing- to pursue their journey in the| him. They, however, soon recover- 

momingin company with Col. Bel-; 
lows' reg;iment, which was encamp- 1 
ed there. The Colonel had but' 
jast commenced his march in the; 
morning, when, hearing firing at 

ed, formed anew and advanced up- 
on the Americans who, in their turn, 
gave uway. At this critical moment,, 
the reinforcement, under Gen. 
Reidesel, arrived, which was immo- 

Habbardton, he marched back toijdiately led into the action, and thd 
the assistance of liis companions,||fortuneof the day was soon decided. 

leaving these unfortunate families,! 
to pursue their flight, unprotected 

The Americans, overpowered by 
numbers and exhausted by fatigue. 

and alone. It appeared that the rc-i fled from the field in every direction. 
treat of the American army from 71-! Tlieir loss in this action in killed^ 
conderoga, was no sooner discover-- wounded and prisoners was 324^ 
•dby the British than Gen. Fra- 1 that of the BriUsh about 190. The 
zier began an eager pursuit of their! detachment, sent to the assistance ot* 

main body. Gen. Reidesel was also! 
ordered to join in the pursuit with 
the Brunswick troops, and to assist 
Frazier, if occasion should require. 
They encamped for the night at a 
place called Lacy's Camp, about 
half a mile from where Dewey's 
tavern now stands, and three miles 

• I 

from Warner's encampment. On 
the morning of the 7th of July, 
Warner sent a detachment of about 

300 men, a disttoce of two miles, tojM r. Churchill's sons, John and Silas^ 

iVIr. Churchill, executed their or- 
ders promptly. Thofe of the fam- 
ily, who could not travel on foot» 
were mounted on horseback, with 
as many of their efiects as they 
could conveniently carry. They 
had just begun their march, on their 
return, when the battle commenced. 
Hearing the firing, they pushed for* 
ward as fast as possible to the assist* 
ancc of their companions. T'wo of 

assist Mr. S. Churchill in getting a^- 
way his family. During their absence 
-the British, who had early renewed j 
their pursuit, made their appear- 
aooe, and by 7 o'clock the two de- 
tachments were drawn up in order 
for battle. Frazier commenced the 
attack, tnomently expecting to be 
joined by the detachment under 
Gen. Reidesel. Col. Hale, aware ofl 
the danger of being overpoweredj 
by superior numbers , retired from 
the field and left Warner and Fran- 
cis, with 7 or 800 men, to dispute the 
progress of the enemy. The conflict 
fierce and bloody. Francis fell 

at the head of his regiment, fighting 
with great I'esolution and bravisry. 
IVaniervwett supported by hii o&-[kka0Biiaationft of 


accompanied the detachment, and 
were in the engagement. Silas waa 
taken prisoner, and John made his 
escape, and fled back to his former 
residence, as did also the rest of the 
family. Here they were surprised^ 
and all taken prisoners by Sher^ 
wood and his party, who had beea 
lurking on the hills, east of the 
town, during the action. John, 
Silas and Ezekiel Churchill, were 
carried to Ticouderoga. Ezekiel 
was released at the solicitation of 
his friends, on account of his youth* 
The others, after remaining prison- 
ers several months, were retaken 
by Col. Brown. Hubbardton was 
organized in March, 1785. The 





Cong^egatioaali&ts, Baptists and 
Methodists. The Rev. Ithamer 
Hibbard was settled over the Con- 
gregpational church about the year 
1797, and continued their pastor till 
the time of his death. Their pres> 
ent minister is the Rev, Sherman 
Kellogg, Elder Nathan Dana was 
settled over the Baptist church a- 
bout 1797, and continued their past- 
or several years. Elder Abel Woods 
is their present pastor, and the num- 
ber of members belong^ing^ to the 
church is 79. The Congregation- 
alists and Baptists have each a con- 
yenient meetinghouse. The phy- 
sicians are H. Sealey and C. W. 
Horton. The surface of this town- 
ship is uneven, and a part of it 
somewhat mountainous.* It is well 
watered, and well timbered with 
hard wood, together with a supply 
of pine and hemlock for building. 
There are here several consider- 
able natural ponds. Gregory's 
pond is the largest. It is about 
three miles long, and one broad, ly- 
ing partly in Sudbury, and dis- 
charging its waters to the west, 
forming Hubbardton river. At the 
outlet of this pond, in the northwest 
corner of the township, are excel- 
lent mill seats, owned by Gideon 
Horton, Esq., on which stand a grist 
and saw mill, triphammer shop, a 
small woollen factory and a flourish- 
ing little village. Beebe'^s pond lies 
about a mile northwest of the cen- 
tre of the township, and is a mile 
and a half long, and a mile wide. 
It discharges its waters to the south 
into lake Bombazine. On its oat- 
let are excellent mill privileges, 
on which S. B. Walker, Esq., has 
lately erected a grist, saw and clover 
mill. The first grist and saw mill 
in town, were- erected on this stream, 
in 1787, by Nathan Rumtsey, Esq. 
There are several other ponds of 
l9^ toKseqaence, oae of wbich dis- 

charges its waters to the east into 
Otter creek. On its outlet area 
saw mill and carding machine. Tlie 
turnpike, from Sudbury to Lansiug- 
I burgh, N. Y., passes through tb» 
township. There are, ia town, nine 
school districts, eiglit schoolhooses, 
two grist mills, wi^li three run of 
stQpes each, six saw, one falling and 
one clover mill, one woollen £u;torj 
and one carding machine. Popnlft- 
tion, 1820, 810. s. w. 

March, 1824. 

Hubbardton Rivbr, rises from 
several small ponds in Sudbuiy, 
runs southwesterly through 6re- 
gory''s pond in Hubbardton, throogh 
Benson, and falls into the head of 
East bay in West-Haven. In its 
course it. affords several very good 
mill privileges. Its whole l^i^is 
about 20 miles. 

HuNGERvoHi). — ^Name altered 
to Sheldon, November 8, 179S> 
See Sheldon, 

Huntington, a township in tbe 
southeast part of Chittenden coqb- 
ty, is in lat. 44^ 20' and long. 4^^ IN 
and is bounded noilh by Bolton tod 
a part of Richmond, east by Dm* 
bury and Faystou, south by Avery^ 
and Buers gores, and west by 
Starksborough and Hinesbnigk* 
It lies 20 miles west from JHbo^ 
lier, and 15 southeast from Burling- 
ton. It was chartered June 7, 17& 
to Edward Burling and others, by 
the name of New-Huntington, and 
originally contained 36 sqnaie 
miles. October 27, 1 794, the north- 
westerly part of this township vu 
annexed to Richmond, and the 
northeasterly part to Bolton ; and 
at the same time the north part of 
Avery's and Buers gores were ad> 
ded to New-Huntington. In Octo* 
ber, 1795, the name was altered f» 
Huntington. The settlement af 
this township was commenced la 
iVIarcb^ 1786, bj i^jaisl JqIui ibA 





Jtfanchester and Sunderland in this 
state. The town was organized in 
March, 1790, and Charles Brewster 
was first town clerk. It was first 
represented in 179 1 by Jehiel Jolins. 
jThe reli^bus denominations arc 
Freewill Baptists, Baptists and 
Methodists, but no meetinghouse or 
settled minister. The physicians 
are Gail Nichols and Enoch A. 
Smith. Hunting;tou river is the 
principal stream. It affords a num- 
ber of oonyenient mill privileges. 
The surface of the township is very 
uneven, consisting of high moun- 
tains and deep gullies. I'hat cele- 
brated summit of the Green Moun- 
tains, called CaniePs Rump, is m 
the east part of this township. 
Iliere are some farms which pro- 
duce tolerable crops, but the soil is, 
iii general, gravelly and poor. Tim- 
ber, such as is common to the 
mountain towns. There are here 
eight school districts, three good 
schoolhouses, one grist and five saw 
mills, one store, one tavern, two dis- 
tilleries and one tannery. Popula- 
tion, 1820, 732. J. A. jr. 

HuHTiirGTON River rises in 
Lincoln, runs through Starksbo- 
rough and Huntington, and joins 
Onion river in Richmond. This is a 
very rapid stream, with a grs^el or 
fltoney bottom, especially afler it 
arrives within seven or eight miles 
of Onion riyer« Its leogth is about 
SO miles. 

HuvTSBURGH. — Name altered to 
Franklin. See Franklin. 

Hyokpark, a post toi^n^hip in 
the southwestern part of Orleani? 
county, is in lat. 44° 37' and long. 
4^ 22^, and is bounded northerly by 
£den, easterly by Wolcott and a 
•mall part of Craftsbury, southerly 
by Morristown, and westerly by 
Johnson and a part of Belvidere. 
It lies ^ iBil/M north iroxa Mo»tpe-| 

Blisha Bradley, emigrants from ;lier, and 32 northeast from Burling' 

ton ; was granted November tj, 
1780, and chartered, to Jedediah 
flyde and others, August 7, 1781, 
containing 23040 acres. The ori- 
ginal grantees were mostly residents 
of Norwich, Con., and men, who 
had distinguished themselves in the 
■land or naval service during the re- 
jvolutionary war. The settlement 
of this township was commeaced hy 
John xMcDaniel, jLisq.,who removed 
his family here July 4, 1787. He 
emigrated from Canterbury, N,U.j 
was the first settler in this vicinity, 
and probabl) the first in Orleans 
county. At this time, the nearebt 
settlements were at Johnson on the 
west, and at Cabot on the east ; the 
former distant 10 miles and the lat- 
ter about 20. The intervene! vg coun* 
try was a perfect wilderness, with 
no road, except a foot path, called 
the Hunter's path. Along this Mr. 
McDauiel, with his family, made his 
way from Cabot to Uydepark. The 
next year he was joined by Jabez 
Fitch, Peter Martin and Jedediah 
Hyde. Among the early settlers, 
besides those above named, may be 
mentioned Aaron Keeler, Darius 
Fitch, Oliver Noyes and the Hon. 
Nathaniel P. Sawyer. Tlie pro- 
gress of the settlement has always 
been slow. This township is wa- 
tered by the river Lamoille, which 
runs across both the southeast and 
southwest comer ; by Green river, 
which crosses the northeast comer, 
by LittleNorth branch,which crosses 
the northwest corner, and by Town 
hill brook. The mill privileges ivre 
many, and conveniently situated. 
The soil is generally of a good qual- 
ity and easily cultivated. There is 
here much good land, which is still 
unsettled. 7 'own hill is in the north 
part of the township, and in the 
aortheastern part are several small 
pouds, Tbo iababitaats of Hy4^ 





park are, at present, mostly accom- j 
modated by mills in the udjoining 
towns near the borders of the town- 
ship. Population, 1820, 373. 
May^ 1824. J. M. K. 

IvDiAir River, is a small stream, 
which rises in Rupert, runs through 
the corner of Pawlet, and unites 
with Pawlet river in Granville, N. 
Y. Another small stream of this 
name rises in Esse^ and falls into 
Colchester bay in Colchester. 

Ira, a post township in the cen- 
tral part of Rutland county, is in 
lat. 43^ 33' and long. 3= 55', and is 
bounded east by Rutland and Clar- 
endon, south by Tinmouth, south- 
west by Middletowu, and west by 
Poultney and Castleton. It is of a 
triangular form, ranning to a point 
•toward* the noith, and is 47 miles 
north from Bennington, and 32 west 
from Windsor. ThX^ town was or- 
ganized May 31, 1779, and Isaac 
Clark was first town clerk ; and also 
the first representative, chosen the 
tame year. The Baptist church is 
the only one in town. It was or- 
ganized in 1783, and Elder Thomas 
Skeels was settled over it on the 
25th of Dec. of this year. He was 
succeeded by Elder Amasa Brown, 
who was settled February 23^ 1786, 
and dismissed January 30, 1787. 
December 3, 1801, Elder Joseph 
Carpenter was ordained over this 
church, and contiiMied his connexion 
with it till Jtfarch 7, 1816. He was 
succeeded by Elder Wm. McCuUer, 
who preached here from April 29, 
1815, tiUthe fall of 1819. Eldtr 
Lyman Olaeier was ordained over 
the church, July 11, 1822, and still 
continues their pastor. They erect- 
ed a brick meetinghouse, which was 
completed in 1822. The number 
%i members belonging to this church 
is now about 140. A very power- 
ful awakening commenced here in 
^oyember* 1808, aod coutiaued 

through the winter, in conseqaeooe' 
of wluch 225 were added to the 
Baptist church, a considerable put 
of whom are now set off to the 
church in Clarendon. Sixteen or 
17 persons died here of the epide* 
micof 1813. There arenopiiya' 
cians or attomies in. town. Tfaii 
township is considerably mooatain- 
ons. BirtTs mountain, in the north 
part, is high and abrupt. Ira brook 
rises in the south part, runs norti^ 
easterly, and joins Furnace brookiB 
Clarendon. Castleton river croMi 
Ihe township in a westerly direotioi. 
Mill privileo^es not yerj gool 
There are, in town, five school di9> 
triots and schoolbouaes, two itv 
mills, two tanneries and one tavon* 
Population, 1820, 498. 
Julyy 1824. 
Irasburoh, a poet and •bin' 
township in the centre of Orleam 
county, is in lat. 44^ 48' and Ung; 
4^ 38^, and is bounded northerly 1^ 
Coventry, easterly by Barton takt 
small part of Brownington, soai^ 
erly by Albany, and westerly bf 
Kellyvale, Coventry gore and ft 
part of Nevtrport. It lies 40 wim 
northeasterly from Jtfbntpelier, vu 
chartered, to Ira Allen alidhis lao* 
ciates, February 23, 1781, and eoi* 
tains 23040 acres. Ira Allen was the 
principal proprietor and from his. 
the townslup derives its namLS. 1^ 
settlement of the townehip mt 
commenced a little previous to the 
year 1800. The town was orgu-. 
ized March 12, 1803, and Saaofll 
Conant was the first town derk. 
The surface of this townehip '* 
iomewhat diversified with goitto 
hills and vallies. The soil is eiif 
to cultivate, and, in general, pre* 
duces good crops. Black tine 
passes through the township in a 
nortlieasterly direction, receiying a 
number ol small streams, but ill 
curr^t 18 generally Biodente) aid 






a£r<5r(ls bat few mill privileges. I |church, and is its present pastor^ 
arton river just touches upon the; Elder Simeon Coombs was installed 
istern comer. Nearly in the cen-j over the Baptist church in 1803, 

*e of the tovmship is a small vil-, 
ige, containing a courthouse and! 
lil, two taverns, a store and several 
leehanics' shops. Pop. 1820, 432. 
Isle la Mott, is an island sit- 
itted in lake Champlain west of 

ami left the town in 1806. In 1812, 
there was a revival of religion, and 
about 60 were added to the two 
churches. The' physicians are Na- 
than Weeks and Moses Chamber-, 
lain. West river passes through 

forth Hero and Alburgh Point, andj this township, and, together with ita 

oatains 4620 acres. It was ineorpo- 
iLted into a township of the same 
ame, October 27, 1779; but the 
ame was altered to Vineyard, No- 
ember 1, 1802. See Vineyard, 
Jamaica, a post township in the 
orthwestern part of Windham 
otinty, is in lat. 43^ 5' and long. 4^ 
V, and is bounded north by Wind- 
lam and Londonderry, east by 
^ctoQ and Tbwnshend^ south by 
^ardsborough, and west by apart 
^ Stratton and a part of Winhall. 
t lies 26 miles northeast from Ben- 
aogton and 32 southwest from 
Windsor. It was chartered No vem- 
^«r 7, 1780, to Samuel Fletcher and 
us associates, and contains 29017 
icns. The settlement was com- 
fAttBced about the same time by 
i^illiam, Benjamin and Caleb 
toward and others from Mendon, 
^iue., and other towns in its vicin- 
^7> The town was organized Sept.} 
M7B1. William H. Church was, 
■^town clerk, and Silas Howard, 
Y^ representative. The religious' 
^KmuDations are Congregation- 
^^imd Baptists. The number," 
^ each church, is about the same, 
^ they have each a large and con- 
sent house for public worship ; 
^ of the former erected in 1808,; 
■Hlthatof thelatter,ii>1817. The; 
^r. John Stoddard was the first' 
ittled minister. He was settled- 
^ the Cong^regational church in. 
^95, and dismissed in 1798. In! 
!ptember, 1815, the Rev, Philipl 
^guiding WW installed over Uusj 

tributaries, affords numerous and 
excellent mill privileges. The sur-^ 
face of the townsliip is broken and 
mountainous, and the elevations 
rocky, but the soil is, in genera], 
warm and productive. A range of 
primitive limestone passes through 
the township, from which lime ia 
manufactured in the eastern part, 
where there is a fine locality of 
dolomite. It is granular, Qexible, 
and of a snow white colour. In a 
vein of the dolomite is found the 
micaceous oxide of iron. It is 
brilliant, fine grained, and the par- 
ticles are separated by rubbing be- 
tween the fingers. The principal 
village is situated near the centre 
of the township, and contains two 
meetinghouses, one store, one tav- 
ern, one grist and two saw mille, 
two fulling mills, one carding ma- 
chine and one trip hammer shop. 
They are situated on Bald Moun- 
tain brook, near its junction with 
West river. There are, in town, 
ten school districts, eight school- 
houses, four grist and six saw mills. 
Population, 1820, 1513. 

jiugusU 1824, J.T. 8. 

Jay, a township in the northwest 
corner of Orleans county, is in lat. 
W 57- and long. 4*^ 25', and is 
bounded north by Sutton, Can., east 
by Troy, south by Westfield and 
west by Riohford. It lies 50 mile« 
north from Montpelier,aDd the same 
distance northeast from Burlington^ 
This township was granted March 
13, 1780, aad was originally caUeii, 





Carthage. It was chartered toUtlers returned immediately after tbe 
Gov. Thomas Chiiteiiden,' Novem- jwar, and the town was organaed 
ber 7, 1792, by its present name, and! jMarch^, 1786. Lewis Chapinw 

contains 23040 acres. Previous to 
the late war with Great Britain, 
five or six famiHcs had settled in 
this township, but during the war 
.'i6y nearly all left it. A few fam- 
ilies have since returned, and the 
settlement is advancing slowly. The 
eastern part of this township is 
handsome level land, and the soil 
good. The west line runs nearly 
its whole length on a very 
mountain. A number of small 
streams rise among the mountains 
in the western part, and, running 
easterly, unite before they leave the 
township, affording several very 
good null privileges. Jay Peak is 
a very lofty summit of the western 
range of the (jrreen Mountains, sit- 
uated in the southwest comer of the 
township, and partly in Mont- 
gomery, Westficld and Richford. 
Population, 1820, 52. 

Jericho, a post township in the 
eentral part of Chittenden county, 
is in lat. 44*^ 29' and long. 4°, and is 
bounded northerly by Underbill, 
east by Bolton, southeast by Rich- 
mond, southwest by Williston, from 
which it is separated by Onion riv- 
er, and westerly by Essex. It lies 
12 miles east from Burlington and 
26 northwest from Montpelier. It 
was chartered to Gov. Thomas 
Chittenden and associates, June 8, 
1763, and originally contained 25,- 
668 acres. Since that time a small 
part of Bolton has been annexed to 
it, and a new township formed from 
this and Williston,* by the name of 
Richmond. The settlement of Je- 
richo was commenced, in 1774, by 
Messrs. Messenger, Rood, and 
Brown, with their families, from the 
western part of Massachusetts, but 
the township was mostly abandon- 
ed daring the revolution. The set- 



first town clerk, and Jedediah Um 
first representative. The religio* 
denominations are CongregatiaDil* 
ists. Baptists, Jtfethodists, Freeffl 
Baptists, Episcopalians andUBifV* 
salists. TheRev. EbcnezerB^p' 
bury, was settled over the Cong* 
gational church, June 22, 1791, u* 
dismissed JV/ay 17, 1808. TheR« 
John Denison was settled oferit 
February 28, 1809, and diedMw* 
28, 1812. The Rev. Joseph I* 
baree was settled, in July, 1814, » 
dismissed, in January, 1819. f^ 
Rev. Luther P. .Btoi^c/ was insW- 
led September 29, 1819. EW« 
Ephraim Butler was pastor of ti» 
Baptist church from about 18W* 
1815. The Rev. James Babba«" 
ordained over the UniversaliWj 
ciety ^here and continued sew* 
years.' The Re v. Jonathan WiW 
jr., preached here from I S^j 
1823. There were special ren»J 
here in the years 1809,14 9d» 
Thephjrsicians are El^azcr HuteW* 
and George Howe. ThcreisaB** 
inghouse, erected inl796,ani* 
other now building of brick, atft* 
falls on Brown's river. OnioaW^ 
er washes the border of the toiwj' 
ship, and Brown's river r uns thnwp 
it in a westerly direction intofi* 
There are a great number of aW*" 
er streams, and the mill privil«|* 
are numerous. The soil and ^ 
ber are various in the diffiR^ 
parts of the township. There «• 
here 13 school districts, eight rImI* 
houses, two g^st and five sawBuBh 
four stores^ four taverns, onedi^ 
lery and one tannery. Popolatioti 
1820, 1219. W.F.». 

May, 1824. 
JoE^s Brook, or Mbrrit's Rn» 
ER, has its source in Cole^ pcidi 
near the north lioe of Waldeii)iBdl» 





.rly south five miles, falls 
md in Oabot. This pond 
;emileslong^,and,;n some 
a mile wide, lying partly 
od partly in Danville, 
jt is a very considerable 
noakes some of the best 
I the state. From this 
brook takes a southeast- 
through Danville, and 
5 Passmnpsic in Bamet. 
ral, a rapid stream, and 
tny excellent mill priv- 
ook its names from Joe^ 
rho formerly hunted on 
John IVIerritt, who made 
tlement on it, near its 
th the Passumpsic. 

J. w. 
, a post township in the 
Q -part of Franklin coun- 
44^ 40' and long. 4° 15', 
ded northerly by Belvi- 
ly by Hydepark, south- 
rling and westerly by a 
tnbridge, and a part of 
It is situated 28 miles 
ly from Montpelier, and 
distance northeasterly 
ngton. It was granted, 
>7, 1782, and chartered 
Johnson and others, Jan- 
792, containing 23040 
Samuel Eaton, from 
ose name is recorded 
heroes of our revolu- 
jnced the settlement of 
ip, in 1 784. During the 
before the reduction of 
the British, Jtfr. Eaton 
lUgh this part of the 
d down the river La- 
lake Cham plain, on a 
the commencement of 
ion, he enlisted into the 
rmy under Col. Beedle, 
itly passed through this 
while scouting between 
t river and l«ke Cham- 
se\'eral timet encamped 

; on the same fiat, which he, after- 
wards, occupied as a farm, it being a 
beautifal tract of interval in the 
westerly part. Like many other 
settlers of this state he had many 
difiiculti«s to encounter. In indi- 
gent circumstances and with a nu- 
merous family, he loaded his little 
all upon an old horse, and set out in 
search of that favourite spot which 
he had selected in his more youth- 
ful days. He had to travel nearly 
70 miles through the ivildemesa, 
guided by the trees which had been 
marked by the scouts, and opening 
a path as he passed along. He de- 
pended, for some time, after he ar- 
rived at Johnson, entirely upon 
hunting and fishing for the support 
of himself and family. Tlie next 
year, a family, by the name of Mc- 
Connel, and several others from 
N. H., commenced settlenvenis 
here, and soon after mills were e- 
rected on the North branch, near its 
confluence with the river Lamoille. 
At this place are now in operation 
a stone grist mill, a saw mill, fulling 
mill and carding machine. Around 
these is a flourishing little village, 
containing a number of mechanics, 
merchants, &c. The river Lamoille 
enters this township near the-south- 
east corner, and, running westerly 
about two miles, through a rich 
tract of interval, falls over a ledge 
of rocks about 15 feet in height in- 
to a bason below. T^is is called 
MeConneVs falls, Whence it runs 
northwesterly over a bed of rockf, 
about 100 rods, narrowing its chan- 
nel and increasing its velocity,' 
when it forms a whirlpool and six^s 
under a barrier of rocks, which ex- 
tends across the river. The arch is 
of solid rock, is about eight feet 
wide, and, at low water, is passed 
over by footmen with safety. The 
water rises below through numer- 
ous apertures, Ahibiting the ap^ 





•pearance of the boiling of a pot. 
About 150 rods below this natural 
bridge, the river receives the North 
branch, and bending its couk*se west- 
erly, leaves the township near the 
southwest corner. The surface of 
this township is uneven, being 
thrown into ridges, which are cover- 
ed with hemlock, spruce and hard- 
wood. The soil is a dark, or yellow 
loam, mixed with a light sand, is 
easily tilled, and very productive. 
The alluvial flats are considerably 
extensive, but back from the river, 
the lands are, in some parts, rather 
stoney. In tlie northeastern part, 
has been discovered a quantity of 
soapstone. Clay, of different col- 
ours, and suitable for brick and 
earthern ware, is found in various 
places. I'he town contains six 
school districts and schoolhouses, 
two physicians, four stores, one 
■tavern, two grist, five saw and one 
fulling mill and one carding machine, 
together with a full complement of 
mechanics. Population, 1820, 778. 

Jliigust, 1824. 

T. W. 

K£LLTVAL£, a post townsbip in 
the western part of Orleans county, 
is in lat. 44° 47' and long. 4° 27', 
4ind is bounded north by Troy, 
Westfield, Coventry gore and a 
part of Montgomery, southeast by 
Irasburgh and Albany, southwest 
})y Eden and Belvidere, and west- 
erly by Avery's gore. It lies 36 
miles north from Montpelicr, and 
42 northeast from Burlington. It 
was granted March 5, 1787, and 
chartered to John Kelly, June 7, 
179 1 , containing 39000 acres. Dur- 
ing the revolutionary war Col. 
Hazcn, attempting to open a road 
from Connecticut river to St. Johns 
in Canada, proceeded with a part of 
his regiment as far as this township 
and encamped, for some days, on the 
Hat near Missisque river. The 

am to this placeg and was cut bat not 
cleared several miles further. The 
first permanent settlement was 
made here by Maj. Wm. Caldwell, 
in April, 1 806. The town was or- 
ganized March 31, 1812, and Abel 
Curtis was first town clerk, which 
office he lias ever since held. Aan- 
hel Curtis was the first represem^ 
ative. and Wm. Caldwell, Asahel 
Cwtis and John Harding, the fint 
selectmen. The first company of 
militia was organized in Jane, 18l9i 
and commanded by Capt. Horatio 
Walker, llie Missisque river tr 
riginates in a small pond nearly on 
the line between this township and 
Eden, and, taking a northerly coum 
and receiving a number of coiuici- 
erable tributaries, enters Weit£eld 
near its southeast comer. Several 
of these tributaries are sufideiit 
for mills, and the river is increased 
by them to considerable magnitodi^ 
meadows of considerable 
extent and fertility, before leaving 
the township. Although encoiB- 
passed by mountains on allsideii 
except the northeast, much of the 
township is handsome land, ea^ts 
till and generally productive. ItM 
timbered mostly with hard wood* 
with some tracts of spruce and heap 
lock, and on the flats now and thei 
a v^uable pine- At the grist nuD 
of Asahel Curtis near the centre of 
the township, the whole river puMi 
through a hole in the solid rdek 
This natural bridge is situated it 
the foot of a fall in the river of i- 
bout ten feet. The top of theMlp 
is about three feet wide, and nl- [ 
same distance from the stir&M(Of 1 
the water, and under it the vrwitKi- 
15 feet deep. A range of *erpN» 
tine passes through this towuiafh • 
a northeasterly direction, hI- 
through the corner of Weri|M 
into Troy. The timber OB W 

jposd was made pa«sable from Peac^-\\T ange Hs^ «^q%\. ^'i;s^>^^^ cqivii 


- 165 



ilock. STiie serpeatine is 
Lnied with beautiful pro- 
pentine and an abundance 
Uie asbeetua and amianthus. 
2r passes throug^h the range 
the principal road leading 
Eaftsbury to Montreal, near 
re of the township, where 
esntine forms a considerable 
E>. Near the line between 
ie and VVestiield, and but a 
I from the road leading to 
L« serpentine forms another 
fe.lled Serpentine hill. At 
»se places asbestus is plenty. 
fi., and chlorite slate are com- 
l also an inferior species of 

or soapstone. Bitter spar 
^ quality, talc and magnetic 
> found in connexion with 
pentine. Pudding stone is 
Q the bank of the Missisque 

There is not, perhaps, a 
ip in the state, more interest- 
he mineralogist than Kelly- 
There are here one or two 
which are slightly chalyb- 
Ht they are not considered 
li consequence. T^he market 
ading to Montreal occupies 
of the old Hazen road. It is 
improving and will soon 
good share of traveL From 
of A. Curtis in this town, is 
view of Hazen^s Notch, 
I which the road passes, 
are in town two school dis- 
MTo saw mills, one grist mill 
eitavern. Pop. 1820, 139* 
iifOTov. — Name altered to 
m, November 4, 1800. See 
INQTON Pbak, is a summit 

Green Mountains in the 
ariof Sherburn. Its height 
ig to the admeasurement of 
L. Partridge is 3924 feet a 
de water- It is the most 
Jy of the two similar peaks 
1 near each other. The 

south peak is the highest; is in 
Shrewsbury, and is called Shrewt* 
bury Peak, 

KiNGBToir, a township in the 
eastern part of Addison county, is in 
lat. 43° 59' and long. 4° c'l and is 
bounded northerly by Warren and 
a part of Roxbury, easterly by 
Braintree, southerly by HancoolC 
And part of Rochester and W. by 
Avery's Gore. It lies 22 miles S. 
W. from Mnntpelier, and 42 N. W. 
from Windsor ; was granted No- 
vember?, 1780, and chartered, to 
Reuben King, August 2, 1781, con- 
taining 23040 acres. I'he settle- 
ment of this township was com- 
menced soon ai*ter the close of the 
revolution by Reuben King and 
others. In 20 years ^om the com- 
mencement of the settlement there 
were but 17 deaths, four of them 
men, two of whom were upwardt> 
of 80 years of age, and no estate 
had been settled by law. Joseph 
Patrick was the iirst town clerk, the 
first justice of the peace, and the 
first representative, and, it is believ- 
ed, has held the office of town clerk 
and justice of the peace ever since. 
The dysentery prevailed here ioe 
1806, and was very mortal. The 
religious denominations are Congre- 
gationalists and Baptists. These 
churches consist of about 30 mem- 
bers each, but neither has a settled 
minister. There is no physician in 
town. White river is formed here 
by the union of several'considerable 
branches. On one of these is a fall 
of 100 feet. Fifty feet of Uic low- 
ef part of it is perpendicular, and 
at the bottom is a hole worn into 
the rock ten feet deep. A consider- 
able part of the surface of the- 
township is mountainous.^ There 
are here three scho9l districts, one 
Sfrist and one saw mill. Popula- 
tion, 1820, 328. 

KiRsr, a township in the east 





part of Caledonia county, is in latJ 
44^ 29' and longf. 5°<, and is bounded 
north by Burke, northeast andj 
southeast by Bradlejrrale, south- j 
•west by St. Johnsbury and west by i 
Lyndon. It lies 30 miles north; 
from Newbury, and 36 northeast j 
from Montpelier ; was granted,' 
Octobf r 20, 1786, and chartered to' 
Koswell Hopkins, by the name of; 
Hopkinsville, October 27, 1790,; 
containing^ 11264 acres. Since,| 
2527 acres have been taken fromj 
Burke 'and annexed to this town-: 
ship. The settlement of this town- 
ship was commenced about the year 
1799 by Phinehas Page and The- 
ophilus Grout, who were soon after 
joined by Josiah Joslin, Jude White, 
Jonathan Leach, Ebenezer Damon, 
/ntipas Harrington, Asahel Burt, 
Jonathan Lewis and others, prin- 
«ipally from New-Hampshire and 
.Massachusetts. The town was or- 
g^ized August 29, 1807. Jonathan 
Lewis was first town clerk, which 
office he has held ever since. The- 
ophilus Grout was the first repre- 
sentative. The epidemic of 1813 
was very mortal here, 21 dying this 
year, many of them heads of fam- 
ilies. Tlie town has since been re- 
markably healthy. A small Con- 
^egational church was formed here 
about the year 1812, to which Jtfr. 
Luther JVoodi a licentiate, occasion- 
ally preaches. There are also a 
few Baptists, Freewill Baptists and 
Jtfetbodists. The surface of the 
town is uneven, and, in many places, 
ledgy or swampy. There are, how- 
ever, some tracts of very good laud. 
There are no considerable streams. 
Near the centre of the township is 
a small pond, from which issues » 
brook, on which a saw mill was 
formerly erected ; but it is now in 
ruins. The town is well watered 
with springs an4 brooks. There is 
one distillery, at which potatoc 

■whiskey is manufactured. Popa- 
'lation, 1820,312, j. l. 

March, 1824. 
Lamoille Rivbr, formerly 
: originated from a pond in the sooth- 
ieast comer of Glover. See Ghotr, 
!lt is now formed by the union of 
jseveral streams in GreeDsboroogb, 
'and, after running southwest^ 
jinto Hardwick, pursues a north* 
jwesterly course till it falls into lake 
Champlain, in the northwest comer 
;of Colchester. This river is joined 
jin Hardwick by a considerable 
stream, which issues from Caspian 
'lake in Greensborong^, in Wolcott 
jby Green river from Eden, in John- 
son by little North branch, in Csd- 
bridge by great North branch, and 

in Fairfax by Brown's river. The 
current of the river Lamoille is, in 
general, slow and gentle above Can- 
bridge. Between this township and 
the lake are a number of connde^ 
able falls. Along this river are 
some very beautiful and fertile 
;tracts of interval. It is not quite n 
jlarge as the Onion and Missisqie. 
It was discovered by CbamplaiB,in 
!l609, and called by him la nmut^ 
tthe French for mew, or gull, a spe- 
cies of waterfowl, which were verf 
numerous about the mouth of thii 
stream. In Charlevoix^s map of 
the discoveries in North America it 
is called la riviere a la MnuiUt 
probably a mistake of the engraver 
in not crossing the ts. Tlius to the 
mere carelessness of a Fi^nch en- 
graver are we indebted for the 
smoothe, melodious sounding name, 
Lamoille, j. a. F. 

Landgrove, a township in the 
northeast corner of Bennington 
icounty, is in lat. 43° 16' and long. 
4° 8', and is bounded north by Ben- 
ton's gore, east by Weston and Lon- 
donderry, south by a part of Lon- 
donderry, and Virginhall, and west 
by Peru. It lies 33 miles northeast 





and caug^ht. There are no mills in 
town, but several on its borders, hj 
which the inhabitants are well ac- 
commodated. An excellent road, 
leading: from Chester to Manchester, 



mail 8tag;e 

the township, on 
rans regularly 

from Bennington ^d 70 south from 
Moatpelier ; was panted the 6th 
and chartered the 8th of November, 
1780, to William UUey and others, ; 
containing 4646 acres. The settle-| 
meat was commenced by William 
Uticy and family, consisting of a 

wife and six children, in June, 1769, jevery day in the week, except Sun- 
emigrants from Ashford, Con. Mr.,iday. There are here three school 
Utley had, the preceding year, pur- I districts and schoolhouscs, one store 
chased 40 rights of laud in Peru, j and one tavern, ropulalion, 1820, 
which was. represented to him, oj 341. A. v. 

lying west of Andovej;, andjidjoin- June, 1824. 

Leech's Stream, proceeds from 
a small pond in the north part of 
Averill, and runs about northeast a- 
cross the west part of Canaan and 
falls into Leech's pond, which is a- 
bout two miles wide and three long, 
and lies about half in Canada and 
half in Vermont. From this poud 
the stream runs nearly east about 
three miles, then southeast into 
Connecticut river. Its mouth is 
nearly two rods wide. 

Leicester, a small post town- 
ship in the south part of Addison 
county, is in lat. 43^ 51' and long. 
3° 56', and is bounded north by Sa- 
lisbury, east by Goshen, south by 
Brandon, and west by Whiting. It 
lies nine miles south from Middle- 
bury, and 36 southwest from Jfont- 
pelier ; and was chartered in 1763. 

ing that township. From Chester,' 
where about 20 families Jiad settled,' 
he cut his road before him, 14 miles! 
into the wilderness, till he arrived 
at a branch of West river, where he 
commenced his settlement. For 
soma time, he had to bring provi-. 
sions for the support of his family 
from Connecticut river, distant a-i 
boat 30 miles. Finding that Peru, 
did not join Andover, and that the! 
lands on which he had settled, werej 
UDgrantc;!, he petitioned the Le-' 
gislaturc, and obtained a charter of 
them, as above stated. He died in, 
March, 1790, aged 66 years, and his 
■widow, in February, 181 1, aged 86.. 
Asa, the oldest son of William Utley,'. 
is still living here, and is the ear-, 
liest settler no w living in the ^even' 
towns which composs the regiment 
of militia in which he reside?, viz :.;J'he settlement of this township 

Andover, Weston, Windliam, Lon- 
donderry, Wiuhall, Peru and Laud- 
gi'ove. The town was organized in 

was commenced, in 1773, by Jere- 
miah Parker, from Massachusetts. 
The settlement, however, made but 

March, 1800. Daniel 7'u thill was j little progress till after the revolu- 
first town clerk,and David Carpenter; ition. 2'iie town was organized in 
firdt representative, both chosen J17'{6. Ebenezer Child was first 
this year. There is a small society town clerk, and John Smith first rd"- 
of Methodists and a few of othor! 
denominations. Amori Benson is 
the only physician. Tne streams! 
are several of the head branches of | 
West river. Salmon formerly came 
up to this place, from the Counec- 

presentative. The Jtfethodiat so- 
ciety consists of 42 memberi, and is 
the mo5t numerous. Their preach- 
er is Elder D'Wolf, Tliere are 
some Baptists, Cougrcgationalists 
and Universalists. Elder David 

ticut, and were taken with speai*s.| Headee was ordained over the Bap- 
Oae was driven on shore by a dog ti&t society, July .^7, Itj^. William 




... __.,_.. _ . .. 



Gilc, practicing physician. TTie] nectieut river. There are three 
priacipf^l streams are Otter creek jlarg^e brooks ruDiking' throag^h the 

and Leicester river. Tiie former 
runs through the township near the 
west side, and the latter runs across 
the northwest comer, and falls into 
Otter creek. The current of these 
streams is very slow, and they fur- 
nish, in this township, no sites for 
mills. Lake Dunmore lies partly in 
this township, and partly in Salis- 

township, which are tributaries to 
the Connecticut, on one of ivhich ii 
a cascade of 50 feet; The most 
northerly of these streams is called 
jWillard's brook. The Monadnoe 
mountain of Vermont lies in the 
northeast comer of this township. 
J The town, is divided ibto two school 
: districts, and contains a g^t and 

bury. There are two other ponds ;i|saw mill. Population, 1820, 139. 

one, a little soutli of lake Dnnmore,!: Lemon FAia Rivkr, is a branch 

is three quarters of a mile long, and 
half a mile wide, and is called 
Little Potidy and the other, a little 
west of hike Dnnmore, is about a 
mile in circumference, and is called 
Mild Pond, There is also a pond 
east of lake Dunmore, and east of a 
rr-n.-^e of the Green Mountains, 
wiiicli abounds in excellent trout. 
T'la other ponds furnish bull heads, 
■pfirch and trout. The principal 
tlevatioa is a branch of the Green 
Mountains, running through the 
eartern part called Bald hill. The 
soil is a rich sandy loam interspersed 
with some flats of clay. Along the 
river are valuable tracts of inter- 
val. In approaching the mountain 
towards the east, the soil becomes 
harder and less productive. There 
are here five school districts, four 
schoolhouses, one store, one tannery 
and onre distillery. Pop. 1820, 548. 
July^ 1824. w G. 

LEMiWGToir, a township in the 
northeastern part of Essex county, 
is in lat. 44° 53' and long. 5° 18', 
and is bounded northerly by Ca- 
naan, easterly by Connecticut river, 
which separates it from Colebrook, 
N. If., southerly by Minehead, and 
westerly by Averill. It lies 64 
miles northeast from MontpelicF, 
and was chartered June 29, 1762, 
containing ^5040 acres. The set- 
tlements, in this township, are most- 
ly confined to ihi margin of Con- 

of Otter creek, which rises in Whit- 


thi'ongh the 

ing and Orwell, runs 
[eastern part of Shoreham, acros 
the southeast comer of Bridport, 
and joins Otter creek in Weybridge. 
I There are some mill seats near tibe 
•head of this river, bat it is, in gen- 
eral, a very sluggish, muddy stream. 

Lewis, an uninhabited township 
six miles square in the northers 
part of Essex county, boooded 
northeasterly by Averill, southeast- 
erly by Jtfinehead, southwesteily 
by Wonlock, and northwesterly by 
Avery's gore. It was chartered, 
•June 29, 1762. It is mountainoos 
and has no streams of consequence, 
excepting the north branch of Nol- 
jhegan river which crosses the north- 
east comer. 

Lewis Creek, rises near the 
north line of Bristol, runs north 
through the westem part of Starki* 
borough and eastern part of Monk- 
ton, into Hinesburgh,^ thence west- 
erly through the south part of 
Hinesburgh and the southeast corner 
jof Charlotte, and falls into lake 
jChamplain in Ferrisbargh a short 
{distance north of the mouth of 
Little Otter credc. The mill priv- 
ileges, on this stream, are numerous 
and many of them excellent. 

Lincoln, a township in the 
northeastern part of Addison coun- 
ty, is in lat. 44^ 7' and long. 4<* 1', 
and bounded north by Starksbe- 





Tough and ^ayston, east by Warren, 
9oath by Avery*a gore, and west by 
Bristol. It lies 21 miles southwest 
from Montpelier, and 28 southeast 
from Burlington, was granted No- 
rember 7, and chartered November 
9, 1780, to Benjamin Simonds and 
associates, containing 23040 acres. 
The settlement of this township! 
was commenced about ' the year' 
1790. The first settlers were most-; 
ly of the denomination called 
Friends, or Quakers. There is, at; 
present, a society of this order who 
have a house for public worship.' 
The township is considerably un- 
even. The western partis watered 
by New-Haven river, which isj 
formed here; and several small j 
branches of Mad river rise in the. 
eastern part. The timber isprin-, 
cipally hard wood with some tracts 
of spruce. The town is divided. 
into four school districts, and con- 
tains one grist and two saw mills. 
Population, 1820, 278. 

liiTTLX Otter Creek, rises in 
Jtfonkton and New-Haven, and falls 
into lake Champlain in Ferrisburgh, 

and Virgiuhall. It lies 30 miles 
northeast from Benniugton, and 27 
southwest from Windsor. This 
township was chartered Feb. 30, 
1770, by New- York, by the name 
of Kent In 1778, the lands were 
confiscated on account of James 
Rogers, the principal proprietor, 
becoming a tory, and leaving the 
country. It was regranted by the 
government of Vermont, Jlfarch 16, 
1780, and chartered to Edward 
Aiken, April 20, of the same year. 
In the years 1795 and 97, James 
Rogers, jr., petitioned the Legisla* 
ture, and obtained all the confis- 
cated land, which remained unsold. 
The settlement of the township was 
commenced about the year 1774, 
by James Rogers, S. Thompson and 
James Patterson, from London- 
derry, N. H. There are here a 
Baptist and Congregational church, 
the former corisisting of about 80, 
and the latter of about 50 mem- 
bers. Elder David Sweet was or- 
dained over the- Baptist church in 
June, 1820. The Congregational- 
ists have a meetinghouse erected in 

three miles north of .the mouth of 1813. The -epidemic of 1812 and 

Otter creek. This stream towards 
its mouth is wide and sluggish, and 
runs through a tract of low marshy 
g^uud. It affords but few mill 

LiTTLETOir. — Name altered to 
Waterford, March 9, 1797. Sec 

Locust Creek, is a small mill 
stream which rises in Barnard, and 
ialls into White river in Bethel. It 
is, in general, a rapid stream, and 
affords several good mill seats. 

LoHDDirpKRRT, a post township 
in the northwest corner of Wind- 
bam county, is in lat. 44^ 7' and 
long. 4^ 15', and is bounded north 
by Weston and a part of Land- 
|rove, east by Windham, south by 
lamaicm, and west by Laadgrove 


13 was very mortal. Physician, 
Jairus Collins. West river enters 
the township from Weston, and 
passes through it in a southerly di- 
rection into Jamaica. West river 
receives here Winhall river and 
Utley brook from the west and a 
considerable mill stream which o- 
riginates from a pond in Windham. 
Mill privileges are numerous. In 
the south part is a bed of very fine 
clay. There are here two small 
villages, nine school districts, eight 
sehoolhoubes, four grist, five saw 
and two fulling mills, one store, 
three taverns, two cardin^; machines 
and 450schollars between 4 and IS 
years of age. Population, 1820, 958. 
Jwne, 1824. 
LvpLOW} a post towQslup ia tht 





-^estern part of Windsor county, is 
in Ut. 43° 24' and long. 4° 16' and 
is bounded north by Plymouth, east 
by Cavendish, south by Andover 
and part of Weston and west by 
Mount-Holly. It lies 16 miles west 
from Windsor and 61 south from 
Montpelier ; Was chartered Septem- 
ber 16, 1761, and now contains 17,- 
880 acre?. The settlement of this 
township was commenced in 1784 
and '85, by Josiah and Jesse Fletch- 
er, Simeon Read and James Whit- 
ney, emigrants from Massachusetts. 
There was nothing remarkable in 
the events of the early settlement. 
As was common in new townships 
they laboured under many incon- 
veniences, having no market or 
source for supplies nearer than No. 
4, in N. H., distant 25 miles. The 
town was organized in March, 1792, 
a^d Jesse Fletcher was first town 
clerk. The first representative was 
Peter Read, the present pastor of 
the Congregational church . There 
are in town a Congregational, a 
Baptist and a Methodist society. 
The Rev. Peter Read^ was settled 
over the Congregational church anu 
sooietv in October, ,1810. He has 
been instrumental in forming a Ju- 
venile Missionary Society here, and 
under his preaching there have 
been several considerable religious 
revivals. His church consists at 
present of more than 100 members. 
TTie epidemic of 1813 was very dis- 
tressing, and carried oS 37 persons, 
many of whom were people of dis- 
tinction in town. THiere are 2 prac- 
ticing physicians, viz ; Joshua War- 
ner and W. B. Fletcher, and one 
attorney. Black river runs through 
the centre of the township, and 
Williams' river through the south 
part. There are, also, a large num- 
ber of natural ponds, particular- 
ly along Black river, which are 
well stored with fish. Blaok river 

pond lies at the north part, and is 
more than a mile long. The town 
is mountainous, but it forms a o<hi- 
venient centre in which is situated 
a pleasant little village, on the north 
bank of Black river, containii^ft 
handsome meetinghouse, two stero, 
a tavern, post office, lawyer^s effieoi 
mills, mechanics' shops and abeot 
30 dwellihghouses. This vOlage is 
well situated for trade with the sur- 
rounding country. The Green 
Mountain turnpike from Boston Xo 
Rutland passes throug^h this towi« 
ship along Black river. The west 
line of the township passes aloB| 
the summit of a range of the Gpsso 
Mountains. The land is in general, 
well timbered, but the soil is bettsr 
adapted to the prodaction of grui 
than grain. Amethyst, in crystila^ 
has been found in this township 
three fourths of an inch longf and an 
inch in diameter. There are io 
town 12 school districts, 12 school- 
houses, two of whioh are of briok, 
six saw, two grist and one fvlliBg 
mill, one carding machine, two 
stores, two taverns, and two tanne- 
ries. Pop. 1820, 1144* 

Jmwc, 1824. H. F. F. 

LvN£N BURGH, a post townifai|^ 
in Esisex county, is situated in Ut 
44^ 28' and long. 5^ 1 T, containiiv 
46 square miles. It lies 45 milei 
east uortlieast from Montpelier, is 
bounded northwest by Vieteryt 
aortheast by Guildhall, southeait 
by Connecticut river, southwettby 
Concord, and is opposite to Dmltoni 
m N. H. It was eharteiced July 6, 
1763, and granted to David PagO} 
Jonathan Grout and others* It it 
difficult to determine the praeiie 
time when the first settlement of 
this town was commenced. Tit 
settlement which was begun in the 
lower part of Guildhall about the 
year 1764 was long thought toba 
in this township { aod 000 of thi 





farms, lyiQg in a bow of Connecticut 
river, which was first occupied, still 
bears the name of the ^^ T^uueuburgh 
&rm." This town was probably 
Battled as early as 1770, and was or- 
g^anized ^ at a meeting of the major 
part of the inhabitants, Sept. 11, 
1781.^' David Hopkins was first 
town clerk. The Congregational 
ohurch in Lunenburgh was organi- 
sed in 180^ and then consisted of 
16 members. The male members 
of the society for settling and sup- 
porting a minister of this order, a- 
mounted to ^ and in the spring of 
the next year they settled the Kev. 
John Willard for their pastor. He 
eoQtioued his connexion with them 
till the storing of 1822, but did not 
preach constantly during several of 
the last years. On the 16th of July 
of this year, the Rev. Anton Hub- 
hard was settled over this church 
and society. The church at pres- 
ent consists of about 100 members. 
They have a decent meetinghouse, 
which was erected about the year 
1789. Some part of this township is 
extremely, stpney, particularly the 
southwestern next Concord, where 
the ground is almost wholly covered 
with detached masses of rolling 
l^ray granite. The earth to a con- 
liderable depth appears to be a di- 
luvial formation, consisting of roundr 
ed masses of granite imbedded in 
clay and gravel. The northeastern 
part is less stoney and presents aj 
valuable fiirming country, partiou-| 
larly the flats along the river,! 
which are a deep alluvial depositej 
and very productive. The timber,' 
18 generally hard wood. The roadi 
from Danville to Guildhall passes' 
through this town. Connecticut 
rrver waters the southeastern part 
«f the township, and near the south 
corner commence the fifteen mile 
faim on that stream. Its other wa- 
tMTi are J{mC9. poaU aenr the oentre 

of the town, which is about a mile 
long and half a mile wide, and 
NeaCs branchy which passes through 
it, and Catbow branch, which rive* 
in Guildhall and runs through the 
east corner into Connecticut river. 
These are both considerable mill 
streams. The professional men are 
one minister and three physicians. 
The inhabitants are industrious and 
enterprising. There are two meet- 
inghouses, one belonging to the Con* 
gregationalists, the other to tlie 
Baptists. The latter is small. I'he 
town is divided into 9 school dis- 
tricts which are furnished with 
schoplboijses. There are two stores, 
one tavern, two grist and two saw 
mills, one fulling mill, one carding 
machine, one distillery and one 
tannery. Pop. 1820, 856. 
Sept. 1823. 

LuTTj&RLOH. Name altered te 
Albany Oct. 30, 1815. See Albany^ 

Ltit j>ojr, a post township in Cal* 
edonia county, is situated in lat. 
44^ 32' and long. 4*^ 54', containing 
23040 acres, or 36 square miles. Is. 
is 34 miles noKheasterly from Mont-« 
pelier, and is bounded north by 
Sutton and Burke, east by Kirby,^ 
south by St. Johnsbury and west by 
Wheelock. This town was survey- 
ed before any of the towns around, 
it and was laid exactly square. 
Hence its regularity and the irregu- 
larity of those adjacent. It waa 
granted Nov. 2 and chartered Noy« 
20, 1780 to Jonathan Arnold and 
his associates. The first settlement 
of the town was commenced by 
Daniel Cahoon, jr. in April, 1788., 
He continued here with several, 
workmen till the ensuing fall, when 
he returned to Windham, N. H. his 
former place of residence, to pass 
the winter. In the spring he agaijt 
returned and several others began 
settlements. In March, 1791, there 
I were six or seyea £uQiJli9i. iittaim 





and several youog men ivithout 
families bad commeuced, so that on 
the 4th day of July, 1791, the town 
was or^nized and the first town of- 
Acers elected. On the 20th of J une, 
1792, there were 30 men in town 
who were entitled to the privileg^e 
«f voting in town meetings. From 
this time for a number of years the 
progress of the settlement was very 
rapid. Daniel Gaboon, jr. the first 
settler, deceased June 11,1 793, and 
was the first person who died in the 
town. The Methodist church in! 
tills town is much the most numer-l 
OU& It consists, at present, of 110 
members and is under the pasto- 
ral care of Elder John F. Adams. 
The other denominations are Con- 
gregationalists. Baptists and Free- 
will Baptists. The Congregational 
church consists of 28 members, the 
Baptist of 16 ar^d the Freewill of a- 
bout 30. Passumpsic river waters 
this town. It crosses the north line 
«;f Lyndon 150 rods from the north- 
east corner, and runs a southwestiBr- 
ly course till it has past the centre 
«f the town 1 00 rods ; thence south- 
easterly about two miles, and 
thence southerly till it crosses the 
f>outh line of the town two miles 
west of the southeast eorner. Its 
average width from the centre of 
the town southerly is about 125 feet. 
The principal tributaries which it 
receives in Lyndon are the North 
branch, Miller's river. South branch 
and Hawkins' brook, all of which 
are sufficiently large for mills. At 
the Great falls in the Passumpsic, 
near the south part of the town, the 
water descends about 65 feot in the 
distance of 30 rods. At the Little 
falls one mile above the water de- 
scends 18 feet, affording excellent 
situations for mills and water ma- 
chinery. ^ Agaric mineral is found 
in this township, forming the bot- 
tom of two poads of jiererid acres 

in extent. It is white and soft, soils 
the fingers and may be used instead 
of chalk, which it resembles, butii 
much less compact. It has beea 
employed for all the purposes to 
which Spanish white is applied; 
and, also, for white-washing. Tl» 
thickness of the beds, has not yet 
been ascertained.' Liyndon is a ve- 
ry valuable township. Its soO ii 
a rich loam, free from stone, easy to 
cultivate and very productive. At 
*" Lyndon corner'' is a small village^ 
and there is a very pretty meetinj[;w 
house near the centre. There are 
four physicians, one attorney and 
two ministers. The town is divid* 
ed into 14 school districts, 7 only of 
which are furnished with ^Dod 
schoolhouses. There are 3 storey 
2 taverns, 6 saw, 3 grist and £ fid- 
ling mills, 1 cai'ding machine, 2 dii- 
tilleries and 2 tanneries* Popula- 
tion, 1820,1296. w. c. 
Oct. 1823. 

Mad River, rises in Avety^ 
gore, runs north into Warren, thense 
northeasterly through Waitsfield 
and falls into Onion river in More* 
tpwn, receiving in its course a great 
number of small tributaries. It if 
a rapid stream with a rocky bot- 
tom, and affords a number of good 
sites for mills. Its length is aboat 
20 miles^. 

Maidstoite, a townsh^> in the 
eastern part of Essex county, is in 
lat. 44° 38' and long. 5° 15', andii 
bounded northerly by Branswiek, 
easterly by Connecticut river which 
separates it from NorthumberUiid, 
N. II. southerly by Guildhall and 
a part of Granby and westerly by 
Ferdinand. It lies 53 miles north- 
east from Montpelier and was char- 
tered Oct. 12, 1761, containing I7j- 
472 acres. The settlement of thii 
township was, probably, commenced 
about the year 1770, but the pop-' 
uktioa haa remained nearly th» 





ame since the year 1791. This 
ownship is Watered by Paul's 
treara, which runs throug^h the 
korth part, and by Maidstone lake, 
viiivh IB 3 miles long and half a 
nile wide, lyings in the western 
>art and dischai^^ng its waters into 
PauFs stream . The settlement here 
B mostly confmed to the marg^in of 
!i!onnecticut river, along^ which a 
oad passes throug^h the township. 
Population, 1820, 166. 

Manchester, a post and half 
hire town in Bennington county, is 
a lat. 43° 10' and long. 3° 57', and is 
loanded north by Dorset, east by 
VJnhall, south by Sunderland and 
vest by Sandgate. It is 22 miles 
(orth from Bennington, 48 from 
[Voy and 32 south from Rutland, 
t was chartered Aug. 11, 1761, con- 
kmihg- about 40 square miles. The 
«ttlenient of this township was 
Commenced in 1764 by Samuel 
ftose and others from Dutchess 
souiity, N. Y. The town was or- 
padzed in 1766 and Stephen Mead 
#B3 first town clerk. H: Was first 
represented in the General Assem- 
bly in 1778, by Gideon Ormsby and 
Stephen Washburn. There are 
here a Baptist, Congregational and 
Episcopal society, over each of 
>»hich there have been ministers 
wttled the greatest part of the time, 

from, a very early period, and they 
iare each a house for public wor- 
ship. That belonging to the Episco- 
palians is an elegant building and 
^as erected in 1820. There are 
^*ere four practicing physicians and 
^e attomies. The principal stream 
'' Battenkill river^ which rises in 
Dorset and runs through the town- 
'^p in a southwesterly direction. 
( receives here as tributaries, Lj/e 
^ook^ Bourne brook, Glebe brook and 
^ill brook. These streams afford a 
^eat number of excellent mill priv- 
^ges^ The habitable parts of thi^ 

township lie between the Green 
Mountains on the cast and Equi- 
nox mountain on the west. The 
latter is the highest summit in this 
section of the state, and is, according 
to the admeasurment of Capt. A. 
Partridge, 2915 feet above the site 
of the courthouse in Manchester 
south village, and 3706 feet above 
tidewater. .Tlierearein this town- 
ship inexhaustible quantities of 
beautiful white marble. It is exten- 
sively quarried at three places, and 
is manufactured and transported to 
almost every part of the U. States. 
On the east side of Equinox moun- 
tain, upon a farm belonging to the. 
Hon, Richard Skinner, is a cavern, 
which has been explored several 
rods in difierent directions, but iti 
extent has never yet been ascertain- 
ed. There are two pleasant villa- 
ges called the north and Routh vil- 
lage. The south village is pleas- 
antly situated on elevated £;round. 
It contains a jail, erected m 1787, 
in connexion with a courthouse, an 
academy, built in 1818, an elegant 
brick courthouse, built in 1822, a 
meetinghouse, seveml stores, tav- 
erns, mecheinics' shops, &c. The 
town is divided into ten school dis- 
tricts with a schoolhouse in each. 
It has one post office, six stores, se- 
ven taverns, two grist and four saw 
mills, three woolen factories, three 
distilleries, one furnace and four 
tanneries. Population, 1820, 1508. 
Jan, 1824. L. s. 

Mansfield, a township in the 
east part of Chittenden county, is in 
lat. 44^ 29' and long. 4^. 9', and is 
bounded northerly by Sterling, east- 
erly by Stow, southerly by Bolton Sz 
westerly by .Underbill. It is situat- 
ed 20 miles northwest from Mont- 
pelier, and the same distance east 
from Burlington; was chartered 
June 8i 1763, containing 23040 a- 
cres. In the year 1800, thi$ towa- 





ship coatained 12 inhabitants. The 
settlement was commenced a short 
time previous. The eastern part 
of the township adjoining Stow, is 
an exceUent tract of land, and to this 
the settlement is still confined. The 
remaining part of the township is 
very mountainous and incapable of 
ever being settled. The eastern 
part is watered by two considerable 
branches of "Waterbury river ; and 
Brown's river originates in the west- 
part. The town is organized and 
has been several years represented 
in the General Assembly. Popula- 
Uon 1820, 60. 

Mansfield Mocittaia'S, extend 
through the township of Mansiield 
from north to south. They belong 
to the western range of the Green 
Mountains, and exhibit some of the 
loftiest summits in the state. From 
a distance, these mountains are 
thought to bear some resemblance 
to the face of a man lying on his 
back; and hence, the two most 
prominent summits are denominat- 
ed the JVbic and the Chin, The 
Chin is the highest land in Vermont, 
according to Capt. A. Partridge's 
admeasurement, and is 4279 feet a-| 
bove tide water. The height ofl 
the Nose above tide water, is 3983 
feet. See, Diagram facing page 10. 

Marlborough, a post township 
in the central part of Windham 
county, is in lat. 42° 53' and long. 4° 
16', and is bounded north by New- 
fane and a part of Dover, east by 
Brattleborough and a part of Dum- 
merston, south by Halifax and west 
by Wilmington. It lies 24 miles 
east from Bennington and 44 south- 
•west from Windsor. It was char- 
tered April 29, 1751, but the char- 
ter was forfeited in consequence of 
not complying with its requisitions. 
I'he proprietors urged as a reason 
for their neglect the intervention of. 
the Indian and Freneh war, and] 


[succeeded in getting their charter 
renewed by the same aathority, 
N. Hampshire, September 21, 1761. 
The charter was given to Timothy 
Dwight and his associates, of North- 
ampton, Mass., and its vicinity. 
The town was surveyed in May, 
1762, by Joseph Allen, jr. The 
settlement was commenced as early 
as the spring of 1763, by Abel Stock- 
well, from West-Springfield, Mask 
and Francis Whitmore, from Middle- 
town, Con. Whitmore was after- 
wards first captain of militia in the 
town. He came in by the way of 
Halifax, and settled in the sooth 
part, and Stockwell, by the way of 
Brattleborough, and settled on the 
eastern border. These familia 
spent nearly a year here, and en- 
dured many hardships, without any 
knowledge of each other, each c<m- 
sidering his own the only family a 
town. Whitmore brought his pro- 
visions on his back from Deerfield, 
Mass., distant from 20 to 30 milei. 
Mrs. Whitmore spent most of the 
winter of 1765 here alone, herhni- 
band being absent in the pursoit of 
his calling, as a tinker. Diirisg 
this winter she saw no human beis^, 
except her little daughter and some 
hunters who happened accidentally 
so pass that way. She cut down 
timber and furnished browse for 
their cattle, and thus kept thea 
alive through the winter. Mrs. W» 
was very useful to the settlers both 
as a nurse and a midwife. She pos- 
sessed a vigorous constitution and 
frequently travelled through the 
woods upon snow shoes from cue 
part of the town to aQother, both 
by night and day, to relieve the 
distressed. She lived to the ad- 
vanced age of 87 years, officiated as 
midwife at more than 2,000 births, 
and never lost a patient. Aano, 
son of Abel Stockwell, jr. was bom 
in 1767, aud was the first son bom 






in town. Deborah, daughter of Fran- 
cis Whitmore born July 11, 1768, 
was the second child and first fe- 
male born in town. Charles Phelps, 
a lawyer, from Hadley, Mass., mov- 
ed into town, in 1764, and his was 
the third family here. During the 
controversy with New- York, his son 
Timothy, was high sheriff of the 
county of Cumberland. About the 
year 1768, two young women, of 
Irish descent, by the name of Mc- 
Laughlin, came to this town and re- 
sided with Mr. W. Clark. In the 
fiiU of that year, one of them went 
out towards evening after the cow, 
and was probably lost and perished 
in the woods, as she was never after- 
wards heard of. In 1709 and '70 
Col. Wm. Williams, who afterwards 
distinguished himself in Bcnnir.^on 
battle, moved from Northborough, 
Mass., accompanied by Capt. Na- 
thaniel Whitney and his two broth 
ers Samuel and Jonas, from Shrews 
bury, Mass. the latter of whom has 
been seven years the represent£ttive 
of the town, 32 years a justice of 
the peace and 47 years a deacon of 
the church. In 1770, the settle- 
ment was considerably augmented 
by emigrants from ^Massachusetts 
and Connecticut, and about this 
time regular meetings were estab 
lished for religious worship, but 
they had no preaching in town for 
.several years. In 1771, the Rev. 
Abner Reeve, of Brattleborough, 
married the first couple, (Perez 
8tockwell and Dinah Fay,) in this 
town. James Ball died here, in 
December, 1772, aged 26. This 
was the first death known to occur 
in town. This year Col. Williams 
erected a saw mill which was the 
first mill built in town. Capt. N. 
Whitney was a celebrated hunter. 
In 1773, he killed a bear, a little 
west of this township, which weigh- 
•dy after being well dressed, 466 

[pounds. Of bears and deer, Mr, 
[Whitney has killed more than 100 
[of each. Pie has also killed one 
moose and 14 wolves. The Rev. 
Abner Reeve preached the first 
sermon ever preached in this town 
in 1774, from Mark xvi. 15. The 
first town meeting, on record, was 
held May 8, 1773, and Wm. Mather 
was first town clerk. Another 
meeting was held on the 22d of the 
same month to know the minds of 
tlie people with respect to the im- 
pending war with Great Britain. 
I At this meeting, it was resolved^ 
I" We will, each of us, at the ex- 
ipense of our lives and fortunes to 
jthe last extremity, unite and oppose 
ithe late cruel, unjust and arbitrary 
'acts of the British Parliament pass- 
led for the sole purpose of raising a 
jrevenue, &c." They further rcjo/- 
ved* " We will be contented and 
subject to the Honorable Continent- 
al Congress in all things which they 
shall resolve for the peace, safety 
and welfare of the American Col- 
onies." When the news of Lexinsr- 
ton battle reached here, several of 
the young men shouldered their 
guns and hastened to the field of 
action. In 1777, Capt Francis 
Whitmore was sent a delegate to 
the Convention at Windsor, and in 
1778, Doct. Samuel King was sent 
a representative to the Legislature, 
jwhich met that year at Windsor, 
iln 1785, this was constituted a half 
jshire town of Windham county, 
land the first county courts were 
Iheld here, in 1786. The scat of 
Justice was ahortly after established 
lat Newfane. During the year 
|l780, the inhabitants, in this vicin- 
ity, were in continual apprehension 
.of a hostile visit from the Indians 
land tories, and meetings were held 
to concert measures for the common 
safety, at which it was agreed that 
every able bodied man should hold 





himself in coustant readiness to jBratUeboroug^h and Dmnmerstoa; 
defend the seltlemenls. On the^ibut, happily, it was of short con- 
evening of the last day of October, Itinuance. It appeared that some 
of this year, after a clear and pleas-; Wen, BurTeyin|f land on GrtMy 

ant day a violent snow storm com-; 
menced, and this evening Mr. Stock- 

brook in firookline, by immitatiiiff 
the Indian war whoop, afir%ht«a 

well, of this town, received a letter, 'some of the inhabitants, who gaff 
from Col. Sarg^eaot, of Brattle- the alarm, which spread like tht 
borough, calling; upon the inhabit- jelectric shock among the people* It 
ants to defend themselves against jfurthe'r appeared that the indm- 
the Indians and toiies, who had al- ;trious citizens of New-Fa»e, whp 
ready reached Newfaue, and were were clearing their lands,8eeiitf;a 
laying waste that fine settlement.*' jstorm approaching, set fire, tmt 
The alarm was heigh tened by seeing jevening, to the heaps of logs ml 
lights in a nortlierly direction, ibrtuh, which they had piled, tba 
which were supposed to proceed light of which, through the fidliif 

from the conflagration of the dwel- 
linsrs. The inhabitants were filled 

snow, tended g^reatly to increase tbs 
consternation. When these fitcti 

with the deepest consternation, and. were known at Marlborough, the 
the night was spent in preparations .brave soldiers grounded their arni, 
for defence. The storm continued (pursued and brought back thflir 
with violence during the night and wives and children as the riehsifc 
succeeding day. ButnotwiSistand-jtrophies of victory. The Congrt- 

• .1 • It __,! 1 I1^_^» A.' 1 !__ 1. J_ Al-T. A _^ , , , 

gational church, in this town, WM 
organized by the llev. Joseph 
Lyman, D. D., of Hatfield, Mui.» 
October 20, 1776. It, at first, con- 
sisted of nine male and eight femak 

ing this, the y/omen and children 
coUecled in themorning and, headed: 
by their parson and Col. Granger,^ 
began their march to the south,^ 
fleeing from the danger through the' 

snow which was, before night, twoj members. On the 9th of Deoeak- 
feet in depth. Their progress was, ber, 177», the Rev. Gersham C. 
however, slow, and they were soon. Lyman, D. D., was ordained and 
obliged to seek shelter for the night.! settled over this church and societj^ 
In the mean time, the men, who! he having preached liere about oo* 
were able to bear arms, proceeded; year before this time. Mr, LynuA 
towards Newi'ane to check the jcontinued ably and faithfully to 

lischarge the duties of his sacrad 
o£&ce till the time of his death, 
which took place on the 13th of 
April, 1813, in the 61st year of his 
age, and the 35th of his ministry, h 
his last sickness, he was an example 
of patience and resignation, and he 
died in the full faith of that gospel, 
which he had preached, and in the 
full assurance of a happy immor- 
tality. From this time tUl 1B14, 
the society was supplied nath 
preaching, most of the time, hy the 
association, and on the t6th qf 
March of this year they settled the 

progress of the foe. They found 
the snow so deep after travelling, 
several miles, that they concluded; 
nature had placed an effectual bar-' 
rier to his advances, and, therefore,' 
returned to their deserted dwellings.! 
Here they met their friends from! 
Halifax and Colerain, who hadj 
generously come to their assistance.! 
The alarm was equally great at' 

* This was, doubtless^ tlie same 
alarm mentioned in tlie account of ^ 
Alliens^ page 5 1 . There is, hotoever, 
a discrtpance in the dates. 





Rev, E, H, J^ewton who is their ;stone brook and Green river, whichi 
.present pastor. It is worthy of re-||riso her^ and afford several valuable 
-mark, that, since the spring of 1778, 1 ;mJll seats. Alien's pond,, situated 
this church and society have neverjlin the northeast corner of the town- 
been destitute of preaching andjiship, isaboutainile audahalf long 
ffospel ordiaances, more than sixi and three quarters ofa mile v/Ldo, and 
Sabbaths in succession, nor so long South pond, in the south part, is a- 
•as that in but one instance, which : bout the same size. 7'hese ponds 
happened in the summer of 1813. jiare well stored with trout, v'!iich 
Three hundred have been added to jare taken, weighing from one to 
ithis church, 170 removed by letter, two pounds each. The only mill 
death or excommunication, and;|privilege, which is permanent 

Ithrough the year, is on the outlet of 
South pond. Centre mountain is a 
considerable elevation, and is so 
jcalled on account of its being sit- 
juated near the centre of the town- 
iship. The soil is, in general, rich 
'and deep, and produces good crops 
of grass, rye, wheat, corn, oats, 
barley, potatoes, apples, pears and 
wild fruits. The timber is beech, 
maple, bass, oak, birch, hemlock, 
pine, spruce, fir, ash and cherry. 
jThe minerals are sulphur, serpen* 
jtine, gafnets in abundance, steatite 
jof dijOfcrent varieties, clay, suiphur- 
et of iron and sulphuret of copper. 
There are some springs impregna- 
ted with sulphur and iron. There 
are, in town, twelve school districts, 
ten schoolhouses, four grist, seven 
saw and one fulling mill, one card- 
ing machine, one store and two tan- 
neries. Population, 1820, 1296. 
•Tw/y, 1824. j. w. jr. 

Marshfield, a post tc^nship in 
the east ,part of Washington coun- 
ty, is in lat. 44® 19' and long. 4° 34', 
and is bounded northerly by Cabot, 
easterly by Peacham and Harris' 
gore, southerly by Plaiufield, and 
westerly by Calais and a part of 
Montpelier. It lies 12 miles north- 
cast from Montpelier, and 16 miles 
southwest from Danville. This 
township was granted to the Stock- 
bridge tribe of Indians, October 16, 
1782, and chartered to tliem June 
22, 1790,* containing 23040 acres. 

'130 now remain. The most con- 
-fliderable religious revivals were in 
1801,2 and 3, and in 1808 and 9. 
At the former, the work was calm 
•and gradual, and the accession to 
the church between 60 and 70. 
The number of families in the so- 
ciety was then about 140. In con- 
sequence of the latter 36 were ad- 
ded to the church. There is also a 
•respectable Baptist church and so- 
^ety, partly in this town and part- 
ly, in New-Fane. TTie first meet- 
ing-house was erected in 1779. The 
■Congregationalists erected a new 
meetinghouse in 1820, and the old 
vone was taken down in 1822, in 
which year a commodious town 
house was erected. A Baptist 
joieetinghouse was built here in 
1815. In 1777, when the popula- 
tion of the town consisted of about 
40 families, there was a very mortal 
sickness here, and more than 20 
-deaths in the course of a few weeks. 
There are now Hying in town 22 
persons, who are upwards of 70 
years of age, five upwards of 80, 
three upwards of 90, and one up- 
wards of 100. The first physician, 
In this town, was Samuel King. 
The following are those who have 
since practiced here, viz ; Docts. 
Morgan, Wood, Torry, Baldwin, 
P^rcival, Taylor, Greenleaf, Rau- 
• som, Smith, Pulsipher and Tucker. 
The township is watered by the 
West branch of West river. Whet-) 






Th6 township was purchased of thej lis uusellled. In Uie northeast pait 
Indians by Isaac Mar&Ii, Esq., oil of the town is a considerable na' 

Stockbridge, Mass., from whom the 
town derives its name, for 140/. law- 
ful money, and was deeded to him, 

tural pdud. 
ei pally slate 
are here six 

The rucks are prin- 
and granite. 7'here 
school districts, fi\9 

July 29, 1789. The deed was sign- jschoolhouses, one grist, one clover 
edby 18 Indians, who were then; land two saw mills, one carding; 
residents of New. Stockbridgc, in|;machiue and one distillery. Fop- 
Montgomery county, N. Y. The julation, 1820, 710. 8. p. 

improvements were commence J ! 
here in the spring gf 1790, by Mar-I 
tin and Calvin Pitkin from East; 

JVJay, 1824. 
Med WAY. — Parkers gore was 
annexed to this township, November 

Hartford, Con. They left tlie townj!?, 1804, and the whole incorporated 
in the fall, and returned again thej into a township by the name of 
succeeding spring, accompanied by! jParkerstown. See Parkersiovn. 

Gideon Spencer. Thus, they con-" 
tinned to spend the summer here, 
and abandon the township in the 
■winter till 1794. This year, Caleb 
Pitkin, Gideon Spencer and Aaron 
£lmore moved their families here 
in the winter, while the snow was 
more than four feet deep. In the 

JMemphrjboiagog Lajcs, is be- 
itwcen 30 and 40 miles in length, 
[and two or three miles wide. It 
lies mostly in Canada, only seven 
or eight miles of the soiith end ex- 
tending into Vermqnt. Tliis lake 
is situated about half way between 
Connecticut riyer apd lake Cham- 

summer, they were joined by Eben- plain, and that part within this 
ezer Dodge and family. Johnjlstate lies between the town^ of 
Preston Davis^ squ of Ebenezer' Derby and Newport. A baj, at 
Dodge, was born September 17, of|jthe soutli end, extends across t|ie 
this year, and was the first child' corner of Salem into Cpventxy. 
born in town. March 1, 1795,|i7his lake covers about 15 square 
Joshua, Stephen and Nathaniel Pit-j miles in Vermont, and receives 
kin and Solomon Gilman moved 'from this state Clyde, Barton and 

into town. At this time, there were 
five families, consisting of 20 per- 
sons, here. The town was organized, 
March 10, 1800. Stephen Pitkin 
built the first saw mill, in 1802, and 
the first grist mill iii'1818. The 
religious denominations are Con- 
gregationalists. Baptists, JkTethodists 
and Christians. Onion riyer runs 
through the township in a souther- 
ly direction, and is the only stream 
of consequence. The surface of 

j Black river. Tlie waters of this 
lake are discharged to the nortl^ in* 
to the river St. Francis, and through 
that into St. Peter's lake, about 15 
miles below the mouth of the river 
Sorell. Upon the west side of a 
small uninhabited island situated at 
|the mouth of Fitch's Bay, and a- 
•bout tW9 miles north ol' Canada 
line, is a considerable quarry of 
[JSTovaculite known by th^ name of 
'th« '' Jtfagog Oil Stone." The vein 

this township is very uneven. That jof Novaculite is from two to eight 

part of it west of the river is tim 
bered with hard wood, ani> the soil 

fi^et wide where it has been.quar^ 
ricd,andthe length of the quarry 

is good. East of the river the tim- ,is several hundred feet. It is sit 

ber consists principally of ever- 
greens, and the surface is broken, 

[uated beneath a clifi', and, at the 
top, is interspersed with quartz. 

wet and stoney. The eastern part[i71ie vein of Novaculite ruas par 




tillel with the cliff anU I 
flowed by the rising of 1 
iprii^ autl BiitutDD, A company 
hai been formed aod tt manufactorj' 
of the " Oil atone" esWblisheJ iu 
the toTrnship of 'Burke, in 
state. When maiinfactnretl, 
aolil, in the jeaport towns, for 50 
cts. per pounj. SetBurke. 

Mca.aiT'i IliVKK. Set Joc^ 

MiDDLEnnRT, ■ pOal and sliire 
town in AilJison county, ia in ' 
44080111005 3' 53', andisbQU 
eJ nortti by New-Haren anil I 
tol, cast by Ripton, south by Si 
bary ami west by (Jomwai! and 
Wojbrijge. It lies 33 milea 
from Burlinjlon, Slsoathwest from 
Moatpelier, ffiiilorUifrani Benninj. 
ton and 410 from Washington city, 
Jl was chartered Noveniber a, 1701, 
and Bontaius about 26,880 atres. 
In 1166, Col. John Chipman came 
ihto thia township, accompanied by 
s' eulonred maa, and ehopped a few 
trees in the eoitth part. At Ihi 
tnne there was no (twellin^houte ii 
the state, on the west side of the 
moanloins, north of Manchester, 
distant 60 miles Rom Middlehury. 
<rhe prospects were ao discouraging- 
that Mr. C. soon relnraed to Con- 
necti^t and did not visit the town- 
ship during- tha seven succeeding 
year?. In 1773, Col. Chipman an ' 
the Hon, Gamaliel Painter detei 
ntined to risk their all in effectinj: 
settlement of this township. 3'hey 
Came into the town in May of this 
year with their families, and throw 
up a small io^Tiutfora shelter from 
the -weathtr. Benjamin Smalloy 
had previously commenced and 
built a I03- house, whic 
ftrst house built in town 
erected his habitation near the road 
leading- to Snliaburj, on the 
InDk of Middlebtir)' rii-er, n< 

spotof alluvial land, whioh had been 
an Indian encampment. On this 
spot are found numerous articles of 
lodian manulacture, such as ^arrowt, 
hammers, Sec. some being made of 
■flint, others of jasper. A pot com- 
'posod of sand and olay, of curious 
^workmanship and holding about20 
ii^narts, hitj recently been dag- up 
jhere nearly entire. During tha 
lyear 1773, the numbor of familiet 
was increased to aevEn, and four 
more joined the settlement (be sac- 
ceeding year. Previous to the rev- 
olution, there were at no ti^ne mora 
thsD 12 or IJ1 families in town, and 
in l77e, they nil left the township, 
except one family, and did not re- 
|lurn darios the War. The Indians 
frequently visited the place, in their 
jabsenoe, and deatroyed or tarried off 
all the property, which fell in their 
way. la 1703, IWessri. Smalley 
and Thayer returned with their 
.families. Thiy were followed by 
■nine families the next year, and by 
fourths succeeding year. Hnnoah, 
jdiiughter of Samuel Bently Was tha 
jflrat child bom here, and the -wife 
of Philip Foot, who decoBBcd in 'SS, 
was the first adult person, who died 
in (own. In lT9e, Daniel Foot e- 
irected a Krist mill on the west aids 
'of Otter creek, and a bridge whs 
'thrown over that atream. The first 
Isaw mill was erected in 1774 on tha 
east side of the creek by Abisha 
Washburn. The first house was 
built within the present limits of the 
cillage in 1787, by Simeon Dudley, 
ind soon after bitral. rhe early 
settlers were mostly from Conneoti- 
•Ut. Middlebory was oonstiluted 
Ji shire town in 179 1, and the oonrt- 
house was erected in 1798. Tho 
own Tvaa organ iied March 29, 1786, 
ind Joshua Hyde was first town 
clerk. The Congregational church 
in this town was organised Septem- 
ber 5, 1790, and at first eonsisted o| 






present pastor. A 
was soon after erected, 70 by 58 
feet on tho ground, and a b6ll pro- 
cured for it iu 1821, The following 
is a bst of the most remarkable re- 
vivals of relig^ion and the numbers 
udded to this church at the several 
}>eriodj^. The first wa« inalwOl, 
when the church was increased from 
SO to 80 members. In 1806 and 
122 were added^ iu 1809 and 10. 
112, in 1812, 35, in 1816 and 17, 
140, and in 1821, 100. In August, 
1 822, this church consisted of 406 
members. Th© Episcopal church 
was organized Dec. 26, 1810, the 
Baptist church, Dec. 18, 1809, and 
the Methodist society, also, in 1809. 
The first and second of these consist 
of about 30 members each ; the last 
of about 1 50 members. The Meth 
odists generally hare a preacher 
stationed here. The only streams 
of consequence in this township, are 
Otter creek, which runs through 
the western part, and Middlebury 

seven male and five female mem-j 'crops of grain and grass. There 
bers. On the 11th of November of are, however, some places near the 
the year (he church waa plac-|Tootofthemountaix^ which consist of 
cd under the pastoral care of the! a stiflf clay and are not so productive. 
Kev. John Barnet, who was dis- 1: The clay here contains a considera- 
missed iu 1795. The Rev, T. ^. ble proportion of the carbonate of 
Merrill was settled over the church, lime, and is therefore unsuitable for 
December 19, 1805, and is their making brick. The bricks, when 

iburntt are handsome, but when 
they are moistened the lime slacks 
and they crumble to pic>ces. Spe- 
cimens of schorl, garnet, hornblende- 
and jaeper are occasionally found. 
Nearly on the line between thi» 
township and Salisbury, ia a bed of 
the sulphuret of iron, connected with 
the carbonate of lime. It is tho^t to 
^xist in l^rge quantities and has a 
^powerful elect upon the magneti6 
needle. The magnetic oxide of iroo 
|is also found in sevenS^aces, but not 
iplentifuUy. Calcareous tufa is found 
;two miles east of the village and epi-< 
dote on Ckipman^s hill. Limestone 
^suitable for making lime ia found in 
!all parts. A bed of marble, resting 
upon argillite, extends over a con- 
;siderable part of the township, and 
shows itself above the sur&oe in 
more than a hundred different pla< 
ces. The marble was discovered in 
1804 by the Hon. Eben W. Jndd, 
and the manufacture of it was com- 
menced in 1806, on an extensive 
scale. The machinery is propelled 
by water and puts in motion- 65 
^^aws. In 1809 the "^ Middlebury 
Marble Manufacturing Company'^ 
was incorporated. In the years 
;i809 and 10, 20,000 feet of marble 
slabs were sawn at this manu&cto- 
ry, amounting to $11,0Q0 dollars. 
{The marble is quarried within a 
.stone^s throw of the masu&ctory 
and is of various colours. Since the 
company was incorporated the an- 
'nual amount of the manufactures of 
this article has been from |6,000 to 
!|8,000. The water in this town- 
;ship is generally har4) unsi^tab}e 

river which rune through the south 
part iiito Otter creek. At Middle 
bury village are some of the best 
mill privileges, and some of the 
finest and m^st extensive manufac- 
turing establishments in the state. 
This township is very level, except 
U small part of the northeastern cor- 
ner, which extends on to the Green 
Mountain. Separate from the 
Green Mountain, Chlpman^s hill is 
the most considerable elevation and 
is 439 feet above the level of Otter 
creek below the falls. A large 
proportion of the township is arable 
jE^nd lertile land, producing good 





ibr leashing and manx kinds of cook-! jcabiaet makers^ two bakehouses, 
ery* A mile and a half east from ji nine joiners' and four masons. In 

the meeting-house ie a spring-, the 
"waters of which are slightly, chalyb- 
eate. Middlebury village js situated 
on both sides of Olter creek at Mid- 
dlebury falls. The latitude of the 
csourthouse here is 43^^ 49' 5 V and 
iU longitude 73*^ KT 15" west from 
CJreeuwich. In 1793, all the build- 
ings in this village amounted to 62, 
the most of which were built of logs. 
In 1813, they amounted to 346, 146 
of which were dwelling-houses. In 
1832, the total number of buildings 
was 604, 196 being dwellinghouses, 
6 of brick, the rest of wood. Of the 
other edifices, 3 were meetinghous- 
es, one belonging to the Congrega- 
tionalists, one to the Methodists and 
one to the Episcopalians, 2 were 
college buildings, one of wood the 
other of stone, 33 manufactories con- 
structed of wood— 4 of stone, 13 
stores, 6 of wood and 7 of brick, a 
courthouse and an academy, of 
wood, a stone jail and a brick school- 
house. The population of the vil- 
lage in 1820 was 1576, 255 of whom 
were employed in manufactures and 
30 in commerce. The village now 
contains one printing office, at which 
is printed a respectable weekly pa- 
per, 7 English and India goods 
stores, ' one apothecary store, one 
bookstore, three taverns, one wool- 
en factory, two grist and two saw 
mills, one stone mill, one tripham- 
mer shop, two cotton Factories, 13 
law of&ces and four physicians. In 
1820 the number of mechanics' 
shops in the village was as follows, 
viz ; three hatters^ shops, six shoe- 
makers', two tailors', four milliners', 
three saddlers', two goldsmiths', 
one clothiers', seven blacksmiths', 
one gunsmith's, one glazier's, four 
wheelwrights', one painter's, two 
coopers', two tinnisns', two potteries, 
two potashes, three tanneries, two 


1820, one of the cotton factories in 
this village contained 840 spindles 
and 15 power looms, or looms mov- 
ed by water, and the other 600 
spindles and eight power looms. 
These establishments have since 
been enlarged. There is probably 
no other village in the state, which 
equals this in the extent of its man- 
ufactories, and ni)ne which surpas- 
ses it in liberality and public spirit. 
Middlebury College was indorpora- 
ted and established here, Nov. 1, 
1800. It was to be known by the 
name of the ^^ President and Fellows - 
of Middlebury College" who were 
empowered to elect and remove the 
members of their own body. The 
Rev. Jeremiah Atwater was desig- 
nated in the charter as the first pres- 
ident, and instruction was immedi- 
ately commenced in the institution. 
On the 17th of August, 1809, Mr. 
Atwater resigned the presidency 
and his place was immediately fil- 
led by the appointment of the Rev. 
Henry Davis, D. D. He resigned 
and in 1818 was succeeded by the 
Rev. Jashiia Bales^ D. D. the pres- 
ent incumbent. This college has 
been supported entirely by private 
bounty and is a flourishing institu- 
tion. The greatest number of grad- 
uates in any one year was .30, in 
1815, The whole number is 406. 
The old college building, which, is 
of wood, was erected before the 
college was incorporated, and con- 
tains the public rooms. About the 
year 1814, a new college edifice 
was built of granular limestone, lOd 
teet long, 40 wide and four stories 
high, containing 48 rooms for stu- 
dents. The college library consists 
of about 1 500 volumes. To be ad- 
mitted to the Freshman class in this 
college, the candidate must po thor- 
oughly aco[uaiQted with the gram- 






mar of the Latin and Greek lan- 
guag^es, and be able to construe and 
parse any )K)rtion of the following 
books, viz ; Virgil, the Greek Tes- 
tament, Cicero^s Select Oartious and 
Grseca Minora. He must likewise 
be able to tirauslate English into 
Latin correctly, and possess a kuowl-| 
edge of Geography and Arithmetic,! 
including Vulgar and Decimal j 
Fractions with the doctrine of 
Hoots and Powers. 



First Term. — Sallust, Cicero de 
Oificiis, Murray's English Grammar; 
and a portion of DalzePs Collecta- 
nea Grseca Majora. Second Term.- 
Cicero dc Amicitia and Senectute, 
Blair^s Lectures Abridged, and the 
first five book^^^o/ Livy. Third 
Term. — Grajca Hkajora continued 
and Priestley's Lectures; with a 
review of preceding studies. 


First Term, Horace, Morse's 

Geography, »md Day's Algebra. 
Second Term. — Algebra concluded, 
Flayfair's Euclid, and Graeca Majo- 
ra continued. Third Term. — Grse- 
ca Majora continued through the 
first volume ; Day's Trigonometry, 
Mensuration of Superfices and Sol- 
ids, and of Heights and Distances, 
and Hedge's Logick; with a re- 
view of preceding studies. 


First Term. — Cicero de Oratore ; 
Grrcca Majora, second volume; 
Spherical Trigonometry, Conick 
Sections, and Enfield's Natural Phi- 
losophy. Second Term, — Cicero de 
Oratore concluded, Grseca Majora 
continued, EiuGeld's Natural Philos- 
ophy concluded^ and Day's Survey 
ing and Navigation. Third Term.- 
Grseca iVIajora concluded, Eufield's 
Astronomy, and Paley's Natural 
7'iicology, vrith a review of prcced 
ing studies. 


First Term, Blair's Lecturef* 

Paley'a Moral Philosophy, VattelV 
Law of Nations, and the first vol- 
,ame of Locke on the Haman Uo- 
iderstanding. Second Term. — Locke 
jon the Human Understanding con- 
jtinued, and Stewart's Elemoitsof 
:the Philosophy of the Human Miaci 

\Third Term. Butler's Analogy, 

,and Paley's View of the Evidences 
of Cbristiunity, with a review of 
iprcceding studies. 

A portion of the Greek T^esta- 
ment is recited on Monday moming 
^through the whole course, and there 
iare frequent exercises in declama- 
'tion, composition and forensic dis- 
cussions. Lectures are given in the 
jinstitution on Experimental Philot- 
lophy, Natural and Revealed Relig- 
lion. Philology and Classical Litera* 
jture. Chemistry and Mineralogy, to 
which the students have accesi. 
The annual expense for tuition, 
room rent and incidental charges is 
$'32. Commencement is on the 
third Wednesday of August annail* 
ly. The Vacations are, from Como 
mencement four weeks, from the 
first Wednesday in January sevoi 
weeks, and from the third We&es- 
day in .Vay three we^ks. The pres- 
ent faculty are the Rev. Joshua 
Bates, S. T. D. President'^ Rev. Ab- 
salom Peters, A. M. Prof, {elect) of 
^Mathematicks and J^alural Philoso^ 
!//%, Rer. John Hough, A. M. Pro-^ 
IfessorofDivinitj/i Robert B. Patton, 
\ Professor of Languages, Jonathan 
I A. Allen, M. D. Lecturer on Cheni' 
istry, Edward Turner, A. M. Tvi&r 
and Librarian, The whole popu- 
lation of Jl/iddlebury in 1820, was 
2535. F. H. 

August, 1824. 


Hancock, passes through Riptoo, 
and directing its course westerly, 
[mingles its waters, in the south part 





of Jtfiddlebury, with those of Otter j 
creek. The turnpike from Ver- 
g^ifnes to Windsor is, for a cocisid-! 
crable distance, built on, or near,! 
one of the banks of this stream,! 
which presents to the eye of the, 
traveller a number of highly ro- 
mantic prospects. A larg^e propor- 
tion of the land conti^ous to this 
stream, after it leaves the mountain 
is alluvial, and there are some sm^U 
patches of alluvial Isind amon^ the 
mountains. The leng;th of this 
stream is about 14 miles, and it af- 
fords several mill privileges. 

Middle Hsro. — Name altered; 
to Grand-Isle, Nov. 5, 1810. See 

Middlesex, a post township in 
the central part of Washington 
county, b in lat. 44° SXy and long. 
4^ Id', and is bounded northerly by 
Worcester, easterly by .^ohtpelier, 
southerly by .Aforetown, from which 
it is separated by Onion river, and' 
westerly by Waterbury. It lies 30i 
miles east from Burlington, and was 
chartered June 8, 1763, containing 
S3300 acres. Mr, Thomas Mend 
was the first settler of this township, 
and abo the first settler of Wash- 
ington county. He began improve- 
ments in Jtfiddlesex in 1781 or '82, 
and the next year moved his family 
here from Chelmesford, Mslss, Mr. 
Harrington moved his family into 
town the year following, and two 
Measn. Putnams the year after. 
The town was organized about the 
year 1788. Mr. Wilson was first 
town clerk, and the Hon. Seth Put- 
nam Was first representative, and 
has represented the town 14 or 15 
years, since. There is a small 
.Vethodist and Freewill Baptist so- 
ciety here, and some Congregation- 
aluts and Universalists. There 
have been no very remarkable in- 
ftaocea of longevity. Mrs. McEl- 
ro/, died here in 1832» but tittle 

lahort of 100 years of age. l^he 
physicians are Joseph Lewis and 
Asa Hold ridge. The south part of 
tins township is watered by Onion 
river, which furnishes here one of 
the best stands for mills in the coun- 
try. The north branch of this riv- 
er runs across the northeast corner 
of the township. There are also 
several brooks on which saw mills 
are erected. The township is une- 
ven, but the only mountain of con- 
sequence lies along the line between 
.Middlesex and Waterbury, and is 
called the Hogback. 'J'he timber 
is such as is common to the moun- 
tain towns, and the soil generally 
good. There is some fine interval 
along the river, but the flats are 
not extensive. The channel worn 
through the rocks by Onion river, 
between thb township and »Vore- 
town, is a considerable curiosity* 
It is about 30 feet in depth 60 id 
width and 80 rods in length, the 
rocks appearing like a wall upon 
each side. Over this chasm a 
bridge is thrown, which is perfect- 
ly secure from floods. But little is 
yet known of the mineralogy. Some 
fine specimens of rock crystal have 
been picked up. On the bank of 
Onion river at the falls near the 
middle nf the south line of the town- 
ship is a flourishing little village, 
containing a small meetinghouse, 
a post office, one store, one tavern, 
one grist, one oil and one saw mill,, 
a cotton and woollen factory, card- 
ing machines and clothier^s works, 
and about 1 6 dwellinghouses. The 
town is divided into seven school 
district with as many schoolhouses, 
and contaihs besides the above^ 
three saw mills. Pop. 1820, 726. 
Sept, 1824. N. c. 

MiDDLETOWw, a post township 
in the southwestern part of Rut- 
land county, is in lat. 43° 28' and 
long. 3° 53') and is bounded north* 





westerly by Poultney, northeast by 
Ira, southeast by Tinmouth, and 
southwest by Wells. It lies 70 miles 
Bouth from 6urlin°^oQ and 41 north 
from Bennington. This township 
was formed by taking 3510 acres 
from the northwest part of Tin- 
mouth, 6118 from the northeast 
part of Wells, 23<ili from the south-j 
east part of Poultuey, and 1825; 
from the souchwest part of Ira,' 
making, in the whole, 14841 acres.! 
The town was organized in 1786, 
and Joseph Rockwell was first town 
clerk. There are here a Baptist! 
and a Congregational church, the: 
former consistmg of 136 members,, 
aud the latter nearly the same.' 
The Rev. Henry Bigelow was set- 
tled over the Congregational 
church and society about tlie yearj 
1805. Elder Isaac Bucklin was; 
settled over the Baptist church inl 
1821. Elder Sylvanus UayneshadI 
been previously settled over it for 
about 27 years. The Congrega- 
-lionalists erected a meetinghouse a- 
bout the year 1794, and the Baptists 
one about 1806. John Buruham 
Jived in this town to the age of 98 
years. The epidemic of 1813 was 
very mortal here. Eliakim Paul is 
the only physician. The surface of 
the township is considerably brok- 
en. Poultney river rises in Tin- 
inouth, and runs westerly through 
this township, afibrding three good 
mill privileges. The soil is a grav-j 
elly loam, and the timber mostly 
maple and beech. Near the centre 
of the township is a small but pleas- 
ant village, containing two meeting- 
houses, three stores, two taverns a 
lawyer's office, and a number of 
mechanics' shops. There are here 
ten school districts, in which are 380 
scholars, three grist, three saw and 
three fulling mills, two carding 
machines, two tanneries, two dis- 

tilleries and two pocket furnaces. 
Population, 1820, 1039. 
Ju/j/, 1824. 
Miles' Rivsr, rises near the 
west corner of Lunenbargh, and, 
pursuing a southerly direction into 
Concord, where it receiyes the 
jstream from Miles' pond, which is a 
jconsiderable body of water, bends 
its course easterly, and falls into 
, Connecticut river by a mouth seven 
or eight yards wide. 
I Miller's Rivjbr, rises in Shef- 
!field, runs th|;ough a part of Whee* 
lock, and falls into the Passumpaic, 
near the centre of Lyndon. It is, 
{generally, a rapid stream, andaf- 
jfords some good mill privil^g;es, 
'particularly in Wh^elock, wlMre 
Ithere is a cokisiderable fall. 
j MiLTOir, a post township in the 
northwestern comer of Chitteodea 
icounty, is in lat. 44° 38^ and loD^. 
:3^ 49', and is bounded north if 
'Georgia, east by Westford, south by 
jColchcster, and west by lake Cham- 
.plain. A sand bar extends from 
jthe southwest comer of the town- 
ship to South Hero, which renden 
jthe lake fordable with safety the 
■greater part of the year. MiltoB 
lies 12 miles north from Burlington, 
40 northwest from MontpeIier,and 
12 south from St. Albans. It wai 
chartered June 8, 1763, contaidi^ 
27,616 acres. The settlement of 
jthe township was commenced im- 
mediately after the revoluUonaiy 
jwar by Gideon Hoxsie, Thomu 
and Zebadiah Dewey, Einoch and . 
Elisha Ashley and others. The 
first settlers sufi*ered many priTi- 
tions and hardships, but there ia 
notliing in the early history, which 
is peculiarly interesting. The towt 
was organized March 25, 1788, and 
Enoch Ashley was first town derk. 
It was represented the same year bj 
Aaron Matthews. The religion! 
denominaUoos are Con^egatiosal- 





lis, Metliodists, Baptists and Christ- 
ina, none having, at preseot, regular 
ittled ministers. The Rev. Joseph 
Iheeuy was ordained over the Coa- 
re^tioual church and society, in 
307, and dismissed in 1817. The 
[ethodists are supplied by circuit 
reachers, and by local preachers 
L the vicinity. TTio Baptists residej 
rincipally in the southwest part of j 
ie township, and arc under the] 
istoral care of Elder Phinehcts^. 
ufoer, of Colchester, This town-' 
lip is watered by the river La-j 
lOille, which runs through it from! 

3rtbeast to southwest, and by f mills, three grist mills, four fuUin 

t 11 _x ■i_:_'u _fl*. 3' ;n_ n r a_ _ 'rr. •• 

tveral small streams, which afford 
umerous mill seats. In the La- 
loille are several considerable falls, 
'he Great falls on the river, seven 
dies from its mouth, and a little to 
lie south weit of the centre of Mil- 
on, are a considerable curiosity. In 
aaning 50 rods, the whole river 
allsiabout 150 feet. Near the mid- 
He of the cataract is a small is- 
land, upon each side, of which the 
nrater rushes down with the great- 
est yioterlbe, rebounding from rock 
to rock, tossing its spray into the air, 
lod stunning the astonished specta- 
tor by its successive cone ussious and 
ncessant roar. These falls are 
Quch visited by the curious. The 
Uriape of this township is gently 
liversiiied with hills aud vallies, 
^Qt contains no mountains of con- 
Bqaence. Cobble hill in the south, 
<id Raitlesnaice hill, in the north 
'^rt, are the most remarkable, 
^hey rise 4 or 500 feet above the 
^Jacent plains, and afford a fine 
^rospect of the lake and surroundr 
1g country. The soil is various, 
*CiB|^, in some parts, sandy pine 
lainB, in others clay, and in others, 
warm loam. The lumbering bu- 
neas has, heretofore, engrossed 
tach of the attention of Uie in- 
iTriUots, but they are now l?e^in- 

ning to devote their attention prin- 
cipally to agriculture. The rocks 
here are mostly limestone. Iron 
ore is found here in abundance, 
which yields from 30 to 40 per cent 
of pure iron. On the bank of the 
Lamoille is a cavern 15 or 20 feet 
in extent, and about 10 in height. 
J ust above the Grreat falls is a pleas- 
ant little village, which is a place 
of some business. The town con- 
tains a Congregational meeting- 
house, a town house, 13 school dis- 
tricts, as many schoolhouses, three 
physicians, two attornies, 13 saw 


mills, one woollen factory, with 75 
spindles, one shingle factory, one 
paper mill, three stores, three dis-^ 
tilleries, three tanneries and four 
taverns. Population, 1820, 1746. 
JunCi 1824. w. H. 

Mind EN. — Name altered to 
Craftsbury, October 27, 1790. Set 

MiNEHEAD, a township in the 
northeastern part of Essex county, 
is in lat. 44® 48* and long. 5^ 14', and 
is bounded northeasterly by Lem- 
ington, southeasterly by Connec- 
ticut river, which separates it from 
Columbia, N. H., southwesterly by 
Brunswick, and northwesterly by 
Lewis. It lies 60 miles northeast 
from Jlfontpelier, and 100 from 
Windsor ; and was chartered, June 
29, 1762, containing 23040 acres. 
The settlement of this township was 
commenced before the year 1800, 
but the progress of the settlement- 
has been slow. The western and 
south parts are watered by Nulhe- 
gan river. The northeastern jparts 
are watered by two or three small 
streams, which fall into the Con- 
necticut. Population, 1820, 132. 

MissisauE.* — Name altered to 
Troy, October 26, 1803. See Troy, 

* Pronounced Missisco ; and tch^ 





MissitiavE Bay, is a larg;e arm ;; and Taylor^s branch are its most con- 
of lake Champlain, which extcndsijsiderable tributaries. Thelcn^hof 
into Canada .between S wanlou;; this river, including^ its windings, k 
and liighgate on the east, aud|'about 75 miles, and it receives the 
Alburgh on the west. Its width, waters from about 582 square miles 
from east to west, on Canada line, [in Vermont. This river is navi^ 
is about five mile:;, and it extends: able for vessels of 30 tons burthen, 
four or five miles into Canada.' six miles, to Swantou falls. 
This bay covei-s an area of about j Mo.vston, a post township in the 
35 square miles. inorth part of Addison county, ia in 

MissisacE River, rises in Kelly- jlat. 44^ IS* and long^. 3°3r,'andi» 
vale, and, pursuing a northeasterly bounded north by Uinesbui^h and 
course through a part of WestfieldliCharlotte, east by Starksborougfa, 
and Troy, crosses the north line of south by Bristol, and we?t by Fer- 
the state into Potton in Canada, risburgh. It lies 18 miles soQth- 
where it receives a large stream least from Burlington, and 27 west 
f^om the northeast. After ruuning: from Montpelier. It was xshartered 

large stream 
After ruuning 
several miles in Canada, it returns 
iftto Vermont about a mile west 

June 24, 1763, and contains 24000 
acres. This township was setUed 

from the northeast corner of Rich- ;im mediately after the re vol utionaiy 
ford. TTience it runs south wester- iwar, and contained, in 1791, 450 in- 
ly through the corner of Berkshire, .'habitants, but we have obtained so 

where it receives Trout ri«rer, in*! 

to Enosburgh. It then takes a 
westerly course through Sheldon 
into Highgate, where it bends to the 
south into Swanton, and, after 
performing a circuit 
niiles in that town, returns into 
Itighgate, and, running northwest- 
erly, falls into Missisque bay near 
Canada line. There are several 
falls and rapids on this stream, but' 
the current is, generally, moderate,: 
and the river wide and shallow. It| 
affords a considerable number of 
valuablie 'sites for mills, and the al- 
Idvial flats, along its margin, aro ex- 
tensive and very fertile. Besides 
those above mentioned. Black creek 

account of its early history. Thert 

is a Baptist church here coniisting 
of 43 members. There are oo 
large streams in this towndiip. 
The western part is watered "by 
of several JlLittle Otter creek, and the eastern 
part by Pond brook, which risa 
irom a considerable pond nearly on 
the lino between Monkton and Bris- 
tol, and runs north through thb 
to-wnship into Lewis creek in Hines- 
burgh. Lewis creek tlso runs a 
short distance in the northeastern 
part. These streams afford but few 
mill privileges. Monkton pond lid 
in the north part of the towoshipi 
and is about a mile in length and half 
a mile wide. A mountain called 
the Hogback, extends along the 
should it not be so written? Missisco eastern boundary of the township, 
would' be more conformable to thc.*i\nd there are several other con- 
original, as tJie word is derived /rom.isiderable elevations. ' Iron ore ii 
the Indian^ Missis much and Jrwcoo,:jfouud .in the south part of thh 
waterfowl j'rom the abundance of u>a-\iownsh.\]i in immense quantitift. 
ierfoipl in and about the river aJw/ilOchery varieties occur, but it a 
bay of this name. The name has' mostly the hematitic brown oxide. 
been formerly written Missiskoui,^ The colour of the surface of thii 
Missisquoiy ice, |l ore b a velvet black, and that of tb^ 





atcrior a browaish black. Itsi 
tructure is Hbroua and commonly | 
adiated. This ore makes excellent, 
ron, and is extensively manufac-j 
.ure4 a-t Bristol and other places. | 
Z^onpected with the iron ore, is 
bund the black oxide of mang^anese. 
Ibout a mile north of the iron ore 
>e(l, on the east side of a ridg;e of 
And running north and south, is an 
extensive bed of kaolin, or porce^ 
iHin earth. It i^ white, sometimes 
jrayish white ; dry to the touch, 
iod absorbs water with rapidity. 
It is eYidently decomposed feldspar, 
or rather, graphic granite, as these 
substances are found in the bed, in 
all stages of depomposition, from the 
almost entire stone, down to the 
finest and purest porcelain earth. It 
ynior ht be manufactured into the best 
China ware. The quantity is im-{ 
menae, sufficient to supply the 
world with this ware for centuries. 
jPj jDdixiqg this earth with common 
cliay ip differ/^nt proportions, various 
]|^(l8 of pottery are produced.' * In 
the south part of this township is a 
poa^ curiously located on the sum- 
mit of a considerable hill. In the 
northwestern part is a remarkable 
cavern. The orifice, by which it is 
entered, is at the bottom of a larg^e 
ehasm in the rocks on the side of a 
tfl^all hill. After descending^ about 
16 feet, you arrive at a room 30 
i^t long and 16 wide. From this, 

a passage leading to a second a- 
lent, which is not quite so 
but more pleasant.' This town 

divided into ten school districts, 
%ild contains throe meetinghouses, 
oa^. grist and three saw mills, one 
Ibiige, two stores and two taverns. 
fk^pulation, 1B20, 1 152. 

Montgomery, a post township 
in the eastern part of Franklin coun 
Ly, is in lat. 44° G2' and long. 4° 19', 
containing 23040 acres, or 36 square 
lU^es* It lies 42 miles north from 

Jtfontpelier, and 39 northeast from* 
Burlington. It is bounded north 
by Richford, east by Westileld, south 
by Kellyvale and Avery^s Gore and 
west l)y Enosburgh. It was grant- 
ed Jl/arch 13, 17G0i and chartered 
October 8, 1789, to Stephen R. 
Bradley and others. Capt. Joshua 
Clapp, a respectable revolutionary 
officer, removed his family from 
Worcester county, Jtfass., into this 
{town, in t^arch, I793r and this was 
ifor two years the only family in 
town. Hon. Samuel Barnard, Reu- 
ben Clapp and James Upham, Esq. 
all from Jlfass., were among the 
earliest settlers. The Rev. Joel 
Clappt of Shelburn, was the first 
child born in this town. He was 
bom, September 14, 1793. He re- 
ceived a public education, studied 
his profession and preached the first 
fast-day sermon, the first thanks- 
giving sermon and the first moth- 
er's funeral sermon, which were 
preached in this town. The first 
town meeting was held and the 
town was organized, Aug. 12, 1802. 
Samuel Barnard, Esq. was first town 
clerk. The prevailing denomina- 
tions of christians are Congregation- 
alists. Episcopalians and Baptists, 
This town is watered by Trout riv- 
er, which is formed by the union of 
south and east branch, about half 
a mile west of the centre of the 
town. In its course it receives a 
number of tributary streams, and 
leaves the town near the northwest 
corner. On this river is a beauti- 
ful and fertile tract of interval land. 
Back from the river (he land be- 
comes mountainous, and less suita- 
ble for cultivation. The mill priv- 
ileges, both on the river and its 
tributaries, are numerous and excel* 
lent. But few of them, however^ 
are yet occupied. The timber is 
mostly hard wood, with some spruce, 
hemlock and fir. I'he principal 






Toad from Orleans county to St. Al-||ton was the first child born in town' 
baas and .Vontreal, passes through, The settlement of the town irent 
this town, vAoixg Trout river. This; on rapidly, and in 1791, the popo- 
town is divided into 3 school dis-,;iation amoanted to 113 'persons. 
tricts, which are furnished with g^oodlOn the 29th of ^arch of this jw^ 
schoolhouses. There are in the -the town was organized and Ziba 
.town one mercantile store, one tav-'jWoodworth was chosen town derk. 
cm, two saw milh, one grist mill, It was also represented this year by 
one fulling mill and a carding ma- -Col. J. Davis. It was constituted 
chine. Pop. 1 820, 293. '• |the permanent seat of the state gov- 

MoKTPELiER, a ])0»t and shire jernment by an act passed 
town in Washington county, and; , 1 805, and became the shire town of 
peat of government of the state, isijthecounty of Jefferson, (nowWtih' 
in lat. 44° 17' and long. 4° 2.5', And [ingion^) on the incorporation of tint 
is bounded northerly by Calais, Icounty in 181 U The religioaa de- 
casterly by PI a infield and a small 'nominations in this town are Cos- 
part of JV/arshfield, southerly by gregationalists, JVethodists, Freewill 
.Berlin, from which it is separated, jiJapiist, Baptists, Unirersalisti and 
by Onion river, and by a part of ' Friends or Quakers. TheCongre- 
Barre, and westerly by JV/iddlesex. gal ioLahchurch is principally in the . 
Jt lies 36 miles southeast from Bur-' i village. It was organized in 1808| 
lin^lon, 103 northeasterly from Bf^n- and at present consists ef aboatSOO 
nington, and 140 from Uotton. This: members. Their present pastor, 
township was granted October 21,-^the Rev. Chester Wright^ was set- 
tled August 14, 1809. In 1819, 

they erected an elegant and spadooi 
brick meetinghouse in Jtfbntpelier 

1780, and chartered to Timothy 
Bigelow and others, Aug, 14, '81, 
containing 23040 acres. It was re- 
chartered, February 6, l:j04. In ; village, ibr which a bell has lately 
the spring of 1786, Joel Frizzle e- been procured. The Jtfethodist lo- 
rected a log house on the bank of ciety is respectable for numbers and 
Onion river in the southwest comer| has a new chapel in the centre of 
ot thib township, on the farm now] the town nearly finished. They 
owned by .^r. John Walton, and are usually supplied by itinertBt 
moved his family into it from Can- ! preachers. The Freewill Baptiit 
ada. This v/as the first family in,. society is also considerably numer- 
town. Early in the month of wVay,'|OU8. The preachers of this order 

1787, Col. Jacob and Gen. Parley 
Davis, from Worcester county,Jtfass. 
beo^n iinprovcinents here near the 
place where the jail house in j>font- 
pelier village now standa, and erect- 
ed (\ log house, into which Col. Da- 
vis removed his family the winter 
following. In 1788, he erected a 
Baw mill, and the next year a grist 
mill on the north branch of Onion 
river upon the spot where Water- 
man's mills now stand. Clarissa, 
daughter of Col. Davis, and now 

inre Eider Z. Woodworth and EUer 
PaiU Holbrook. Thd other ioci»- ^ 
[ties are small. The pastor of till" 
Baptist church is Elder PhiiHf' 
Wheeler. The Friends have t- 
meetinghouse in the easterly put 
of the town. This township is wi^ 
tered by Onion river, which rmii 
through the southeast corner and 
along the southern boundary, by ' 
the North branch which crosses tba 
southwest corner, by Kingi>bwy 
v)ranch, which crosses the northeak 

the wife of JMTr. George Worthing-^ corner and b^ seyeral smaller 






•streams. The mill privileges are 
numerous and many of them ex-- 
cellent. The surface of the town- 


ship is uneven, but the soil is g^cn- 
eraily good, and well rewards the 
labours of the industrious farmer.! 
The rocks are principally of slate, 
of which there are three or four va-; 
rieties. There is, however, a plen- 
ty of excellent granite for building 
stones in the eastern parts. There 
have been but few of the rave min-' 
erals found here. The sulphuret. 
-of iron and talc exist in small quan-' 
lilies. McmtpelUr village^ is situated 
-on the north bank of Onion river, 
•on both sides of the mouth of North 
branch, and in the southwestern part' 
^f the township. It is about 10' 
miles northeasterly from the geo-l 
.;g^phical centre of the state, and is! 
4i great thoroughfare, the travel ge-j 
ing through it in all directions.' 
The situation of the village is low, 
«nd it is rendered, somewhat, un- 
pleasant by the proximity of the 
hills. It has, however, had a very 
Tapid growth, and is a place of ex- 
tensive business. Its public build- 
ings are a state house, erected in 
\Sifl and 1808, a court house, built | 
in 1817, ajail,in 181 1, a brick meet- 
inghouse, in 1819, a masonic hall, 
in 1822, and an academy rebuilt of 
hrick, in 1 823. The academy, in 
^ttils village, was burnt on the night 
of the 4th of January, 1822. The 
tapper part of this building was an 
jpiiiClegant hall, fitted up, at the ex- 
Lipense of f800, for the use of King 
Lcolomon^ Royal Arch Chapter and 
r Aurora Lodge of Free-Masons. 
^ All the jewels and a part of the 
records of the Lodges were con- 
fomed. jThe Montpelier Academy 
wail incorporated November 7, 1 800, 
«nd is under the direction of 12 
trustees. The present preceptor is | 
^anaihanC.SotUhmayd^ A.M.,., and 
the fchool is in a flourishing condi- 


tiou, consisting of from 50 to 60 schol- 
ars. There are, in this village, 12 
attomies at law, three physicians, 
isix India and English goods stores, 
■two apothecary stores, one book- 
Islorc, a hat store, one shoe store, 
;one printing oflSce, at which is pub- 
lished, " The Vermont Watchman," 
R weekly paper, by E. P. Walton, 
one book bindery, four taverns, 
'one grocery shop, one jeweler, four 
Iblaclcsmiths, one screw factory, one 
woollen factory, two fulling mills, 
two carding machines, one grist, one 
saw and one paper mill, one gun- 
'smith, two tailors, three cabinet 
makers, two wheelwrights, two 
carpenters and house joiners, two 
chair factories, two painters and 
glaziers, one comb factory, two sad- 
dlers, three tinmen, four shoemak- 
ers, one mason, two milliners, 
one distillery, and one tannery. 
There was formerly a cotton factory 
here, but it was consumed by fire 
in J 814. The mill privileges, both 
on the north branch and on Onion 
river, are here very good, and across 
the latter is a good bridge, leading 
to a cluster of buildings on the 
Berlin side, among which are a pa-, 
per mill, a saw mill, a grist mill and 
a blacksmith^s shop. The latitude 
of the state house is 44® 16' north 
and its longitude 71° 33' west from 
Greenwich. The number of dwel- 
ling houses is about 70, and the 
population about 900. There are, 
in the town, 16 school districts and 
schoolhouses, nine saw, three grist 
and four fulling mills, and four card^ 
ing machines. Pop., 1820, 2308. 
September 1824. 
MoosB RivBR, is an eastern 
branch of the Passumpsic, and rises 
in Granby and East-Haven. Tak- 
ing a southwesterly course through 
Victory, Bradleyvale, Concord and 
a part of St. Johnsbury, it falls into 
the Passumpsic opposite te 67. 





Johnsbury Plain. It is, generally,! river, called Earfaad's riv€r, pasMJ 
a rapid stream, except through; through the east part of jl/orgim 
Bradleyvale and a part of Con- ; and Kuowlton's lake, which is about 
cord, where it is sluggish throughlfour miles long and nearly two 
flat land. Length 24 miles. j.wide, liesin the soutiiern part. It 

MoRETOWir, a post township inj' discharges its waters to the scutb 
the central part of Washingtouj through Echo pond into Clyde riv- 
county, is in lat. 44^ 15' and loug.i er. The town contains two school 
4° 15", and is bounded northerly by!. house?, one grist and one saw mill. 
Middlesex and a part of W'ater-j Population, ll>\!0, 116. • 
bury, from which it is separated by i JMorristowx, a post township 
Onion river, easterly by Berlin,)', in the southwest corner of Orleaos 
southerly by Waisifield, and west- county, is in lat. 44® 32' and long. 

«rly by Duxbury . It W as chartered 
June 7, 1 763, containing 23040 acres, 
and lie's eight miles soutliwest from 
Montpelier, and 30 southeast from 
SurlingtQn. The settlement of this 
township was commenced about the 
year 1790, and the town was organ- 
ized three or four years after. The 
religious denominations are Congre- 
gatioualists and Methodists, and 
there is a small society of each. 
Much of tlie township is mountain- 
ous and incapable of being settled. 
Mad river enters it from Waitsfield 
about a mile from the southwest 
corner, and passes through it in a 
northeasterly direction into Onion 

i4^ 20', uud is bounded northerly by 
JHydepark, easterly by Elmore, 
[southerly by Stow, and westerly by 
j Sterling! It lies 20 jjpiles nortli- 
{west from Montpelier, and 29 north- 
jeast from Burlington. It was grant* 
led November 6* 1780, and cbarter- 
'ed to Jlfoses JlTorse and associate^ 
■August 24, 1781, containing 22040 
.acres, jf'he settlement of thjs towu- 
iship was commenced, in 1790, ly 
»Vr. Jacob Walker and his brother. 
Mr. Walker brought his family here 
and continued through the summer, 
but returned in the fall to Benning- 
ton, his former place of residence. 
Mr. Walker came to this town ag;ain 

river. On this stream are several !in 1792, accompanied by a .Vr. 

mill privileges. There are, in town, 
six school districts, one grist and 
three saw mills, one store, one tav- 
ern and two tanneries. /Popula- 
tion, 1820, 593. 

Morgan, a township in the east- 
ern part of Orleans county, is in 
lat. 44° 51' and long. 4° 58', and is 
bounded north by Holland and a 
part of Derby, easterly by Wen- 
lock and Warner's gore, and south- 
west by Navy and a part of Salem. 
It lies 52 miles northeast from Mont- 
pelier, and was chartered, Novem- 
ber 6, 1780, to Jedediah Calderkin 

Olds and family, from Brookfield, 
I Mass. Inthefall,Mr. W. returned to 
I Bennington to his family, and left Mr. 
Olds' family to winter here alone.' 
Their nearest neighbors, on the 
south, were at Waterbury, ten mile? 
dist|iDt, and the nearest mill at 
Cambridge, distant more than £0 
miles. In the summer of 1798, 
Capt. Safibrd, from Worthingtoo, 
Ma^s., built the first saw mill at the 
Great falls on the Lamoille. Tlie 
town was oi'gauized in 1796, and 
Comfort Olds was first town clerk. 
The surface of this township iavery 

and others, by the name of Caldcrs-jilevelfor one in the interior partcf 
burgh. The scttlcmout of this jjlhe state, having nothing which de- 
tpwufrhip was conjmcnccd about Uieiiservcs the name of a mountain in 
year ICOO. A heu4 brauch of Clydeljit. It i§, however, diyersified with 



MOU • 


g-eatle hills and vallies. The soil is, in[' Wilcox, from Rhode-Island, ami 
general, of a very g^ood quality, Hiid|'JosGi)h Green, David Bent, Abra- 
easily cultivated. 7'he timber isljham Crowly and Nathaniel Pin- 

maple, beech, birch, hemlock, &c. 
The river Lamoille enters the town- 
ship near the northeast corner, and, 
after runnin* four miles in the north 
part, returns into Hydepark. A- 

I town 

from Jtfassachusetls. The 

was organized, in 1792. 

■Stephen Clark was first town clork, 

and Abraham Jackson first repre- 

' sentative. The rcli^ous denomina- 

lontj this rivjBr, in Morri^town, are' tions are Baptist", Jlfethodists, Con- 
pome fine tracts of interval, and on' grejjfationalijts and Friends, or 
it, are two excellent mill seats, onj' Quakers. SThc Baptist church cotl- 
which mills are already erected, tains 265 members, and Elder Dan^ 
There are several other streams,' iel Parksr was settled over it, in 
irhich are sufficiently large fori; 1811. They have a meetinghous© 
mills. In the southeast corner is a.; in the north part of the town. The 
pond called Joe's pond, from an old jJllethodist society consists of about 
Indian pensioner, who lived by the j40 members;' the Cong^regational 
side of it. The physicians are Docts.j and the Friend society, of about 20 
Tinker and Gleason. The public 'each. T^e Friend? have a sma^ 
buildings are a town house and anjihouse f©r public worshtp, and there 
elegant brick meetinghouse. I^hej is a meetinghouse, in the south part, 
latter was completed in 1823, and is 
owned in common by several de- 
nominations. There are, here, 13 
eehool districts vnd schoolhouses, 
one attorney, eight saw mills, four 
Btofes, two taverns and two tan- 
neries. Population, 1820^726, 
Jtfoy, 1824. L. B. 

MousT-HoLLY, a post township 
in the east part of Rutland county, 
is in lat. 47^ 2,5' and long. 4'^ 10', 
and is bounded north by Plymouth 

owned by the different denomina- 
tions, in common. Inl8l3,therewer« * 
37 deaths in this town, mostly occa- 
sioned by the epidemic of that year. 
The physicians are Oliver and Loyal 
Garnsey and Sylvester Grinnell. 
Mill river, which rises in the sonth 
part of the township, and runs 
through the northeast corner of 
Wallingford and the southwest " 
comer of Shrewsbury, and unites 
with Otter creek, in Clarendon, is 

and Shrewsbury, east by Ludlow, |the only stream of consequence. 

tenth by Benton^s gore and a part 
of Weston, and west by Walling- 
forti and a part of Mount-Tabor. It 
lies 60 miles south from Montpelier, 

iln the northeastern partis aeon- 
Isiderable pond called, Palches 
I pond. In soil and timber it is sim- 
ilar to the mountain towns general- 

and 20 west from Windsor. It isj ly, being much better adapted to 
made up of Jackson's gore, contain-i'the production of grass than grain. 
ing 10669 acre*«, 3388 acres from ij About four miles south from 
the east side of Wallingford, andljSprague's tavern, on the summit of 
11739 acres from the west side of ; the Green Mountain, is found 

Ludlow, being, in the whol'3, 25796 
acres, and was incorporated, Octo 

amianthus, common and lignifbna 
asbcstus and fossil leather. Its col-« 

ber 31, 1792. The settlement of- lour is a grayish white, and it is very 

this township was commence<l, in 
1781, by Ichabod G., Stephen and 
John Clark, Jonah, Amos and Eben- 

labundant. Ludlow mountain is a 
considerable elevation, lying along 
the lino betwe^ this township and 

«*er ^T^ from Connecticut, Jacob! Ludlow. The turnpike, from Rut- 





land to Boston, passes through tiiisj pie, his shipmates," aud others, con- 
township. There are, licre, tenjitaining 2o040 acres. Commodore 
school districts and schoolhou8C5,r Whipple was a distinguished nuval 
two stores, three taverns, one grist, officer in the rerolutiouary war,and 

eight saw and two fulling mills, one 
carding machine and ooe tannery. 
Population, 1820, 11 o7. 

Sept. 1824. D. p. k. d. g. 
Moust-Tahor,. a township in 

he named this township in honor of 
'the American navy, the prowess of 
: which he had so bravely maintain- 
led. 'J^he settlement of this towo- 
'ship was commenced, in 1803, by 
the southeast comer of Rutlandij Andrew McGaSey, who, this year, 
county, is in lat. 43^ 21' and long, jmuved his family here from Lyn> 
4^ 4', and is bounded north by Wal-i;don. Mrs. McGaffey died, October 
ilugfuru, ea*t by Bentou^s gore and 130, of this year, which was the first 

u pari of AIount-Holly, south by 
I'eru, and west by l>anby. It lies 

jdcath in town. In July, of ;bia 
(year, Abner Allyn also moved bis 

^'G miles southwest from Windsor,|;family here, and his was the second 
and 36 northeast from Bcnuingtoo, ;iamily in town. In 1804, Joseph 

and was chartered, August 28, 1761, 
Yj the name of Ilarwich. This is 
u mountainous township, and much 
&f it incapable of ever being set* 
tied. 2 'he mountains belong to the 
range of Green Mountains, and the 
air and soil are not so well adapted 
to the production of grain as grass. 
Otter creek rises here,, and runs 
south into Peru, thea west into 
Dorset, and then nortli through the 
western border of this township 
into Wallingford. Pop., 1820,222. 

MouisT-lND]&P£ND£jfC£, lics in 
the northwest corner of the town- 
ship of Orwell, and about two miles 
southeast of Ticonderoga Fort. It which 
is an inconsiderable mountain, and 
worthy of notice only on account of 
the fortifications formerly erected 
upon it, audits connexion with the 
early history of our country. 

^AVY, a township in the efist 
part of Orleans county, is in lat. 
44<^ 51' and long. 4° 53', and is 
bounded northeast by Morgan,' 
southeast by Random, southwest 
by a part of Westmore and Brown- 
ingtou, and northwest by Salem. It 
lies 50 miles northeast from Mont- 
pelier ; was granted the 6th, and 
chartered the 8th of November, 
1780, to the " Hon. Abraham Whip- 

jSeavey moved his family here, 
jOrin Percival his, in 1805, and from 
this time the settlement proceeded 
,more rapidly. The whole number 
:of deaths, in this town, since its set- 
tlement was commenced, is 13, only 
three of these adults. 7*he toviL 
was organized, March 31; 1806, aod 
Abner Allyn was first tawnderk. 
He was also the first representative, 
chosen in 1807. The Freewill Bap- 
tists are the most numerous denom- 
ination of Christians. Elder Jo- 
iiM Allen is their pastor. Ezra 
Gushing is the only physician. The 
principal stream is Clyde river, 
enters the township from 
Random, and runs north westerly, 
nearly through its centre into Sa- 
lem. There are some falls of con- 
sequence, on this stream, particu- 
larly the Great falls where the des- 
cent is more than 100 feet in 40 
rods, but its current is, generally, 
slow. The alluvial flats, along tlus 
stream, are extensive, but generally 
too low and wet for cultivatioiL 
In the southeast part of the town^ 
ship is IQOO acres of bog meadow ina 
body upon this river. There are sev- 
eral considerable ponds. Echo pood, 
the most important, is in the north** 
em part, and was uamedbyQeo* 





J. WhitelaWyOn account of the sue- 1 
eession of echos, which is usuallyl 
heard when any sound is produced] 
in its vicinity. This pond is onej 
mile and a half long and half a 
mile wide. The stream, which dis- 
ehargea the waters of Seymour's 
lake, in Morgan, into Clyde river,: 
passes through this pond. On thcj 
outlet, mills are about being erect-j 
ed. The other pond, of most con-, 
sequence, is called Pension pond,' 
and lies in the course of Clyde riv-] 
er. These ponds abound in. fish, and! 
large quantities are, annually,! 
caught. In the southeast part of 
the township is a large hemlock: 
ti'ee, lying across a branch of Clyde j 
river, wiUi a smaller tree, lying on! 
each sid3 of it. Upon the large 
tr^e is a rock, supposed to weigh 
from 10 to 13 tons, so- nicely bal-[ 
lanced, as to be easily moved by the! 
hand, and is prevented from being 

Connecticut river, by a moutb 
nearly two rods wide. On this; 
stream are several mills and otheL^ 

Neshobe. — Name altered ta 
Brandon Oct. 20, 1784. See Brandon^ 

Newark, a township in the^ 
western part of Essex county, is irt 
lat.44°42' and long. 5 «> 4', and is* 
bounded northeasterly by Random,, 
southeasterly by East-Haven, south- 
westerly by Burk and Sutton, and 
northwesterly by Westmorc It 
lies 44 miles northeast from Mont- 
pelier ; was granted November 6» 
1780, and chartered, Aug. 15, 1781,. 
to Wm. Wall and others, containing^ 
23040 acres. The settlement of thi& 
township was commenced about thcb 
year 1800. It is watered by a great 
number of small streams, which ares 
here collected together, and form 
the Passumpsic river. But a small 
part of this township is settled, al- 

precipitated into the branch, a dis- 'though the settlement has extendecE 
tance of 10 or 12 feet, by the t wo ji considerably within a few years^ 


Population, 1820, 154. 

Newbttrt, a post township in the 
northeast corner of Orange county, 

small trees. The soil of this town- 
ship is a rich loam, and produces 
*;ood crops. Tlie town is divided 

into four school districts, but con-! lis in lat. 44^ 6' and long. 4^ 48', and 
tains only one good schoolhouse.||is bounded north by Ryegate, east 
The first militia company was or-ltby Connecticut river, which sepa- 
sranized here, in October, 1822.;|rates it &om Haverhill, N. H., souflm 

There are two sets of mills, in' 
town, and another erecting. Thej 
population, according the census of 
1820, was 90, but it should have! 
been 100. The present population 
is 212. A. A. 

March, 1824. 
NxAL^s Brook, rises near the 
north corner of Lunenburgh, in 
severalbranches, and, running south, 
foils into a pond of tlie same name, 
which is about a mile long and halfi 
a mile wide, and Ues near the cen- 
tre of Lunenburgh. It then con- 
tinues its course south, meets a 
westerly branch, and, after running 
about half a mile further, iallq into 


by Bradford, and west by Topsham^ 
It lies 27 miles easterly from Mont- 
pelier, and 47 northeasterly frook 
Windsor ; and was chartered, ta 
Gen. Jacob Bayley and others, Mayr 
18, 1763, containing 36450 acres^. 
The settlement of this township 
was commenced in the spring OJt 
1764, Among the first settlers may^ 
be mentioned Gen, Jacob Bayley,. 
Col. Jacob Kent, CoU Thoma» 
Johnson, and James Abbot. The. 
early inhabitants were mostly emi- 
grants from the southeastern partsi 
of New-Hampshire, and from New-^ 
bury, Mass. They had peculiar 
hardships tQ ei^ure, there being a^ 





iuhabiiauts oq Connecticut river, at 
this time, north of No. 4, now 
Charleston, N. H., or between this 

I em border of this township, and 
along this stream are here some of 
the moat beautifal tracts of inter- 

place and Concord. Nor were] ival in Vermont. The meadows are 
there any roads throug^h the wil-jIdesigDated as follows; Upper mead- 
demess, or any thing, but marked] low, in the north part. Cow meadow, 
treesito facilitate the communica-i; Oxbow meadow, in the bend of 
tion between this and the civilized|jConnecticut river, called the Great 
settlements. The nearest mill was i Oxbow, containing 450 acres, the 
at Charleston, distant more thanliMusquash meadow, south of tbs 
60 miles. To that they went for|;moi\th of Haniman's brook, cos- 
their grinding, carrying their grain! taining 300 acres, Kenf s meadow 
down the river in canoes during thejjof about 200 acres, and several 
summer and drawing it upon the icel.otlier tracts in the south part of the 
i& the winter. The crank, for the||township. The other streams, of 
first saw mill built in Newbury,, most consequence, are Wells river, 
was drawn from Concord, N. H.,'jwhich crosses the northeast corner, 
distant 70 miles, upon a handsled,' jafibrding some excellent stands for 

and the crank is still in use. Gen. I 

mills, lianiman^s brook, which rises 

Ba.yley was very active in forward- i in a pond of the same name, passes 
ing the settlement, of this part of ithrough Newbury village, and joins 

the country, and distinguished him- 
self as a general officer in the revo- 

Connecticut river, a little south oC 
tlie Great Oxbow, and Hallos brook, 

lutionary war. He, in 1776, com-;|which originates in HalVs poad,and 
menced making the road from New- 1 jruns through the south part, and 
bury to St. Johns, which was open-|jfalls into the Connecticut, in Brad- 
edbyGen. Hazen, in 1779, as far j ford. These are all considerable 
as Hazen^s Notch, in Westiield. mill streams. By the side of 

Haniman's brook, about 50 rod? 
north of the meetinghoyse, is a 
mineral spring, which is a plaee of 
considerable resort for iuvalidL 

Jtewbury was garrisoned by one, 

or more, company of soldiers during 

the Revolution, and was, for many 

years after, the most important 

tom^a in this part of the state. The ji The water is strongly impregnated 

first meeting of the proprietors of jwith sulphureted hydrogen gai, 

this township was held at Plastow, jand is said to resemble the cele- 

N. II., June 13, 1763. The town 
was organized immediately after 
the settlement was commenced, and 
Col, Jacob Kent was chosen town 
clerk, which office he held till 1798. 
The first minister was the Rev. 
Peter Powers, who was settled over 
Newbury and Haverhill, N. H., 
January 24, 1765, and dismissed in 
1784. He died at Deer Isle, Me., 
in 1799. The present clergyman, 
in Newbury, is the Rtv, Luther 
Jeivet. They have a large meet- 
inghouse in Newbury village. 
Coanecticut river waters the east- 

brated Harrow Gate waters of 
Yorkshire, £ng., and likewise those 
of Ballcastle and Castlemain, Ire- 
land. They are found to be a spe^ 
cific for scrophulous and all kinds 
of cutaneous eruptions and com-. 
plaints. A good shower house and 
baths are constructed ne%r the 
spring, and every accommodation is 
provided at the hotel, which the 
visitant can desire. Springs, of the 
same kind, are. met with in several 
other places in the township. There 
are two very pleasant villages lA 
Newbury. The one, colled. JWv.'s 





buhf village, is situated oear the 
Great Oxbow, contaiuing a meet- 
inghouse, hotel, one or two stores, 
a post office, bearing the name ol 
the town, and a number of very 
pleasant gentlemen's Eeats. The 
other is situated at the mouth of 
Wells river, and is called Wells'^ 
River village. This village is well 
situated for trade, and has valuable 
water privileges on Wells river, on 
"which is a paper mill and a variety 
of other mills and machinery. It 
contains three stores, a tavern, a 
considerable number of mechanics 
and a post office, called Wells' River 
post office. Just below this village 
is a new bridge across the Connect- 
icut, and there is another near the 
south part of the township leading 
to ^ Haverhill comer." The Le- 
gislature has held two sessions in 
Newbury ; the first in 1787, and 
the other in 1801. Population, 
1820, 16:23. J. w. 

September , 1824. 
N£WFANE, a post town, and the 
seat of justice in Windham county, 

Wentworth, and a new on 3 granted 
to Luke Brown and his associates. 
On the 1 1th of May, 1772, the gov- 
ernor of New- York made a grant 
of said township by the name of 
"Newfane," to Walter Franklin 
and twenty other persons, princi- 
pally residing in the city of New- 
York. On the 12th of May, 1772, 
the said W. Franklin and his asso- 
ciates conveyed their right, in said * 
township, to Luke Knowlton and 
John Taylor, Esqrs., of Worcesler 
county, Mass. 7'he titles of all the 
lands, in said town, are derived 
from the New- York charter. In 
1772, a survey was made of the 
whole township, and on the 17th of 
May, 1774, said town was duly or- 
ganized, but was not represented in 
the General Assembly of this state, 
till 1780. Col. Wm. Ward was the 
first representative. Luke Knowlton, 
Esq., was chosen first town clerk, 
which office he held till 1790. In 
1792, Nathan Stone, Esq., was chos- 
en town clerk, which office he has 
^ , held successively to- the present 
is situated 10 miles west of Con-ljlime, a period of 32 years. The 

necticut river, in lat. 42° 68' and 
long. 4° 18', and is bounded north by 
Towoshend, east by Dummerston, 
Putney and Brookline, west by 
Wardsborough and Dover, and 
soath by Marlborough. It contain- 
ed* by charter, six miles square, 
bat has been reduced by contribut- 
ing^ to Brookline a small part of 
taid township, which lies on the 
east side of West river. It is, as 

first settlement of the town waa 
commenced in the month.of May^ 
1766, by Dea. Jonathan Park, Na^ 
tlianiel Stedman and Ebenezep 
Dyer, who emigrated from Wor- 
cester county, Mass. For several 
years, they suffered all the hard* 
ships and privations incident to the 
settlement of a new country. With- 
out roads, horses, or oxen, they 
were under the necessity of con^ 

the roads are traveled, 110 miles iveying, by their own^ strength, all 
from Boston, 80 from Albany, llOjitheir provisions, &;c. from Hinsdale, 
fromJlfontpelier,and50from Wind- 1 Id distance of 20 miles, through a 
•or. In 1753, a charter of said ji howling wilderness. Deacon Jonr 

township was granted by Benning 
Wentworth, then governor of the 
province of New-Hampshire, to 
Abraham Sawyer and others, by the 
name of Fane, In 1 76 1 , the former 
iKljltrter ncap returned to.goyeraor 

athan Park, aged about 80, is the 
only survivor of those who com- 
menced the settlement of the town. 
The first child, bom in said town, 
was Lucy, a daughter of Dea. J. 
Park,Aug^U8t 1$, 17^9. JohB,Hli 





of the SAine, and the first male, wasjicivil offices, waa a distinguished law- 
born Jatie 12, 1771, and is now liv-!lyer, and a worthy man. He diedL 
ing at Lyndon, Vt. The people of;'in January 20, 1800, aged 39. The 
this town have been highly favour-j'Hon.Ebenezer Allen was an early 
cd with religious privileges. Dur-! I settler, and, for many years succes- 
Ing half a century they have been ''sively, represented thetowuintlM 
destitute of a settled minister, butjjGeneral Assembly. He was t 
only eighteen mouths ; and they j judge of the County Court, and 
were supplied with preaching, onc.ljudge of Probate, and -much in pab- 
year, within that time. The RevJjlic business till his death, Decern* 
llezekiah Taylor graduated at Ilar-'iber 16, 1805, aged 46. The Re?» 
verd College, in 1772, and having|!Mr. Taylor contributed,. eminently, 
prepared himself for the ministry,:: to the happiness and prosperity of 
came to this town, in 1774. Therc'{the early inhabitants of the town, 
were but six families then in the IBeing possessed of a firm and vigor- 
town, but a Congregational church; jous constitution, and a resolution of 
was formed, consisting of nine mem-'mind, unshaken by hardships and 

bers, and in August, the ;ame year, 
Mr. Taylor was ordained, and tookj 
the chargre of his little flock. He 

misfortunes, with a liberal educa- 
tion, with the most industrious hab- 
its, and a disposition of ki]idne« 
continued to preach till May, 1811,||and benevolence towards all thosei 
and died, August 23, 1814, aged 66; with whom he was in any wise con- 

years, 'i'he Rev. Jonathan Nye; 
was installed, coUegue with .^r.; 
Taylor, in November, 181 1, andwas| 
dismissed in January, 1820. The 

Rev, Chandler Bates was ordained,! nament to general society. We 

July 4, 1821. The religious de- 
nominations are Cougregationalists,! 
Baptists and Universalists, but thej 
Cougregationalists are far the most; 
numerous. The Baptists unite with 
a church and society in Marlboro^' 
and the Universalists have never^ 
organized a church. Among the 

early inhabitants, the Hon. Luke; iollows ; Capt. Melvin, who wga 

Knowlton distinguished himself for: 
his talents and enterprise. He emi-| 
grated from Shrewsbury, Mass.,! 
and came into Newfane,in 1772. He| 
was promoted to several important 

nected, while he faithfully minister- 
ed to the spiritual and temporal 
wants of his people^ he was the de- 
light of the social circle, and an or- 

have no account that the early set-^ 
tiers of Newfane were ever molest- 
ed by the Indians. But tradition 
informs us that, in the war of 1756» 
and some years before any settle- 
ments were commenced, a battle 
was fought in this town. 71ie tra- 
ditional account of this battle is u 

ttntioned at No. 4, Charleston, N. 
H., received orders to march a party 
of American troops from that place 
to Hoosac fort, (Adams,) Masi. 
The party consisted of about 90 

civil offices; wasonceajudgeofthe'imen. When they had arrived m 
Supreme Court, and many yearsjjthe southerly part of Newfane, they 
councillor and chief judge of lhe{|were fired upon, by a large party of 
County Court. He died. Decern- Indians, who lay in ambi:^. A 

ber 12, 1810, aged 73. Calvin 
KnowUon, Esq., son of the Hon. L. 
Knowlton, graduated at Dartmouth 
College, 1788, and was educated to 

sharp conflict ensued, in which both 
parties suffered severely, in killed 
and wounded. Although Melvin'ti 
party fought desperately, they weT« 

Iaw* Ho rartained Mreralyfinally overpe^^ed by Bupcnot 





ambers, and were forced to leave 
le field in possession of the In- 
ians. Those, who made tlieir es- 
\p€, found their way into fort 
Summer, a distance of about 12 
liles. In the battle, three of Mel- 
in^a men were separated from. tl\e 
there, and were pursued, in a 
orthem direction, by a number of 
adians. One of- the three made 
is escape, and arrived safe at fort 

;serve the name of mountains. There 
iare no ponds, and very little broken^ 
or waete lund that is unfit for cul- 
,tivation. Thn old growth of tim- 
|ber is principally rock maple, beech, 
birch, spruce and hemlock ; but 
{the recent growth, in some places.^ 
affords walnut and oak in abun- 
;dauce. The intervals afford excel* 
jlcnt tillage ; the uplands are, per- 
jhaps, inferior to none for grazing. 

)ammer, but the other two were j The princi}«al products for market 
vertaken, killed and scalped, a-'iarc beef, pork, butter and cheese. 

■out 300 yards northwest of the 
resent site of Newfane meeting 
touse. On the day following, Capt. 
rlelvin, with a party from fort 
Summer, returned to the battle 
Tound, which he found deserted, 
iy the Indians. The dead were 
oUected and buried, and by the as- 
istance of the soldier, who made 
as escape, those two, who were 
dlled near the centre of the town, 
were also found and buried ; and 
heir graves were distinctly visible 
until within a few y#ars since, when 
bey were rudely leveled by the 
>low. This town is watered by 
Vest river, **South branch," Smith's 
•rook. Baker's brook, besides nu- 
nerous rivulets. West river has 
t8 origin in Weston, and, after pass- 
age through the towns of London- 
Icrry, Jamaica, Townshend, and 
he easterly part of Newfane and 
>ammer8ton united with the Con- 
lecticut at Brattleborough. The 
'South Branch" originates in Dov- 
r, and, after receiving a number of 
ributary streams, passes through 
be southerly part of Newfane from 
rest to east, and falls into West 
iver, on the east line of said town. 
This stream affords many valuable 
aill seats and water privileges. 
Smith's Brook affords some eligible 
aill seats. Tliis town is diversified 
rith high hills and deep vallies ; 
»ut tUere are no elevations that de- 

The geological character of this 
town is primitive, and tlie rocks, i/v 
j sz/u, are, principally, mica slate and 
hornblende. Some small beds and. 
veins of granite, sknitie granite^ 
and gneiss are found, but none that 
can be advantageously wrought in- 
to building stone. In the southwest 
part of the town is an extensive 
bed of serpentine and steatite, which, 
probably, at some future period,, 
may be profitably wrought. No 
very valuable minerals have yet 
been discovered. Some rich speci- 
mens of iron ore have been founds 
but not of sufficient quantity to de- 
fray the expense of refining. Green 
carbonate and pyritous copper, ia 
small quantities, and the red oxide 
of titanium have also been found. 
Ferruginous sand is abundant. The 
following list comprises the prin- 
cipal part of the minerals, which 
have, hitherto, been discovered. 
Silicious carbonate of lime, cryst- 
alized calc. spar, sulphate of alum- 
ine and potash (alum) efflorescing 
on mica slate, sulphate of iron, 
garnet, common quartz, smoky 
quartz, limpid quartz, milky quartz, 
greasy quartz, red ferruginous^ 
quartz, yellow ferruginous quartz, 
radiated quartz, tabular quartz and 
granular quartz, red jasper, yellow 
and red feldspar, crystalized epi- 
dote, zoisite, tremolite scapolite, 
compact asbestus, sahlite, aiigit^ 



schorl, fasciculi te, act3niolite, dial-, one attorney, two physicians 
lage, bitter spar, precious serpen-". ulation, 1820,1506. 
tine, white and srreen talc,indurated;; March^ 1824. 
talc, chlorite, cfcdorite slate and sap': New-Havejt, a post towi 
pare. There are two small ^•illag^sj'thc central part of Addison < 
in this town ; one of which is in, is in lat. 4-1*^ 6' and long. 3° A 
the centre, and the other upon the. is bounded north bv Brist 
** South branch." TTie south vil- ■Ferrisburjh, east by'firistol 
la»e is favourably situated a« to by Middlebury and Weybric 
water privileges, and will probably- we<t by Addison and Walthj 
be a place of considsrable business.! lies 26 mile? south from Bur 
TTie centre rillag^e contains the!;and 31 nearly west from JV 
public buildings, conr»stin«^ of alier; was chartered Nov. S 
Congregational meetinghouse, a and contains 23390 acres. 1 
court-house, jail ftnd an acadrmy.: Uemcnt of this township wa 
This village stands on an ele-'.-ated menced in *69 by a few em 
situation, and affords a prospect,! from Salisbury, Con., on thj 
perhaps, as extensive and pictu-" which is now set off to Wi 
resque as any in the state. Froml-The settlement was, however 
the meetingfaouse may be seen some! 'en up and abandoned in '76, 
part of at least fifty towns, lying in||sequenc3 of the revolutionai 
Vermont, New-Ham psb ire and! Near this settlement, and on tt 
Massachusetts. On the cast, is p.jiof the township, now constit 
view of the highlands in ITew-'part of the city of Vergeunes 
Hampshire and Massachusetts, tc! was erected and garrisoned by 
the distance of 60 or 70 miles»" commanded by Capt. Ebene; 
whilst on the margin of the horizon,' len, and others, to protect th 
the " cloud-capt" Worchusett and .tier settlements from the c« 
Monadnock appear to ** ming!e; enemy the ' Yorkers.'* At th 
with the heaven?." On the north,| of the war the settlers re 
south and west, little is to be dis-! and in '83, the town was org 
covered, but an extensive " sea of and Luther Evarts was firs 
mountains," which displays, in wild; clerk. Two Baptist charchi 
disorder, ridge above ri(^, and; formed, one in the south a 
peak above peak, till the distant^ other in the west part of th< 
view is lost among the clouds. In about the year 1804, both of 
1801, the General Assembly passedj. have been dissolved and no i 
an act incorporating a county gram-l tare to be found. The Coi 
mar school at Newfene, under thej-tional church was formed he 
superintendence of 12 trustees. Butiivember 15, 1797, over whi 
the school has hitherto laboured un-;" Rev. Silas L. Bingham was 
der great embarrassments for want' ed January 1, 1^3. He v 
of funds. There is a social library in' -missed June 8, 1808, and 
the town ; 12 school districts, 10 of | 14th of June, 1809, the Rev. 
which have convenient houses; four; Hopkins, the present pastor, ■" 
grist milb, seven saw mills, one oiljldained. This is at present 1 
mill, one carding machine, twojily church in town, and coi 
clothing mills, three tanneries, one' i 150 members; there is, how 
di1rtillery,thre€tavenii,t!iree stores,' ^considerable number of pc< 

{ :other denominatioos. The € 





g;ationalisU have a mectiu^housevj Newport, a iownsliip in llio 

erected, iu lO^p. There ure four north part of Oi-leaas county, h in 

physicians, viz: Lei-i Warner, A-lilat. 44"^ 65' and long. 4^ 36', and is 

dair Hall, Jonathan Fuller and Jo-iibounded north by Potton, Can., ea^t 

el Rice, and one attorney, viz : Jo-; by Coventry and Mcinphrtmagog 

aeph C. Bradley. The streams areijlake, which s'eparates it from Der- 

Otter creek. Little Otter creek audj by, souLli by Coventry Gore and 

New-Haven river. The latter «n- Iwest by jfr oy. It lies 4^ miles norUi 

tera the township from the east, a-' from Moutpelier, was g^ranted Oc- 

bout two miles from the southeast; Itobfer 2C, 1781, and chartered by 

comer and fulls into Otter creek a-;. the name of Duncansborou^h, to 

bout a mile from the southwcMtijNathan Fisk, George Duncan and 

comer, after running five miics. jolliers, October 30, 1802, containing 

i3(:40 acre?, yhis township is but 
little settled. It is watered by a 
uousidsrable stream, which fulls into 

Otter creek was, by the charter, the 
-western boundary, but tracts have 
been set off from New-Haven along 
' the creek to Vergennes, WaUhamjlhc Jtfissisque river in Potton,'Can. 
and Weybridge. The mill privi-j! There nre considerable tracts of 
leg^B are good and there are sever- J jland here which are low and 
al which are not yet occupied. Ijswampy. Population, li;20, 52. 
There are no ponds, nor mountains. 1 1 NjEW-HrKTi^GTON. — Name al- 
The soil in the western part is prin-||tcrcd to Huntington, Oct. 27, 1795. 
cipaljy clay, or marl, and loam in\' See Hiint in g ton, 
the eastern part. Along New-Ha-'l NoRroLK. — This was a small 
yen river, are beautiful alluvial, township, situated in the norllieast- 
-;- flat^ which are extensive and very nern corner of the state, granted 
^ productive. Quarries of excellent; 'February 26, 1782, containing 3340 
.'.marble are foimd in almost every 'acres. October 23, 1801, it was im- 
part. The timber consists of ma-! nexed to the township of Canaan. 

pie, beech, birch, elm, basswood, 
walnat, pine, oak, hemlock, &c. 

NoRTHFiET.D, a township in the 
south part of Washington county, is 

There are five roads running north |in lat. 44° 8' and long. 4° 17', and is 
and south through the township, bounded northerly by Berlin, east- 
viz., one on the west called Otter crly by Williamston, southerly by 
creek road, the next is Waltham Roxbury, and westerly by Waits- 
tampike, the next townhill road, field. It lies 10 miles southwest 

(he next Lanesborough street road, 
^*^«"^ by the meetinghouse, and 
llamed from the first settlers on it, 
Who were from Lanesboro\ Mass., 
%nd the next East street road. 
d^ere are in town 14 school dis- 
Wicts, and aa many schoolhouses, 
^hree g^ist, eight saw, and three ful- 
ling mills, two triphammer shops, 
^ue foi^e, two small furnaces, two 
stores, five taverns, three distilleries 
«iid three tanneries. Population 
18^,1566. JE. Ho 

Juncy 18«4. 

from Montpelier, and 35 soutlieast 
from Burlington ; was granted No- 
vember 6, 1780, and chartered to 
Major Joel Matthews and others, 
x\ugust 10, 1781, containing 18,515 
acres. November 7, 1822, atraat 
from the east part of Waitsfield was 
annexed to this township. TTie 
settlement of the township was 
commenced in May, 17C3, by Amos 
and Ezekiel Robinson, Esqrs. from 
Westminster. 2'he town was or- 
ganized in 1794. Doct. Nathjiniel 
Robinson was first town clerk, and 





AiDos R()bin8on, Es(i. was first rep-; -in town, nine school districts, Kra 
resentative. The religpous (Se-'jechooUiouses, one company of mili- 
cominations arc Congjegtitionalists, .tia, one of artillery, eight saw, three 
Jtfethodists, Unirersalists, Freewill ' Ig^rist and two fulling mills, one card- 
Baptists and Christians. There jing machine, one woollen factorV) 
were considerable revivals of reli- .two stores, two taverns, two tanIIe^ 
-gion here, in UiOZ^ 1307, 10 U, and^ies and four blacksmitbs. Populip 
1021. There are three ordained; tion, 1820, 690. 

preachers, viz ; Klder Joel Winch 
and J^athan B»*^ihcraft^ Methodists,- 

j, w. 
Jt/nc, 1824. 
North-Hero, -a port and sldn 

and A'Wer James Morgan^ Freewill itownship in Grand Isle coonty,!! 
BFvi)ti8t. The epidemic of 1011 and-in lat. 44° 61' amllong. ^^ 4ff, Mh 
12 was very mortal here, and the Ian island in lake Chnmplain 26 inilff 
dysentery wept off about 30 child-ilnorth from Burlington, andsixweA 
Ten in this town in the fall of 1823.:;from St. Albans. Area €272 acici 
The physicians are Benjamin l*orter';It was granted ia connexion with 
and Juha Eastcrbrook. The prin-,;South Hero and Vineyard, and tfacj 
cipaTstream, in this town, is Dog 'were all chartered by the name Jf 
river, which runs through it ma. the two Heroes, October 27, 1TJ%-' 
fiorthcrly direction, and affords a . to Ethan Allen, Samuel Herrkk 
great number of valuable mill priv-ijand others. The settlement of thb 
ileges. The timber is, princip;illy,)!township was commenced, in 1783^. 
•hemlock, spruce, maple, beach and '■ — 
birch, -intermingled with fir, pine, 
ash,&c. jfhe soil is, generally, good, Istate, and the latter from Norwich 

•and, in many places, is easily culti- 
vated. A range of 


Con. The British erected aUod^ 
house here, at a place called Datehp 
slate passes through the township ijtnan's Point, which was garrinnedi 
from south to north. The surface] and not given up till 1796. 7T» 
is considerably uneven, but it forms! town was organized in 1789. Kt* 
a convenient centre in which is a -than Hutchins waa the first tom 
small village containing a meeting; clerk, and also the first represent 
house, one tavern, two stores, one ! utive. The Freewill Baptists and 
saddler, one hattrr, two blacksmitlis,;, Methodists are the most nnmereoi 
one physician, one tannery and 1 7 denominations of Chriatians, JStfer 
dwellinghouses. This is a place of^^Sylvantu Robifison in minister of thf 
some business, and is rapidly in-|jformer. Tlie fever and agneVB 
creasing. The second house was -very common here for tome tiw 
•erected in this village, in 1814. laftcr the settlement was commmorii 

There is a small village a mile and 
a half south of the one above men- 
tioned, containingtwo saw mills, one 
grist and one fulling mill, one card- 
in^" machine, one clover mill and 
several mechanics' shops. One 
jnile north of the meetinghouse is 
an extensive woollen factory, con- 
taining 230 spindles and eight looms. 
There are also here some other 
mills vaiX machinery. Tliere are^jings are a stone courthouse ibA 

and, in 1799, the billiout fever 
I very mortal. Since that tine thi 
'town has been healthy. Natbv 
iHutchins died here, some yean in 
jaged 90 years. The soil of w 
'township is of an excellent quality 
land produces grain of all kinds ii 
-abundance. It has no streams of 
•any consequence, and no mills .or 
'mill privileges. Its public build- 





jail, both erected the present season.jjsick and aloac, be tarried with hiin 
-A round these is a imftll Tillage. TheUili he died, aud then went to Leb- 
towusbip is divided into four school j'auou for help to bury him. Free- 
districts, in each of which is a good imai^ retnmed, and Fen ton was 

Bchoolhoiise. Pop^, 1820, 503. 

AaguH^ 1824. j. ^. l. 

NoB.TOl^,an ciniahabited township 

in the northwest comer of Essex 

•county, is in lat. 44° SS', and is 

"bounded north by Bradford and 

'Bamston, Can^ east by Averill, 

tsouth by Avery's, Warner's and 

Warren's gore, and west by Hol- 

buried July 15, 1765, aged -65 years, 
land a monument erected over him, 
I which remains to this day. In the 
summer of 1764, four men moved 
I their families into the township, 
and from this time the settlement 
I advanced with considerable rapid- 
ity, mostly by emigrants from Mans- 
' field and Preston, Con. The relig- 

^imd. tf*here is a considerable pond, ious denominations in this town are 

-lying partly in this township, and 
•parUy in Warren's gore, which dis- 
^«harge8 its waters to the north into 

{Congre^ationalists, Methodists,6ap- 
tists. Episcopalians, &c. The Rev. 
Lyman Potter was ordained over 

Missaippe lake in Canada. Lake jthe Congregational church, August 
fieautiful lies partly in the eastern .31, 1775. At this time there was 
Itart of the township, the waters of 'no other denomination of Christians 

irhich are also discharged norther- 
^y into Canada. 

Norwich, a post town in the 
northeast corner of Windsor co«n- 
'ty, iff in lat 43<> 45' and long. 4'' 38', 
Wl i« bounds north by Thetford, 
tut by Connecticut river, which 
lepwrates it from Hanover, N. H., 
■oath by Hartford, and west by 
'Sharon. It lies 40 miles southeast 
•from Montpelier, and 20 north from 
Windsor. This township was 
•chartered to Eleazer Wales and 
-others, Jaly4, 1761, and contains 
about 35000 acres. In 1762, the 
township was partly lotted, and the 
n«zt year Jacob Feuton, Ebenezer 
Bmith and John Slafler, came here 
irom Mansfield, Con., built thera a 
«amp and began improvements. 
^nierewere, at this time, two men 
in Hanover, «nd a small settlement 
in Lebanon. In July, Smith and 
Slafler left Fenton on Wednesday 
lor the purpose of hoeing corn in 
LiObanon, and returned on Saturday 
evening when they found Fenton 
clead in the camp. It appeared af- 
terwards that iMr. Freeman happen- 
ed over here, and finding Fenton 

iin town. Mr. Potter was dismissed 
in 1800, and the Rev. James Wood- 
wai'd was instedled over the same 
church, September 5, 1804. There 
are at present two Congregational 
societies, one in the north and the 
'other in the south parish, and each 
Ihas an elegant meetinghouse. The 
\Rev. Samuel Goddard was settled 
|over the north society, January 23, 
1 1 822. The Rev. R. W. Bailey was 
Isettled over the south society in 
11820, and dismissed in 1824. The 
Ifirst meetinghouse was built in this 
jtown in 1776, and it was at that 
[time the best meetingltouse in the 
jstate. The Methodists also, have 
la metetinghousc in this town. A- 
jmong the eminent personages may 
jbe mentioned the Hon. Peter Olcolt, 
I who died here in September 1808. 
j He had a military command at the 
capture of Gen. Bnrgoyne, and, af- 
terwards, passed thro' every grade 
of military office to that of Major 
Gen. He was for some time judge 
of the Supreme Court, many years 
Lieut. Governor of the state, and 
at the time of his death, trustee of 
Dartmouth College. The Hon. 




Thomas Munlock, dieU here in De 
cemher, 1803. He v/ix) member u 
the Council ofUiestiLid.iinila jutlgi 
of the coanty Court. The Hoii 
PaulBrieham, died here July 15, 
1834, in the 79th year of liis «ge. 
He Berred four yearH as captain lo 
the revolutionary waij was five 
yeari high aheriH' of the county of 
Windiori B Major General of mili- 
tia; five yeora chief judg;e of the 
county court; and 33, of 
feeding years, Lieut. Co* 
the state. AU tlieae offices he dis- 
charged to IhesaliEfactionofhie fel- 
low citizens, and he received Iheii 
BuffrageB for the latter till, aJoion- 

{I public se 

iBhed~by the infirmiti 

declined i 


em boundary of the township, and 

iafroln30to40rodBiiiwiiltli. "■ 

fordable in three places at Ion 

ter. Uuipompanoosuc river «c 

the township from Tbetford, 

'111, the pliiiiii and hilU near the ii¥* 
'ei-9, priouipallir white pine, and fnfr 
llhcr back maple, beech, birch, hsnv 
jlock,fcc. TboaurlaccofthetoWaf ' 
Isbip a naeveu, but nearly tQ ab 
jmiti of eultivalfon. ll produwsall 
liiniis of grain sad grass, aiiJ aoBff 
a( the Ssbst urchaiib iuUieatlW 
Exteniive 'ccdsofii'ouoTeBrefaW^ ' 
in the northwett corner of iho lowl* ' 
ship, connected with the coiipein 
ore in Straffntd. Cyanite, urt^ 
pare, U also found in this [unns^ 

quartz and mica. Oq the bialc^ , 
ConuBclicut river, about 70 rodia* ■ 
bove the mouth of the Ompompi* 
rioaiac,iisQ laJiauhurvinggroiiiih. 
where hunjan \ioaei, fleae paU.U' 
rowi, iw. aie frequsully IbtuL 
Between tiie Concectieut aa4 Ik ' 
OmpompBuoosnc is a Irigh Ust ■ 
where exploaiona were farnUil]' ' \ 
heard, lite the report ot esunoDi tt< 
I Iho greai terror of the lahatelj " 

mileawebtofConnecticut river, and. [The 
after running three miles across the jisome pioe trees about 1 J feet ipul, 
northeast corner rainglea its watersijone ol about IB and the other M| 
with those of the Connecticut. It isllmches in diameter. AboutSOfect 
a rapid stream with a grAveUy bot-jifrom the ground, is a iiinb, ufab 
a,Bhoutsixroilain width, and af- [four inches fi '' ~ 


lill s 

Blood brook arises wholly ii 
township, and passing a little 
erly of Norwich Pldin, falls in 
Connecticut just below the bridge 
leadingfrom Norwich to Uarlmoulh 
College. On this stream are ;-,ver- 
b1 excellent mill seals. At ita 
mouth, it is about two rods in width. 
On each of the above ttrcams are 
Eomc fine tracts of iiiterval. Smal- 
ley's brook is a small mill stream. 

■which falls into Connecticut rival 

iKtwcen ths Ompompanoosuc and<lmeeti&< 
Blood brook. Mosher's brook rises 
in ihe south part, and unites with 
the Connecticut iu Hartfurd. The 
timber on the meadows was origin. 

ally elm, baes, whand builGraut; 

from one tree to the oilier, it 
'appears I5 be firmly united tol 
'and above the limb Hie trees we'll 
-hip hnifSW- 
erally, teen very hoallby. TU 
Jyieoterj', however, piei ailed Iw* 
in 1795, and ctan-ied off 00 penM 
and the epidetoio of IS' ~ 
mortal. Windsor county gramntr 
:choal WES iueorporated ao^obti- 
lished h«re iu 1785. JVonDickjii- 

intly situated 01 
wich Plain, and cotitsius a hnndsm 
a grammar (hool- 
■house, the Aniericnu Literary, Sci- 
enlfljo and Military AtaJemy, se<- 
icral stores, n I a vent, a conud«nliIs 
-number of mechanics' 9liopt,uidi- 
|bout 30 dweUin^euwi,- 7M 4' 


i .: 



il ::■ 

t ■ 

! ■/• 

. I.- 





tneriean Literary^ Scientific anrf: Ition ; the ancient mode of attack- 
Military Academy was established! ing; and defending fortified places ; 
in this village, in 1820, under the the ancient Tactics, particularly 

superintendcuice of Capt. A. Par 
tridge. It is, and deservedly so, one 
of the most popular schools in the 
United States. The number of ca- 

those of the Greeks and Romans, 
with a description of the org;aniza- 
tion and discipline of the phalanx 
and leirion ; Book Keeping ; Mu- 

dets is at present 160, who are col- ;sic ; Fencing ; Military Drawing ; 
lected from nearly all the states iui Topography ; Civil Engineering,^ 

including the construction of RoadSf 
Canals, Locks, and Bridges, and 
Architecture. Three courses of pub- 
be able to read and spell correctly,! |lic military lectures are, annually, 
to write a fair and legible harxd, andligivenatthis Institution by the Super- 
to work the ground rules of Arith-! intendent, and one course of lect- 

the Union. To become a member 
of this institution, the candidate 
must be of good moral character. 

metic. The course of 
embraces the following: 


ures on botany, mineral o;:;;y and 
chymistry by the Professor in that 

viz. Tiie Latin, Greek, French, an J|idepartmr?at. The caJcts are re- 

English languages ; Arithmetic 
the construction and Uije of Loga-j 
rlthms ; Algebra ; Geometry ; Plain 
and Spherical Trigonometry ; Plaa- 
ometry ; Stereometry ; Mensura- 
tion of heights and distances by 
TVigonometry, and also Geometric- 
ally ; Practical Geometry general- 
ly, including particularly Survey- 
ing and Levelling ; Conic Sections ; 
tbe use of the Barometer, with its 
application to measuring the alti- 
tudes of mountains and other emi- 
neacss; Mechanics; HvJrostatics ; 

quired to dress in unifoi-m. Every 
thing, in the internal regulations of 
the Academy, is calculated to cstab- 
1 ish the cadet in habits of regular* 
ity and order, to inuio liini to the 
hardships of active life, and to give 
him a practical knowledge of the 
several sciences, to which his atten- 
tion is called. In these things, con- 
sists its principal superiority over 
the other literary institutions of 
our country, in which the students 
acquire but little practical infor- 
mation, contract habits of bodily in- 

the elements of Chymistry and E-,]activity, lose their health and de- 
lectricity; Optics; Astronomy ; Nav-'jstroy their usefulness. The present 
igation ; Geography, including tlieijoflficcrsof this Institution ard, Alden 

use of Maps aai the Globes ; Com 
position ; Logic ; History ; Ethics ; 
the elements of Natural and Poli- 
tical Law ; the Law of Nations ; 
Military Law ; the Constitution of! 
the United States, and of the States 
severally ; Metaphysics ; Agricul- 
ture ; Permanent and Field Forti- 
fication ; Field Engineering, gen- 
erally ; the construction of Marine 
Battei'ies ; Artillery duty; the 
principles of Gunnery, a complete 
course of Military Tactics; the at-! 
tack and defence of fortified places ; j 
Castracpietation ; Anciei^t Fortifica-j |cr in Practical Geometry^ &c., H. P. 

j Partridge, A. M. Superintendent^ 
and Professor of Mathematics^ Phi - 
losophy, and Military Science^ Rev. 
James W. Woodward, A. M. Chap" 
lain^ and Professor of Latin, Sec, 
E. B. Williston, A. B. Professor of 
the Greek Language and Rhetoric^ 
Joseph Barratt, M. D. Professor 
and Lecturer in Botany, MineraU 
ogy and Chymistry, Monsieur Pierre 
Ferry, Professor of the French Lan- 
sruage, W. W. Bayley, Professor of 
Miisic. The Assistant Instructers 
art'. Cadets, E. F. Johnson, Instruct- 




[.orcheulero put of Norwich. In< 
lutb pait ol Thetford, it re- . 
n coiiHderable mill ifrean 

Woodworth snU J. X). Allen, .Jir.|iihrougli this 

liilaiUt in JUailumalici, E. Dunbar,' LiDiupanriOFUC 

Auiilant in MaAaaaiiea and In- Iwilh Connei 

tlnicler m Topagraphy, V. B. Hor- j 

ton, AnUlatU tn, Lalin, J. Hat- 
brook, Auiitanl in Lalin and Eng- . 

lith. There are, io the Iowa, 12 

■ebool district', ux ibw, thrm; ^st ihe CBBlern part ofTuubridge ■) 

ud one oil m.)]. Pop., 1820, 198f. L Slrafford. The whole Icnglh 

SrpUmber. 1824. | Lf thir ritir 'a aboot 30 nine», and' 

NcLHX<us River, rlaei pBrll^ilit sffbrdi a numticr ofTaloable mill 

in Averill, nod partly in VVoaloclt-'ipriviltgcf . 

The Hortb branch runs a EouUierly| Ogios Itiven, ii formed in Ca- 

Dgh ATerill, I.Bwia andjibot b; the imkn of eeTeral amtll 

1 takilif a loiilherlj 

I Uarsbfield where it 

t of Minebtail, the WesliLrenni*, i 

through Wenlock « 
BruDswiA. They u 
Iwad, and, Ukiog a 
B. fall 

(1 a part v( 
ite in Mine- 

lUtle above the nortbout comer ol 
Bruiuwick. Tbia mtr ii, geaertd- 
I;, rapid, except [bat part of the 
West branch, Ibat runs throagbl 
Wealock and Brumwielf, which isi 
Tery ttill and deep. Bad bordered b;| 
alder meadows. Through this indj 
Clyde Kver, which vaat a nurlh- 
wcjt course into take .Memphrcma-I 
goj, the Indiana formerly bad tbeirl 
navigation from said lake to Con-' 
nfclicQl lirer.. They had a oarry-.l 
in; place of about two mileg from' 
the head of one river to the licaJ Qf| 
the other, anil several other carry 
ing places by the falls and rjpidt i 
theie streams. This river watei 

Ibree rmls wide al 


OsiEoMBAsoofoc EtVEB, riset 
:n Ihe nottbweBtero part of Vir-| 
ihire and nins easterly inlo Weati 
Fairlee. It then takes a loulb- 
ewterlj course inlo Thelford,. 
where it receirei ■ conaiderablel 
atieam from Fairlee lake, which is 
a large body of water lying partly 
in Fairlee and partly in Thelford., 
CwtiAUVng a loulhcaiterl; counej 

:eire! a la's* tributarj from the 
it, which orlginatu in Ouioo ri- 
r pond in i'eacham and in Md> 
ly's pond in Cftbot. Oothiolream 
kabla cataraot, whtrelbe 
1i about 500 i<Mt in Ue 
drslanca of 30 rodi. TbtoD|lt 
Marshlield, Onion river continues 
a southerly courte into riaiDfifld, 
where it bend) to the (onlbwett 
and crof!ei the comer of the town- 
ship inlo Monlpelier. Here it rt- 
ctivei Kingtiiiiry'i branch, from 
Calais. After croBun; the aoDth- 
eiut comer of MBntpeliei\ Onion 
rivirtakes a northwetlerly coone, 
whicb it continues till it falli inlo 
lake ChamplaiD, between Colcbet- 
and Burlington, five miles north 
of Burtin|ton village. Ita most 
Eidcrable fributariei are Dog 
r and Slerens' branch in Berlin, 
North branch at Monlpelier vil- 
Mad rirer in More town, 
Walsrhury rivet in Waletburj, 
lIunfingloD rivtr in Richmond, 
nd Muddy brook between Wil- 
>lon and Burlington. The allu- 
IbI flats along this river are nar- 
iw, till the river has passed tbro^ 
;e western range of the Green 
lonnlaini, when they becooie 
niuch more extensive, la Bolton, 
here it gatiea the range, (h« 




mouDtuiiii approBch verj- near thB|]ii far Ibe bestpnampe orihe Green 
river. The cbannrli vliicli Ijare! Mountain a in Ihe State. Onioa 
been worn in Ibe rocks bj thiffriver is one of tJie Jarfceit in the 
riser are a great curiosity. Ooeofidiate, hring about 70 miles \a 
these betwrea Midillesei anitjIeDglh. It was called bj tbc In- 
Moretown, it ebaut 80 rods injlilians, Winooiki. It hai also been 

Itngtb, 60 feet in width, and SOl 
feet deep ; the rock appcarinK liki 
a wall on each side- Another o 
these chnnneli ii between Water 
burj and Uuibury, four mile* be- 
low Water bury village. [U deptli 
i< about 100 feet, and Ihe rookBou 
the Eouth side are pcrpi'ndioulat. 
The rocks have licre fallen into 
Ihe chasm and forinrd r nalural 
bridge, which is crotspd by foot- 
men with bafety, at low water. 
Anion; tbe rocks here, are nlia, 
teveral curious caverns. Hales, 
alto, of cjliiidrica! form, are he.-c 
woYn into the solid racks Fct-eial 
feet in. depth. Thischaem is bul 
a few steps from the turnpike lead- 
ing from Monlpelier tu Burlinglon, 
and is worthy the attention of the] 

died French ri 

Orange. ■ post (ownship Jn the, 

jrthwest part of Orange conntv, 

in Int. 44= 9' and long. 4° 33^, and. 

bounded norLli by a pai't of PlaiO' 

^tJ and by Harris's and Goshen 

_ ire, ea«t by Topsham, south by 

Washington, and west by Barre., 

13 miles east from Mont' 

pelier, and SO north from Wintbor. 

't was granted, November 6, 1780, 

LOd chartered, to Ebeneier Greon 

Lud others. Aajml 11, 1781, coo- 

aiidag ES04O acres. The Bellla- 

n^nt wu] commenced by Joseph 

Williams, in Ssptembcr.lTgj. The 

" " Mart-h 12, 

179S, and John Sloan was first town. 

jclerk. it was first represented in 

by Thotnas S. Paine. 

trare'Iler. Ilbasbeenrep- i^iie religious denominations a 
resented by geographers as heingj' Cong regal ionalista, MethadisU aad 
in BoHoD. bat this is a miflake. Freewill Baptist-. Tl}e Rev. Ebo»- 
Jl is, however, near ihe east tine Bliss was settled over the Congre- 
ofthattowniliip. A third channel igatiodal eliuroh in llio year 1799^ 
ofthis kind is between Burlinglon I"'"'' "f^er preaching several years, 
and Colchester, about three fourths ■"" dismisicd. rhere was a smaU 
-'- mile above Ouion river falls, '"'l accent meelioghouse completed 

The channel here is about 40 rods] 
ID length, 70 feel in width, and 65 
feet deep. Acrans Ihe channel a 
bridge has been throtru which i< 
perrectlyseGurafronl^QodB. There 
is abundant evidence, both heic 
and at the natural bridge abort 
mentioned, (hat there formerly ex- 
isted a large pood at each place, 
MThnse waters were draini'd off bj 
Ibfl wearing down of the channels. 
[n OnioD river are Severn) f^illi 
which afibrd excellent siles f:ii 
nilla. The lumpike from Roynl- 
MB. la Burtiogton along this river 

here in 1823. The . . 
1813 carried off about 40 persona in 
the courts of a few weeks in the 
spring of that year. Docl. Eli- 
IlihaletM. Bill is the only profassion- 
al man in town. The surface of 
thii township is nneven, and, ja 
■ome parts, rocky. Kooi's moan- 
lain, in Ihe northeast part, is a con- 
iiderable elevation, and affords im. 
menee quantities of excellent gran- 
-■- for building atone. The rock*. 

his township, are almost eKclu. 

dy granite, and in it are Jbant 
plates of boHUtiful white mica sev- 
lerel inches s^turs, The liaibw f» 



taoitiy hsM wuod except nloos tht 
itreams where itia sprucp, hemlock, 
cellar auJfir. Tbe soil u in many 
parts, culd and wet, aad belter B- 
dapted to the production of grass 
than grain. The most consider- 
nble stream is Jail branch, which 
enters this lowDship from Waihinj- 
ton, and, after receiving a consider- 
»bla tributary from the north, pasaci 
off to the west into Bari'e. Somf 
of the head branchEs of Waits riT- 
er originata in the eastern p»rt o 
thia townahip. The turnpike, fros 
Chelsea to Moatpelier, passe; 
through the southwest comer 
There are, in town, aoven school 
distriels, siisclioolhouses, one store 
•ne diitiilarj, one grist mill and foui 
sawmilL'. PopnlatioD, 1X90, Till 
^prit,\fiSi. L. c. 

OftAflf^G Confrrl, lies on thi 
ea&t Bidu of llie Green MountaiuB 
about half wbj between the oorlh- 
ern and southern boundary of 
SUte. It is situated between 
43= 46' and 44" 13' north, and be- 
tween long- 4" II' and 4° &3' east, 
estendjne 34 miles from east tt 
well, and 28 from north to louth. 
eon tail) log about 650 square miles. 
It is bounded north hj Caledonia 
county, east by Conneclicnt river 
which (eparalea it from Grafton 
counly, N. H. fioulh by VViudtoi 
Bounty, BDi] west by a part of 
Washington couolj) nnd a small 
pert of Addiion county. Thii 
county was incorporated in Feb. 
1781. Chalaea, lying nearly in tht 
Bent« of the county, is Uie seat al 
iuilice. The Supreme Court com 
mencei its session here on the last 
Tuesday save two in August, and 
the County Court on the second 
Montiay of June and fourth Moo- 
day of Uecembef. There are sev- 
eral iiltnfianl Tillages in Ibis coun- 
ty, particularly in Chelsea, New- 

Iwr/ and Bwidoiph, There «« 

Iribuiariei, particularly Om- 

nooauo and Wait's riier, 

Llie eaalero and soullieastem 

parla ; the 6ril, second and third 

ilh and seulhwestern parts, and 

Sleyens' brannh of Onion river, Ihe 

northwestern pnrU. The easier* 

range ef Green MsuDlains, called 

/ho height of lands, extends along 

ihe nortliwestem pari of the coun- 

y. The rocki in the notthstu 

nd central parts, are almost ei- 

luBively granite, which, in many 

ilsces, makes the best of mill and 

building (tones. A range of agil* 

slate extendi throngh tlW 

part. Imoiense qnsntitiH i 

^utpbnret of iron are foniJ ! 

In SIrafl'ord, and lead ore is fodnd 

Theti'ord. Tbe Grand Lbt for 

'23 was $aG055S. ropulaliong 

IQit), 24169. 

as CowHTi, lits in the 
of the blate, and ahout 
half way between Connecticut 
■iver and lake Chaniplaiii. It il 
itaaled betwse'n lat. 44" SB' ond 
15" north, and between Ion. 4° IS 
ind 6" east, being 33 miles in 
length, and 30 niiiei from east to 
^est on Canada Bne, and contain- . 
[ig 850 ?quare miles. It it bouod- 
d north by Canada, eactby EsMI 
-jounly, south by Caledonia conn- 
ly and Washington county, «no 
■ by Franklin county. It "is 
r).oratc-d Nov. 5, 1792, »nd 
inrch, situated near its centre, 
le seal of juslioe. The Su- 
preme Court sits here oo Ihe 4ln 
Tuesday ot September, and It* 
County Court on the last Mond*; 
of February, and 3d Motiday of 
September. The first lettlement 
was Eommenced in ibis countj i& 
178T, in Uic sou(Ii,R^le"i FB,tl|,0B> 

alitTTEtk or VCRMOHt. 


the river LsnoiJle, bj John Mo- 
Daniel, Esq.— It ii lUI! thiulj set 
tied, but wilt in process of time, 
doufatleu be one of the Gnt coun- 
tiei in the State. The fuce onhi- 
land U i^enerally liandsonif, < 
■oil is eaaii; tilled, and it pradui 
«KeelleDt grain and gresa. 
jieldi a good growth ol' Indiiii 
corn, but it a .omewliat liable to 
be cut off by early frosti befnre 
comes to maluhJj. After Ih 
countrj becomeB ciore cleared, Bn. 
the (wamps drained, or dtied bj 
being eipojed to the mo, t}]i ' 
convenience will rtoubtleH be 
great meaaute removed. Thit 
count; containt tlie meet nntura 
ponds of BII3- one in (he the Stale 
and Memphremagog lake extendi 
into Ihe north part. The easlen 
and cEntrnl parts are wnlerfd bv 
Black, Barton and Clyde riven., 
the louthern part bj the Lamoille, 
and the weitem piiri by Missitqu- 
river. Thii counfj liei wliollj hi 
tween the eattern k western ranget 
of the Gr. Mountair-. The roths 
in tbe western pari nre prir-cipallj 
mica and chlorite slnle, A rangt 
of argitlite paieee through the cen- 
tral part. A range of serpentiBe" 
extends along the ATiesiFque river, 
DDd is Bccooipanied by asbeilus, 
smianlhui, ru^netic iron, &c. 
The Grand list of tbe county for 
18M wa, $60,281. Population, 
1830, 6019. 

Orweli^ a poll toiTa iu the 
northwest corner of RuUand Coun- 
ty, is in lat. 43." W. and long. 3= 
^', and is Iraunded nortli hy Sbure- 
ham, east by Sudbury and a part of 
Wbiting, south by Benion, anit 
west by lake Chamjjlaiu, being op- 
posite to Tioonderoga, N. Y. ft lief 
30 miles northneit from Rutlsnil, 
47 Bouthweat from IVloiitpelier, and 

47 Nuliiwsat bom JJurlingtoii. — 

||Thi5 township was chartered I 

I Aug. 8, 17ti3, and contains 4il 
I Square milos. John Charter began 
tniprovemeols on the soDib end of 
Mount ludependence, and lived 
here several years before the revo- 
llution. In 1776, a large bwly of 
I'.rfiops was collected together in 
lUiis township, the greatest part of 
whom was stationed at Mt. Jnde- 
Ipeudence, at the north end of which 
jwas a brcBjt Work and a picket fort 
jon the top. Tills mouiitatn con- 
tajnt nbonl 260 acres, and was heav- 
ily timbered, but the timber was 
,alldemolishedbythe!oIiIieis. The 
ineSt ypor Ticonderoga and Mt, In- 
jdapeoileDce feU into the hands of 
the Britiiih, and the Americans re- 
treateii to the south. The first 
permanent aettlelnent was made in 
17a3, by Amos SprJlbrd, Shadrack 
Hathaway, Eber Wurray, Ephrain* 
and William Fisher and John Char- 
er, (the latter having been driven 
iff during Ihe war,) upon Mt. Inde- 


The . .__ 
Pliny Smith and o 


1 this 

^ ieltlemcnt advanced with con- 
isiderable rapidity. The town was 
irganiied, Dec. 12, 1787, and Da- 
■iJ Leonard mas first town clerk, 
The town waa first represented in 
7B8 by Ebeoezer Wilson. TTie 
aoat QUQierous religious sects are 
Baptials and Congregationalisti. 
Elder E. Phelps was settled o^r the 
Baptist church about the year 1789, 
and was the fifst Battled minister. 
He preached here five or six years. 
The church bos since been succes- 
sively under tbe pastoral care of 
Elders Culver, WebBlM, Murray 

Fiahors and Sawyer, Eldtr Ephra 

Saipi/er waj settled in IB21, 

This church was organined about 

[he year 17CJ, and now consists of 

S7 uemben. TIm Rer. SylruiU; 





Cliapiw A'/as settled over the Coa-j;kinds offish, which are believed to 
gpregational church about the yearjjbe oceanic. In the compact lime- 
1790, and continued its pastor for,jStone on Mt. Independence, flint ii 
tcvriral years. He was succeeded; found. Specimens of blende, or the 
by the Rev. Mason Napping, whoj'sulphuret of zinc, have also been 
was dismissed in ]V»20, The Rev.jfound in this township. The 
Ira Ingham was settled over this iwidth of the lake between Mt. In- 
ohurch in 18r21 and dismissed in -dependence and Ticonderoga isa- 
1823. TTie church is ijOw destitute jjbout 80 rods. A mile further 
of a pastor. There are two meet-! south at a place callc^d Sholes Laod- 
iaghouses in town; that belonging' in* it is only 40 rods wide. The 
to the Congregationalists is at the average width of the lake against 
centre, and was erected in 1805,' Orwell is about one mile, and 
and that beloug-ing to the Baptists[|the widest place 2 miles. May 13, 
i? in the eastern part. The dysen- 11820, a piece of land, in this town- 
lery prevailed here about tlie year ^ship, of more than 6 acres area, 
1804, and in the course of 60 days sunk about 40 feet, and slid into jLhe 
carried off 60 children. The epi-, lake. T^he impulse made upon the 
demic of 1813 was also very mor-nwater was to great as to raise the 
tal, and a considerable number," lake 3 feet at the opposite shore, 
mostly heads of families, were vie- j, a mile and a half distant. The 
tims to it. There is a tract of a- 1 'ground was partly covered with 
bout 2000 acres in the south part ofijsmall trees, some of which moved 
the township, which is somewhatjioff erect, while others were thrown 
broken and hilly. The remaunDg| down. Orwell is divided into 9 
part is very level, handsome land,i-school districts in which are be- 
and produces abundant crops of all:!tween 6 and 700 scholars. There 
kinds ofgrain. The principal streams iwas formerly a furnace here which 

are East creek, which rises in Ben- 

did considerable business, but it is 

son and falls into lake Champlain juow in ruins. There are 2 small 

on the north side of Mount Indepei\- 

I villages, one around each meeting- 

dence, and Lemcnfair river, which jhouse. The turnpike from Fair- 
here consists of two branches, run-! Haven to Vergennes, passes 
ning parallel with each other, along through the township, and a mar- 
the eastern border, and uniting near 'ket road has been lately laid 
the north line of the township. On i [through it from Brandon to Sholes 
these streams are several mill privi-'j Landing, where a large stone store 
leges, which are good during a great- house has been erected. There are 
er part of the year. The waters in town 6 saw, 3 grist, and 2 fulling 
where the land is clayey are slight- mills, one distillery, . 3 tanneries, 2 
ly impregnated with Epsom salts,' carding machines, 3 stores, and 5 
or the sulphate of magnesia. There taverns. Population, 1820, 17^. 
is a spring on the lake shore, a- July^ 1824. p. s. 

bout 100 rods south from the north- 
west corner, the waters of which 
are very strongly impregnated, ^nd 
from these, salts have been manufac- 
tured in considerable quantities. 
In the compact limestone in tliis 

Otter Ursek » lbs longest 
iitream in VeFmont. It originates 
in Mount Tabor, runs souUi four 
or five milts into Peru, thence wes* 
terly into the eastern part of Dor- 
set, within a few rods of the bead 

township are the shells of v&rious,[pf the Biftttenkil), where it tQRi»- 





uddenlj towards the north and 
eturns into Mount Tabor, running 
karallel to itself. It runs nearij 
lorth through- the western part 
>f this township and Walling- 
ford, and through the central part: 
of Clarendon int» Rutland ; itl 
Qien takes a northwesterly course 
through Pittsford and Rrandon ; 
between Leicester and Salisbury 
on the east, and Waiting and 
Cornwall on the west; through the 
"Western part of Middleburjr; be- 
tween New-Haven and Wey- 
^idge ; through the northeast cor- 
ner of Addison; between Waltham 
^Od Panton, and through Ver- 
K^nes and Ferrisburgh into lake 
f^bamflaio. From the southwest 
^ leceiires in Ferrisburgh a large 
'reek which originates in Bridport, 
ti Wey bridge Lemonfair river 
"^m Orwell and Shoreham, in Rut- 
^Hd Little West river, or Furnace 
t^ok from Tinmouth, and in 
tount Tabor Mill river from Dan- 
ir. From the east it receives 
'^w- Haven river in New- Haven, 
K^ddlebury river in Middlebury, 
»^ice8t€C river in Leicester, Fur- 
river in Pittsford, East 
ia Rutland, and Cold river 
^d Mill river in Clarendon, all 
^ which are tconsiderable mill 
ireams. Otter creek above Mid- 
l^bary, is a very still stream, and 
^ waters deep, affording very few 
^%\ privileges. From Middlebury 
ik pittsford, a distance of 25 miks, 
is navigable for boats. At Mid- 
jhriiurY, Wey bridge andVergennes, 
Nt falls in the creek, whfch afford 
^ellent sites for mills, and on 

t^Jch are some of the finest man- 
Ckcturiog establishments in the 
te. From Vergennes to its 
nth, a distance of 8 miles, the! 
Ibek is navigable for the largest; 
■velt on the lake. The alluvial | 

flats along this stream are very ex- 
tensive, and are inferior to none 
in the State. Its whole length is 
about 90 miles, and it waters, 
about 900 square miles. 

Panton, a post township in the 
western part of Addison county, 
is in. lat. 44<3 8' and long. 3° 40', 
and is bounded north by Ferris- 
burgh, east by Otter creek, which 
separates is from Waltham, and by 
a part of Vergennes, south by Ad- 
dison, and west by lake Champlain^, 
which separates it from Elizabeth- 
town, N. Y. It lies 13 miles north- 
west from Middlebury, and 25 
southwesterly irom Burlington, and 
was chartered Nov. 3, 1764, con- 
taining 10530 acres. No perma- 
nent settlement was made here till- 
after the revolutionary war. There 
is a Baptist church here, which is 
under the pastoral care of Elder 
John Steams^ and consists of 6& 
members. This is a very level 
township. The only stream of 
consequence is a creek, which run3- 
northerly nearly through the cen- 
tre, and unites with Otter cree!: io* 
Ferrisburgh. It is a wide sluggish 
stream. There is not a good mill 
privilege in the township. Popu- 
lation 18^, 540, 

Parkerstown, a township in 
Rutland county, is in lat. 43° 37\ 
and long. 4° 6\ and is bounded 
northerly by Chittenden, easterly 
by Sherburne, southerly by Shiaews- 
bury, and west by Rutland. It lies 
47 miles south from Mcntpelier, 
and 25 northwest from Windsor. 
It was chartered to Joseph Banker 
and others, Feb. 23, 1781, by the 
uame of Medway. Parker's gore was 
annexed to it, and the whole incor- 
porated into a township, by the 
name of Parkerstown, Nov. 7, 1804. 
The town was organized March 11,. 
1806, and John Page was first town 
clerk. This township lies mostly 





on the Green Alonntains, and much;;50', and is bounded north by WeBsi 

of it is high and cold land, and in- 
capable of settlement. There are 
some good farms along the western 
border, and good grazing land in 
other parts. The turnpike from 
Bethel to Rutland, passes through! 1 1761, to Jonathan Willard andoth 

east by Danby, south by Ruperti 
|and west by Granville, N. Y. It 
jiies 33 miles north from Bennin^ 
■ton, and 21 southwest from Rat- 
land. It was chartered Aug. Hlh 

this township ; also, the direct road 
from Woodstock through Bridge- 
water, to Rutland. The town is 
divided into 3 school districts, and 
contains one saw mill, and one tav 
ern. Population, 1820, 174. 
Jult/^ 18*4. 
Passumpsic''' River has its source 

•ers, containing 23040 acres« . Tin 
isettlement of this township wu 
■commenced in 1761, by ^meon 
.Burton, and William Fairfield. 
The next year Capt. Jonathas 
I Willard, who own^ 22 rights of 
!land here, equal to 7920 acres, caat 
'into the town with j3 or ten hired 

in a pond on the easterly line ofPmen, and Messrs. Rush, Fitch, and 

Westmore, and, running a south- 
easterly course through Newark, 
passes into the west corner of East- 

: others about the same time. !i 
jl769 the town was organiied, and 
!Simeon Burton was first town clerk. 
Haven ; thenoe it pursues nearly a JThe religious denominatioDS art 
south course through Burke, Lyn-j| Baptists, Congregationalists, Epa-" 
don, St. Johnsbury, Waterford andi jcopaliaas, Methodists, and UniTe^ 
Barnet, and falls into the Connect-I'salists. The two former are tht 
icut a mile below the foot of thel. most numerous. The Rev. Do^ 
fiAeen mile falls. From its sourcej.Beebe, settled over the Congn^ 
tUl it approaches near the centre of jitional church, was the first settiel 
L^-ndon, it is a swift stream. It minister. He continued 5 or I 

then meanders through a rich tract 
of interval till it approaches the 
south line, where is a high fall. The 
greatest part of the way through 

years, and was succeeded Qct- SS^j 

11793 by the Rev, John GritM\ 

their present pastor. They have i 

hHudsomc meetinghouse erected il i 

St. Johnsbury it is swift, but in a: 1797, situated in a small viUag«,i» 
few places it runs slow through ex-|,bout one mile south of the ecDtrt 
cellent interval land ; and throughi'of the township. The Bapti^ 
Waterford and Barnet it runs slow i church was organized, Oct. 4, 179U 
through rich flat land, though thereljin the year 1800 they erected t 

It 'lars:e meetinghouse in the wentert 
part of the township, • and Oct Iti 

Are some large falls in 


is generally deep, and is between ^ 

four and six rods wide below St.|fl802, settled tlie Rev, Isaac BtA 
Johnsbury plain. It receives sev- 
eral large branches in Lyndon, two 
in St. Johnsbury and one in Barnet. 
Its length is about 34 miles. 

J. w# 
PAWiiST, a post township in the 
southwest corner of Rutland coun- 
ty, is in lat. 43° 21', and long. 



* Pronounced hy the Indians as if 
irritten Pousoomsuc, 

for their pastor, who still continu»| 
jThere were special revivals rf ^\ 
jligion hero in'l804, and 1808. M»j 
iRush, ou£ of the first settlers di«41 
IherG in March of the present j 
;a;^ia 110 years. The physic 
nio John Sargeant, Oliver L. " 
! uion, Samuel Potter, and It 
Tilden. Nathaniel Harmon, 
attorney. The principal st 
are Pawlet river, which runs 







westerly nearly throug^b the centre [easterly by Bamet, soutkerly by 
of the township, and Indian river, jGroton, and westerly by Marshfield 





which runs the same course across 
the southwest comer. The latter 
rises from a spring of pure water, 
sufficiently large to carry a grist 
mill. It abounds in trout, and takes 
its-name from tlie great number of 
Ikidians, who formerly resorted here 
for the purpose of fishing. The 
township is divided nearly in the 
centre by a range of mountains ex- 
tending through it from south to 
north. The most remarkable sum- 
nit is a little north of the centre, 
md is called Haystack mountain. 
The soil is dry and warm, easily 
» caltivated, and produces good crops 
of grain and grass. The timber is 
principally maple, beech, birch, 
elm. basS) ash, walnut, oak, hem- 
look and pine. There is in this 
town a brick academy, in which 
the higher branches are taught, 
and 13 school districts in which 
are }2 good schoolhouses. There 
are, also, one oil, 5 saw, 3 grist and 
3 falling mills, one carding machine, 
one woollen factory, one cotton. 
'fiustory, 4 stores,' 3 taverns, 3 dis-| 

and Cabot. It is a New-Hamp- 
shire grant, and was chartered De- 
cember 31, 1763. In 1773, that 
part of Peacham called, 'the square,' 
was allotted, and several pitches 
made. In 1774, pitches were made 
by Jonathan Elkins, John Sanborn, 
Fry Bailey, John Skeel and Robert 
Carr, and the same year a line was 
run from Connecticut river in Bar- 
net through Peacham to Missisque 
bay on lake Champlain. Thin 
!line was of great use to our scouts 
|and to deserters from the enemy 
the revolutionary war. In 
the spring of 1775, Jonathan El- 
kins came to Peacham, with several 
hifed men, and began improvements 
upon the lot he had pitched the year 
before. His farm in Haverhill, N. 
H., he had sold on a credit of sev- 
eral annual payments; but, onac-' 
count of the depreciation of the 
currency, after two or three of the 
first payments, the purchaser paid 
at the rate of three, four and five 
bushels of com for a hundred dol- 
lars. In March, 1776, several com- 

tilleries, and 3 tanneries. One ofijpanies, belonging to Col. Beedel^ 
the latter is near the head of In-! regiment, marched through Peach- 


dian river, and is very extensive. 
Population 18S0, 2155. N. h. 
Jiugtui 1824. 

Pawlbt Rivcr, is a small 
■tream, which rises in Dorset, runs 
northwesterly, across the northeast 
comer of Rupert, diagonally across 
the township of Pawlet, and unites 
with Wood Creek, in the state of 
Sew York, 2 or 3 miles above its 
mouths This stream affords a num- 
ber of eligible mill seats in Vermont. 

PjBACHAM, a post township in 
Caledonia county, ^tuated in lat. 
44<'2(r and long. 4'' 43\ It is 20 
miles east from Montpelier, and 18 
northwesterly from Newbury. It 

i» boanded northerly by DaDYiUeJjlowiog. He then removed \m fast* 

am to Canada upon snow shoes 
on the line run in 1774. Tlie same 
spring Gen. Bailey had orders te 
open a road from Newbury to St. 
Johns, for the purpose of conveying 
troops and prorisions into Canada. 
He had cut it from Newbury six 
miles above Peacham when the 
news arriveil that our army had re- 
treated from Canada, and the un- 
dertaking was abandoned. Jona- 
than Elkins had removed his fam- 
ily to Peacham in June of tliis year, 
but, after a stay of three weeks, 
was obliged to retreat with Gen. 
Bailey^ men to N'^wbury, where 
he remained until the October fol- 




tly BgHia to Peacham, 
renamed during Uie war. Only 
Xhree familiBi spent the fuoceoding 
AciiiUr ia Peaoham, viz ; Joaatliui 
Elltins'. Jolm Skeel'! and Archibald 
McLdchlui'i. lal7?7,Jatuei Bailey, 
J^aher Chamiierlin and Noiih 
Hodyday removed Iteir families 
here. Jlenry ELluns was bora on 
the 15th of October of thii year, 

3q ma, Iho inliflhilaDlB ol' Peach- 

icoula frequently discovered aigus 
cf loJiaos, and mfurmed theinhab- 
itaula tiM they [laised ami repassed. 
JJuriug Ihia year, u uumbet' of pria- 
pnoia and Bntiah Jcierters founJ 
their way throusbfrom Canada, and 
nrrivedat Peachain in a V6TJ Weak 
and fiiaiialiiBS condition. Ths ib- 
habitanti had to go to'Sewbury luc 
tbeir grinding, and a considerable 
partoC tl ■■ -"---^ •■- 

r, with 
/f shoe path. In 
1719, Gen. Hi 

vith a part of hia reginiect, for the 
purpose, as he Biid, of eompleliog 
the road commenced by Bailej la 
lt76,tliat ao army might be Bcnl 
through for the reduction of Can- 
nda. ifut this was only a feint for 
dividing tlie enemy and preveotiug 
-their sending their whole fort 
the Iskes. Ilaien cut, clearei. 
made a {i^-^^i'^'b '°^'^ ''"' ^ ' 
nboTe Peacham through the ti 
of Cabot, Walden, Ilardi 
GreensboroughiCrulu bury, Albany 
houses. This road waj a great teu- 
efit to the settlers of this country 
after tlie War, and, in mauy place;, 
isitilL called the ^- Masen Haad: 
It lermiuated at Uazen'i JJotch in 
"VVestfield, aud tlie presejit rend, 
from Fencham to Kellyvale, 

ludonioge]! the 1?)□cl[hoase(,«^ 

!pt the one 1 3 miles above PEa£b- 

u, and eomrattling this tu the an 

'uf a EGrgeant^s guard. latheijintt 

of ITUO, Capt. -AUrich came It 

jPeachataaQd buika small picM 

jaround the house of J amei Bail^ 

'end the blockhouse above irtit- 

Ibacdooed. la the fall, AMriek 

'marched ^9 men to the south, htT- 

'ing the inhabitiuits to look oatfDr 

themselves. Col. Thomns Johiuon, 

of Newbury, who bed eagajedti 

erect mills in Peacham, arrivid ■( 

Jonathan El kins' witb the nil 


IjUnroli, lI'BI. 'About one o'eloEk 

nioroing a party of (he enemy 

CxfiaJa came upon them, ul 

! prisoners of Col. -Jobosoo, 

J acob Page, ' and the present CoL 

• [nElkina,of Peacham, wbi 

then a yoath. rheywereiH 

jnimiUed to the b< 

I paeseJ. Hazen Pi 

D the fall. 


Col. , 

returned on parole, Mr. Page nai 
to Montreal, and Col. Elkinslt 
Quebec, and the two lutler imprii- 
In the Alt -when the BritU 
Seet sailed from Quebec, Col, El- 
kim was sent a priioaer to England 
with about 150 mure who wcredi^ 
trihuled throughout the aeetui 
obliged to do duty. When Hw 
lleet arrived at Plymouth, Englanil, 
ners were confined in UiD 
here they remained nndl 
'ihey lv£ro exchanged farConwaUi^ 
'troops, in 17Ba, when Col. EIIh* 
returaed agaiu to Peacham. Ci[4> 
Nehemiah Loveweliwas statioijed 
witb his com|iauy ut Peacbaai do- 
.iDg-the summer of I7SI. In S^ 
Itembbr, he aont a scout of fuurmW 
a[i the Il&iea roaJtWho were as- 
bushed and jired upon by the h^ 
jdiaos. Two were killed aodKilp- 
|ed,anj the other two Uken,U)l 
I ion the tenth day, after tbey left 

, they 

-[Quebec willi CoL Elkiai. Then 





Mrere no soldiers kept at Peacham, 
in 1782, and two Messrs. Bailies of 
this town were carried prisoners to 
Canada. Peacham was org^anized 
March 18, 1783, and James Bailey 
was first town clerk. This town 
has be«n peculiarly iertuaate in the 
unity of religious sentiment. A 
CoDg^regational church was gather- 
ed here and org;anized April 14, 
1794, consisting of 14 members. 
October 30, 1799, they settled the 
Reo, Leonard Worcester for their 
pastor, and he has continued ably 
nod faithfully to discharge the du- 
ties of that office ever since. At 
Ihe time of Mr. Worcester's ordina- 
tion, the church consisfbd of 40 
fnembers. The most remarkable 
reviyal, which has taken place, was 
in 1817 and 18, in con]Bequence of 
iirhich there was an addition to the 
church of 225 members. The 
whole number admitted since its 
<»rg^Qization, is 382, and the present 
number about 280. Tliere is no 
-other chuFch in town, and but few 
professors of any other denomina- 
tion. From a bill of mortality kept 
by Mr. Worcester, it appears that 
the whole number of deaths, in this 
■town, since the 30th ef October, 
1799, is 406. The greatest number, 
in any year, was 59, and the least 6. 
Jin. Hunt, the oldest person who 
Jias died in this town, was 96| Mrs. 
Xfinsey, the oldest now living, is 93. 
Caledonia county grammar school 
was established here by act of the 
X^lBlature, October 27, 1795. The 
j[ baUding was erected, and the school 
commenced in August, 1800. The 
^inatitution is under the direction of 
I Bine trustees. ' The school may be 
ckmiideredin a prosperous state. The 
average number of scholars from 30 
to 40. The only bequest, which 
this institution has received, was a 
larm valued at |1000, from Mr. 
James Orr. Onion river pond, sol 


called, from its givin^^ rise to .one of 
the principal head branches of 
Oaion river, lies in the western part 
of the town, and covers about 300 
acres. ITiere are several otbcp 
small ponds, which ate not worthy of 
particular notice. There are two 
considerable streams passing off to 
the east into Steven'^s branch, which 
afibrd numerous mill privileges. 
A ridge of land passes through the 
western part, but there is no very 
considemble elevation in this town. 
The western part is a hard soil, but 
the eastern is rich and pleasantly 
diversified with hills a.nd vallies, be- 
ing inhabited by a great number of 
respectable and wealthy farmers. 
There is in the eastern part of the 
town a natural bog meadow, con- 
taining an inexhaustible quantity of 
shell marl, from which lime has 
been manufactured to considerable 
extent. The colour of the marl is 
a bluish white. There is also a 
plenty of limestone, from which 
lime is made. One of the most re- 
markable oocurrenees, in this town, 
was the loss of a man^s great toe, 
by fro9t, in the month of June. 
Jtfr. Walker, the gentleman, who 
sustained the loss, was 84 years old, 
and was frozen, in consequence of 
being lost in the woods, and l3ringf 
out through the night of the 8th of 
June, 1816. There is a small vil- 
lage, situated on an elevated spot 
near the centre of the town, which 
is a place of some bussinesa. The 
only public buildings,, in town, are 
a meetinghouse and an academy, 
both standing a little out of the vil- 
lage to the southwest. The market 
road leading from Bositon to Jlfont- 
real through Newbury, passes 
through the village, and also the 
county road from Chelsea to Dan- 
ville. The town is divided intg 
eight school districts with school- 
houses. There are one minister. 





two lawyers, three physicians, three 1 .'watered by-tome of the head branch- 
taverns, four stores, five grist mills, Hes of West river. The best ruaj 
two saw mills, two fulling mills, oniij across the Green Mountains in the 
carding machine, eight distilleries, j;state south of MontpeliiDr, passes 
which work some grain but pota-! "through this townshipu. There are 
toes prmcipally, and one woollen | three school districts with a school- 
factory, which has had 4000 lbs. of;lhouse in each, one saw mill,two 
wool on hand at a time the present jtavcms, one tannery, one black- 

■season. Population, 18^, 1294. 

smithes shop and one obair factory. 

SepL 1824. J. w. c. & j. k. jPopulation, 1820, 314. d. t. 

16' and long. 

Pbrit, a post township in the 
northeast corner of 
county, is in lat. 43® 
4® 4^ and is bounded north by 
Mount Tabor, east by Landgrove, 
•oihh by WinbaU, and west by 
Dorset. It lies 30 miles nortlieast 
from Bennington, and the same dis- 
southwest fromi Windsor. It 


was chartered October 13, 1761, by Ijstream, which nses m 

the name of Bromley, and contains,! ;part of Goshen, runs 

Jtt/y, 1824. 

PniLABELPHIA. — A toWDsfaip 

was chartered by this name March 
14, 1761; November 9, 1814, the 
noHh half of it was annexed to 
Goshen^ and the remainder of it aa- 
nexed to Chittenden, November 

PniLAnsxPHiA. Riv£R, isa small 

the south 

by charter, 23040 acres. The set- jtbrough Chittenden, and anites with 
tlement of this township was com- 1 {East creek in Pittsfbrd. 
neneed about the year 1773, by;| Pittsfibld, a post township in 
William Barton, from Woodstock,; tlie northeast comer of Rutland 
Con. The town was organized,: county, is in lat. 43® 48' and long. 
March 1, 1802. John Brock was 1 4® 10', and is bounded northeasterly 
first town clerk, and Reuben Bige-i by Rochester, southeasterly by 
low, Esq. first representative. The: jstockbridge, and westerly by Chit- 
religious denominations are Congre- < j tenden. 1 1 lies 35 miles southwest- 
gationalists, Episcopalians, Meth-|'erly fromMontpelier, and 17 north- 
odists and Baptists. The Congre-' jeast from Rutland. It was granted 

^tional church consists of 51 mem- 
bers. The Rev. Oliver Plimpton 
Vas ordained over it, December 29, 
1813, and died the next year. This 
Society has a meetinghouse, which 
was erected in 1814. The other 
societies are small. In the years 
1809 and 10, and 1813 and 14, the 

November 8, 1780, and chartered to 
Samuel Wilcox aad others, July 
29, 1781, containing about 12000 
acres. .The settlement was com- 
menced, in 1786, by Thomas Hodg- 
kins, Stephen Holt, George Martin, 
Daniel and Jacob Bowe, and a Mr* 
Woodard. The town was organind 

inhabitants of this township suffer- j.Afarch 26, 1793. Thomas Uodg- 
«d much from sickness. The pre- Ikins was the first town elerkand 
Tailing disorders were the measles,' also the first representative. Tbs 

oanker and fevers, and they were,', 
in many cases, mortal. This town- 
ship lies upon the Green Mountains, 
and much of it is high and broken. 
There are two natural ponds, one 
covering about 40 and the other a- 

religious denominations are Cim- 
gregationalists and Methodists ; tht 
former church consisting of 41, and 
the latter of 20 members. The 
Mc^hodixst church was organized in 
11804, and the Congregational, in 

b«ut^acfes. The eastera part is 11896. The Rcr. Jtitlin PtmnHt 





was settled- over the Congregation- 
al church • in this tovrn aud Sto(;k- 
bridge, September 15, 1812, and 
still coatinues their pastor. They 
have a small but coavement meet- 
inghoase erected in 1820« The 
Methodists are supplied bf circuit 
preachers. Tlie dysentery prevail- 
ed here in 130.3, and was very 

It lies 60 miles north of Benningtoix 
and 44 southwest froul Montpejier ; 
and was chartered Oct. 12, 176U 
containing 25600 acres. The set- 
tlement of this township was com- 
menced about the year 1768, by 
Messrs. Gideon and Benjamen Cool-» 
iey from Greenwich, ^lass., but 
they wer.3 soon jo-ne'l by R,og;er 

mortal, particularly to children, andi; Stevens, Felix Powoll, I'.bonoser 
the epidemic of 1813 was also veryj; Hopkins, Stephen Mead, ATojcs- 
fatal. The victims of the latter} Omfted, Edward Owen, Jo^iua 
"were mostly adults. The most re- ;i Woodward and others, from Massa- 
niarkable instance of longevity isi chusctts and Connecticut. The 

JSathaniel Stone, who was 92 
years old the 22d of April last. He 
enjoys good health, attends regular- 
ly upon public worship, aud is able 

firit record:* of this town were ncci- 
'deutally burnt, and therefore the 
time of its organization has not beea 
ascertained. It was probably in 

to walk several miles on foot for! ;t he year 1770. Col. Bcaj. Cooley 
that purpose. Doct. Josiah H.'iwas first towa clerk and E'jenczcr 
Phelps comjienced the practice of j Drury, E* i. first rcprc.jeotative. 
physic here in May, 1821. Hei During the revolutionary war two 

'Was the ilrat and is still the only 
physician settled in town. Two 
«treams, one from the weit, an<l the 
other from the south, unite near the 
centre of the township, forming 

picket forts were erected in thi^ 
township, one called fort Mott and 
ithe other fort Vengeancb. Thi? lat- 
!ter was built early in Ihe year 1779, 
I upon an eminence on the ea*f'iide or 

Tweed river, wliich falls into White' (Jtt/jr croek, aud hoar th*; present 
river in Stockbridge. These strGamtSj.jtaje vojlA i'vora Pittf-ford village, 
adbrd several good mill privilege?, 'lo Middlehuiy. Pittsford was a 

White river ruas across tho eastern 
corner. The township is moun- 
tainous, and the moit important el- 
evation is called Wilcox's peak. 

! frontier towavhip, and fort Ven- 

;gert!ice ths mort nrn'tlierly post iu 

Vermont, on the west side of the 

Green Mountains, which was held 

The timber is such as is common to, by the Americans during the revr 
the mountain towns. The turnpike,! .olution. The religious dmomina- 
trom Bethel to Rutland, passes; tions are Congregationalists, Bap> 

through the township along Tweed 
river. There are h-jre four school 
di3trict8,two schoolhouses, three saw,' 

tists, and Methodists. Elder E* 
jlisha Rich was th? first settled min- 
ister, and was ordained over th^ 

one grist and one fulling mill, two] Baptist church about the year 

taverns atld one tannery. Popula- 
tion, 1820, 453. D. B. jr. 
SeiHembetj 1824. 
PiTTSFORD, a post town in Rut- 
land county, is in lat. 43^ 43' and 
long. 3' 58', and Is bounded north 
by Brandon, east by Chittenden, 
fiouth by Rutland and west by 
l^ttbbardton and a small part oi' Ira. 

1734. Elder Rich, after preach- 
jing here a number of years, left 
jthe town, and was succeeded by- 
; Elder Wm. Harrington, who was 
idismissed about the year 1819. 
[Elder J^nthan Dana resides in 

town, and preaches, occasionally, to 

this church, which at present con-. 

sists of between 70 and 80 members*. 





The Rev. ^leazer Harwood was 
settled over the Congregational 
church about the year 1785, and 
continued its pastor till his death, 
which happened in 1807. In De- 
cember of this year, the Rev. Hol- 
land Weeks was ordained over this 
churth, and dismissed in 1815 ; the 
Rev. Asa Mosser wa? ordained 
in January 1818, and dismissed in 
February, 1822; and the Rev. 
Jckn Ingersol^ the present incum- 
bent, was ordained in 1823. The 
Congregational, Baptist, and Meth- 
ttdibt societies have each a conven- 
ient meetinghouse, two of which 
are situated in the Tillage near the 
centre of the township. There 
have been two very general revi- 
vals of religion^ the former in 1784 
and 5, and the latter in 1 802 and 3. 
The dysentery was very mortal 
here in 1803, and in the latter part 
of the summer carried off 40 persons 
in the course ot 4 weeks. The 
epidemicof 1812 and 13, was also, 
rery f»tul, particularly to heads of 
families. Mrs. Elizabeth Smith, 
one of the first settlers, lived to the 
age of 96 years, Mr. Elisha Adams 
to his 92d or 93d year, and several 
others to nearly the same age. 
The physicians are Docts. Winslow, 
Dana» Barker, Spooner and Barlow. 
Attornies, Messrs. Newell, Briggs, 
and Granger. Mary, daughter of 
Ebenezer Lyman, was born in this 
town June 20, 1784, and died Jan- 
uary 23d, 1794. In September pre- 
vious to her death, being but little 
more than 9 years of age, she 
weighed 174 pounds, and at the 
time of her death, probably weigh- 
ed 200 lbs. She was a healthy 
child, with good common sense, and 
her strength was equal to her size. 
She caught a slight cold, and was 
somewhat unwell for about two 
weeks before she died, but ate a 
harty breakfast on the morning 

P preceding her death. Otter creek, 
I Iwhich flows through, the middle of 
this township, from south to north, 
with a gentle meandering eurrcDt, 
jis the principal streanH and its 
jwidth here is from 40 to 50 yards. 
jFurnac&river, a considerable trib- 
utary of Otter creek, is formed by 
•the union of East creek and Pbila- 
jdelphia river. Along these streams 
iure extensive meadows of the rich- 
est alluvial soil. On Furnaee river 
and it branches are numerous miU 
privileges which are well improy- 
ed. There are two ponds, one in the 
southeastern part covering abeot 
20 acresy and the other in the north- 
eastern covering about 30 acres. 
There are no mountains. A range 
of hills extends along the west line 
i between this township and Hub- 
jbardton. The soil is generally 
loam, with some tracts which are 
jsandy, and some of clay. The tim- 
ber is -oak of several kinds, pine, 
maple, beech, birch, elm, basswood, 
ash, cherry, butternut, walnut, pop- 
lar, &c. This township abounds 
in iron ore, which makes the best 
of ware, and bar iron, and has in- 
jexhaustible quarries of excellent 
marble. The iron ore yields a- 
bout 25 per cent, of metalic iron. 
The marble is coarse grained and 
somewhat flexible. Much of it is 
conveyed down Otter creek to Mid- 
dlebury, to be sawn and manufac- 
tured into jambs, &c. The oxide 
of manganese is also found in thi»' 
township. In the eastern part of 
the township is -a deep cavern in 
which ice may commonly be found 
in the months of July and August 
There is a small village near the 
centre of the township, containing 
two meetinghouses, two stores, one 
druggist shop, two taverns, several 
mechanics' shops, and about 30 
dwelling houses. It is situated 
eight miles north from Rutland 





courthouse. The town is divided i 
ioto 13 or 14 school districts, and I 
eoataios eleven school houses.! 
There are four g^ist, four fuUin*,' 
one oil and ei^ht saw mills, two' 
woollen factories, one marble fac- 
tory with several g^ang;s of saws, 
three stores, three tavern.*, four I 
distilleries, three tanneries, onej 
ibrge and one furnace within a few! 
rods of an extensive bed of iron orc^ 
of aa excellent quality, two or three 
triphammer shops, aAd one potte- 
ry. Population, 1820, 1916. 

August^ 1824. c. H. 

Plaikfusld, a small post town- 
sHip in the eastern pai*t of Wash- 
ington county, in lat. 44"^ 14', and 
long. 4^ 3r, and is bounded north 
by Marshfield, east by Goshen ^ore, 

1797 the name of the township was 
altered to Plainfield. The first 
town meetings under this name was 
March 2a, 1798, and Thomas Vin- 
cent, £sq. was then chosen towa 
clerk. A small Congregational 
church was org;aaized here about. 
th0 year 1796 or 97, a Methodist 
church about the year 1800, and a^ 
Univcrsalist society about the year 
1820. The Congregational church' 
has, for a part of the time, enjoyed 
the labors of the Rev. Jouathai^ 
Kinney, and this and the other so*^ 
cieties have occasionally beeu 
supplied by itinerent preachers^ 
but there has never been a settled 
minister in town The physicians., 
are Amherst Simons, Ebenezer /^o-. 
nant, and Nathaniel Bancroft.. 

south by Barre and Orange, andliThe township is watered by On-. 
west by Montpelier. It lies 55i|ion river, which passes through the: 
JQiles north from Windsor, and 21j|northwest corner, and by Great 
»o rth west from Newbury ; andwas'lbrook, which passes through the 
chartered to Gen. James White-! township in a northwesterly direo- 

law and others, Oct. 27, 1788, coru- 
tainin* 10000 acres. The settle-' 
ncnt was commenced about the' 
year 1794, by Theodore Perkins,! 
•Joseph Batchelder, and Seth Free-j 
O^ajii. They were joined the next' 
y_«ar by Jonathan and Bradford! 
■^Qaey, Monlton Batchelder, Johnj 
"toore and others from different] 
P^"*t8 of New England. The tiUes to, 
JpQ lands, under which the first set- 
*^^r8 purchased, proved to be bad, 
***U tiiey were mostly obliged to 
^^fchase a second time. But by 
^Q injlulgence of the Hon. Hcmaa 
Allen, into whose hands the lands 
. the inhabitants were mpistiyi 
^^^bled tf^ retain the farms oai 
^^^h they had commenced im- 
•^•^vements. The town was or- 
^Hixed under the name of St 
^tUrew.*s gore, April 4, 1796, and 
*\arvey Bancroft was first town 
5Wk, who was the same year kil- 


tion into Onion river. Atthejanc-^ 
tion of these streams is a small vil- 
luge, conta^ining a Congregational 
and Methodist meetinghouse^ two. 
stores, one taverx;, one tannery, two. 
potteries,, two potashes, one sadr 
dler,. one grist,, one saw, one fulling 
and one clover mill, one carding 
machine, and two blacksmiths.. 
Theire is a. small pond in the eastern, 
part which is well furnished witli> 
excellent trout. There is also a 
jmineral spring similar to those in. 
Newbury^ (see Kewbury^ which is. 
a place of considerable resort for in- 
valids. It is situated so near the- 
margin of Great brook. as over- 
flown at high water. The surfa^er 
of this township is uneven, but is 
well timbered. There isbutlitflo: 
waste land and th^ soil is generally^ 
of a good quality. The town is di«. 
vided into seven school district^. 

^ -^»a *vw ^-^ i«~ ....^.^ J — , -^. .and contains six good schoolhouaeji.; 

^^ by tbifi iaU of . a. tree. Nor. OjfTh^re are here two.sawv tw.« exi&U. 





one fulling and one clover mill, one 
earding^ machine and one tripham- 
mer shop. Population, 18^,660. 

ApriU 1824. 6. w., jr. 

Platt, Plott or Laplott Riv- 
£R, is a small mill stream, which rises 
in the southeast part of Hinesburgh 
and runs northwesterly through 
the northeast corner of Charlotte 
and through Shelburn into the 
head of Shelburn bay. There are 
some fine tracts of interval along 
this stream and it affords a number 
ef valuable mill privileges. 

Pltmoctth, a post township in 
the western part of Windsor coun- 
ty, is in lat. 43° 31', and long. 4° 
15', and is bounded north by Bridge- 
water, east by Reading, south by 
Ludlow and a part of Mount Holly, 
and west by Shrewsbury. It lies 
15 miles nearly west from Windsor, 
52 south from . Montpelier, and 16 
southeast from Rutland ; and was 
chartered J uly 6, 1761, by the name 
of Saltash. The settlement of this 
township was commenped in 
1776 by George Huit, Samuel 
Page and John Mudge came into 
the township the next year, and 
Bowman Bi*own and John Cool- 
idge soon after. The religious de- 
nominations are Methodists Con- 
gr^gationalists, and Christians. 
The Methodist church consists of 
between 30 and 40 members. El- 
der Benjamin Shaw^ local preach- 
er. The Hev. Abel Manning was 
settled over the Congregatioaal 
church, and continued several 
years. They have a meetinghouse 
in the southeastern part of the town- 
ship. Koah Johnson i^ minister of 
the Christian order. The Physi- 
cians are J. W. Emery and John 
Lynde. The principal stream in 
thib township is Black river, which 
is formed here, and runs southeast- 
erly into Ludlow. On this stream 
are several good m\\ seats aad a 

number of natural ponda which t- 
boundin fish. Two considerable 
branches of Qneecby riTer also rise 
in this township. A considerable 
share of the rocks are primitiye 
limestone, which makes the best 
of lime. Large quantities of this 
article are manufactured and trans- 
ported to different parts of the 
country. The surface of the town- 
|ship is considerably broken* Two 
mountains extend through it par- 
allel to the river and at no great 
distance from it. That on the 
northeastern side, is very abrupt, 
and is known by the name of 
Mount Tom. Near the meeting- 
house is an extensive bed of ex- 
eellent steatite, or soapstone. At the 
foot of the mountain on the south- 
western side of the river and aboot 
80 rods from it, are situated the 
Plymouth caverns. The laigest 
cave is near the border of a wood, 
and is entered by a sloping passage 
of about ten feet in length. This 
passage is about the size of a com- 
mon well and is very steep. R 
leads into an irregular room about 
27 feet in length, 20 in width ami 
1 8 or 20 in height. From this room 
is a large sloping passage in a north- 
easterly direction into another 
considerable apartment, the bottom 
of which is of sand and is the lowest 
part of the cavern. From thit 
room are two passages in a nortlh 
westerly direction, into a couple of 
apartments, the area of each of 
which is about equal to that oft 
common bed room, and also a laig9 
opening to the east into another a-^ 
partment. Proceeding^ northerly 
from this, you enter a spacious 
room 30 feet long, 12 wide and a- 
bout 20 in height. The rodoi 
which compose the aidea of this 
room incline towards each other 
and meet at the top like the ridge 
of a house, Returou^ b««k ittte 





the last meotioned room, you dis- 
cover a passag^e leadings towards the 
8outb, barely sufficient to admit a 
middlings sized person to pass throug^h 
it, on his hands and knees, which 
leads to a room 12 feet lon«7, 7 wide^ 
and in the middle 4 l>2jnheig;ht, 
which very much resembles a com- 
mon oven. This cavern was discov- 
ered about the first of July, 1818. 
The author of this work visited it a- 
boutthe 10th of the same month, and 
explored the several apartments, an 
account of which was published 
soon after in the A^ermont Journal. 
At this time numerous stalactites 
were suspended from the roof and 
sides of the cavern, the g^reater part 
of which were rudely beaten off 
and carried away by the numerous 
visitants (amounting^ to several 
thousands) with which the cavern 
-was thronged during^ that summer. 
The rocks aie limestone and the 
eavern was probably formed by the 
removal of the earth from among 
the rocks by water. A few rods 
west of the cavern above discribed 
another has been discovered, which 
is about two thirds as large. Plym- 
outh is a good grazing township, 
and there are here some excellent 
dairies; fifty cows is the large&t. 
No ores have been discovered, but 
there are probably large quantities 
of iron here as there are several 
ylaces where the magnetic needle is 
very sensibly affected. This town- 
ship is divided into eleven school 
districts, in which are eight good 
schoolhouses. There are three 
|*rist and five saw mills, one trip- 
hammer shop, two stores, two tav- 
erns and one tannery. Population, 
1820,1172. B. a. 

Aug. 1824. 

PococK. — Name altered to Bris- 
tol, October 21, 1789. See Bristol. 

PoMFRET, a township in the 
Atrtb part of Windsor couQtyi is in 

lat. ^P ASt and long. 4® 2T, and is 
bounded north by Sharon, east by 
Hartford, south by Woodstock, and 
west by Barnard. It lies IB miles 
north from Windsor, and 40 south 
from Montpelier; was chartered 
July 8, 1761, to Isaac Dana and as- 
sociates, and is seven miles long and 
five and a half wide. The settle- 
ment of this township was com- 
menced in the spring of 1770, by 
Bartholomew Durkee, from Pom- 
fret, Con., who came into it with 
his family, consisting of a wife and 
five children, on the 6th day of 
March. In coming into the town, 
the family proceeded, on foot, upon 
a snow-shoe path, six mil^s, draw- 
ing their furniture upon handsleds. 
In the course of a few da3r8, they 
were joined in the settlement by 
Mr. John Cheedle and family. 
John, son of B. Durkee, was born 
December 25, of this year, and was 
the first child born in town. The 
proprietors made him a present of 
100 acres of land. In 1771, Wm^ 
Wilson came into the township from 
iConnecticut, and, a few weeks after, 
his wife and three children follow- 
ed him the whole distance on foot« 
In the course of two years, the set- 
tlement was increased by a great 
number of families, among whom 
were John W. Dana, Seth Hodges 
and Benjamin Bugbee. Mr. Dana, 
built the first grist mill, soon after 
he came into town, upon a small 
stream, which ' empties into White 
river. The town was organized in 
March, 1773, and John W. Dana 
was chosen town clerk. At this 
meeting John Throop was chosen 
justice of the peace, and three con- 
stables were appointed, and but 
two highway surveyors. The town 
was first represented, in 1778, by 
John Throop. The first settled 
minister was the Rev. £lishaHutch<*. 
iusoU} of the CoDgregatioaftl or-« 





der. He was ordaiaod Deoember 
I'l, 17o4, and dismined January B, 
1795. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. I^atius Thompsun, who wa» 
ordained November .'^, l(>05, and 
diEinissed April 2G,1U11. The Rev. 
John UutUn was ordained March 
17, 1819, and has since been dii 

jis bounded north by CasUeton, east 
|by Middletowu and Ira, south hf 
[WelW, and west by Hampton, N. Y. 
|It lies 60 xnilea southwest (rbia 
'Montpelier, 13 from Rutland, and 
i46 north from Bennin^on. It was 
ichartcred September 21, 1761, and 
^contains about 35 square miles. 

missed. Their present meeting-;; ('he first proprietor's meetings was 
hoUse, situated in the centre of the licld at She&eld, Jl/asa., June 7| 

township, wtts built iu 179:2. There 

'17G3. The settlement was com- 

are al*o, in this township, a con- Imoncnd in 1771, by Thomaa Ashlaj 
sidcrable aumber of Methodists,, and Ebenczcr Allen, 'the eaily 
ChriHlian!<, Baptists, &c. The spot-'Vettlers were mostly emigp:ants from 
ted lever prevailed here in ISllj Connecticut and the western part of 
and 1'2, and. wns very mortal amon^j Massachusetts. Heber Allen was 
the yoiiu^ people and children. 31ie! first town clerk, and Wm. Ward 
surface of the tovvu:iiiip is cunsidcr-iifirst representative. The religions 
ably uneven^ but the .>oil is general- 1 denominations are Congregational- 
ly good. There are to be seen here||ists. Baptists and Methodists, eaeii 
the traces of au hurricane, 

formerly passed through the town 

^of which has a good meetinghoaie. 
TTiat of the Congregationalists was 

s) lip from west to east. The tim- erected in 1803, and that of the 
ber was, probably, all laid prostrate iBaptists ia 1805. Rev. Ithamer 
through the distance of seven orjJHibbard was the first settled minis- 
eiglit miles, and about 100 rods in!|ter. He was settled over the Coik 
wivlth, a new growth having ev-||gregational church in 1780, audi 
idently arisen, much younger than i, was succeeded in 1803 by the Re?., 
the neighboring forebts, none of thelSamoel Leonard, who was dismissed 
trees appearing, from the number of ia li821s and the same year the Rev*. 
concentric layers, to be more than Eifian Smith was installed in his 
1 -20 y^ars of age. White river runs ;place. This society has funds to- 
through the northeast corner, and the amount of ^5000. Elder Clark 
Queechy river through the south- 'Kendrick was the first, and the oolj 
east corner. The other streams ^settled minister of the Bapti^ 
are small. A mineral substance hasj 'church. lie was ordained in J 802, 
lately been discovered on the faj^m.jand died in March, 1824. The ep^ 
qf Capt. Martin Snow, which re-j idemic, in the spring of 1813, war 

sembl^s the Vandyke brown, and 
proves to. be a durable paint. There 
are, in town, 13 sohool districts, \2 
school houses, one grist, four saw and 
two fulling miHs, one carding ma- 
chine', ohe store, two taverns and 
two tanneries, Po^pulation, 1820, 
1635. J. D. 

^Jpnl, 1824. 
PouLTirsT, a post town in the 
-western p4rt of Rutland county, is 

iDi^t^44'' 3^ ma long. 3"" d0\ awlliTba soil it g^aerallf wana vA 

very distressing, and in the couraa 
of three months was fatal to about 
60 of the inhabitants. There are- 
two physicians, viz : Docts. Keod-- 
rick and Palmer, and three attor-^ 
uies,^ viz : The Hon. Rollin C. 
Mallary, James S Harris andAl- 
'mon Warner. This township ia 
[Watered by Poultney river and its. 
numecous tributaries, which afforcl 
a number of valuable mill aeats. 





ive, and the surface pleas-jipla 
versified witfi hills and val- 'ftfii 
long Pgultney river the al- 
ats are extensive and very 
ive. The timber is mostly 
us there being but few ever- 
A violent freshet, in July, 
wept o£F from the streams 
ur grist and four saw mills, 
ollen factory, one carding 
i and several other build- 
l^here are two pleasant vil- 

Poultney. The largest is 
e centre, and contains two 
houses, three stores, one 
one printing establishment, 
!i is published the " North- 
ctator," a weekly paper, by 
md Shate, a bookbindery, 
t and one saw mill, 10 or 12 
Lcs' shops, and between 30 

dwellinghouses. There is 
village a two story brick 
)use, in the upper part of 
!s kept the"Poultney Fe- 
caJemy,'* incorporated in 
Fhe west village, so called, 
a stone chapel belonging to 
bodists, a two story brick 
I use, one store, one tavern, 

ten mechanics* shops, and 

dwellinghouses, some of 
e elegant. There are in town 

1 districts, as many school- 
wo grain, five saw and five 
mills, four stores, four tav- 
ht distilleries and four tan- 
Population, 1820, 1955. 
c, 1824. 8. w.«. 
riTEY River, rises in Tin- 
md runs a westerly course 
Middletown and Poultney. 
ring at the west line of 
r, it begins to form the 
y between Vermont and 
rk, and, running between 
ven and West-Haven, on 
1 and Hampton, N. Y., on 
h, falls into the head of 
y, au arm of lake Cham- 

am. From Fair-Haven it re- 
ceives Castleton river, and from 
West-Haven, Hubbardton river. 
The whole length of Poultney 
river is about 25 miles, and it af- 
fords a number of excellent mill 
seats. ^ A remarkable change took 
place in this stream, in 1783. A 
little above its junction with East 
bay, a ridge of land crosses in a 
northerly direction. The river, 
running a northwesterly course, oa 
meeting the ridge, turned sudden* 
ly towards the northeast, and, after 
keeping that course about half a 
mile, turned westerly, rushing down 
a steep ledge of rocks, and forming 
a number of fine mill privileges. 
The river had, for seme years, beea 
observed to be making encroach- 
ments upon the ridge at the place, 
where it turned to the northeast ; 
and, in May, 1783, during a violent 
freshet, the river broke through th» 
ridge, and, meeting with no rocks, 
it cut a channel tOO feet deep 
lowering the bed of the river for 
some distance above, and carrying- 
immense quantities of earth int<» 
East bay. The bay, which was 
before navigable for vessels of 40 
tons burden, was so completely 
filled, for several miles, that a canoe 
could with difficulty pass at low 
water, and the navigation was much 
obstructed at Fiddler's Elbow, a 
narrow place in the lake near South 
bay. The obstructions have since 
been mostly removed by the force 
of the current and a company has 
been incorporated for the purpose 
of improving the navigation of 
these watei^.* 

PowwAL, a post township in tha 
southwest corner of Benningtoa 
[county and southwest corner of the 
state, is in lat. 42° 47' and long. 3^ 
50', and is bounded north by Ben- 
nington, east by Stamford, south by 
Wifliamstowni Mass., and west by 




Hoosuc, N. Y. It lies 56 miles &outh-| 
■westerly from llutlaad and 30 w'est! 
from Brattleborou^h. It was char- 
tered Jaauary 8, 1760, and contain.^; 
about 25000 acres. Tiie settle- 
ment of this towuship was com- 
menced about the year 1761, but 
we have obtained no. iuforiiiatiou 
respecting its early history. In 
1791, it was the third, in Beuning^- 
ton county, and the fii'th in the state, 
in point of population, containing;, 
at that time, 1746 inhabitants. The 
surface of the township is consider- 
ably uneven, but the soil is general- 
ly g^ood and produces plentiful 
orops. , It is wv'U adapted to the 
production of g^rass, and hero are 
kept some ^f the finest dairies in 
thi^ state. The principal stream is 
Hooaao river, which is formed here 
^ndpassea off in a northwesterly di- 
rectiqa into the township of Hoosac, 
V, Y» Along this stream are some rich 
nnd. beautiful tracts of interval, and 
cin it are several valuable stands for 
v^XW Some, of the head branches 
of . Walloomsac river rise in the 
northeastern part of this township, 
and pass off into Bennington. . The 

N. Y. Nov. 14, 1766, con 
18115 acres. The settlemeu 
township was commenced 
the year 1754, by emigran 
jVIassachusetts. Previous 
last French and Indian w 
settlers constituted the gan 
" Great Meadow Fort," whi 
situated on the meadow, in tl 
ern part of the township, 
after this fort was erected, 
burnt by the .Indians, and 
wards rebuilt. The town i 
ganized May 8, 1770, and N- 
bin was first town clerk. 1 
ligious denominations are C 
gationalists and Baptists. 1 
mer church consists of 220 
bors, and the latter of abc 
The first settled minister ^ 
Rev. Josiah Goodhue. \. 
settled over the Congrej 
church Oct. 17, 1776, and ( 
November, 1797. The Ri 
rus Remington was settle 
this church February 12, 181 
dismissed Feb. 15, 1803. 
ftce. U. Z). Andrews was 
!June 25, 1807, and still coi 
The ministers in the 

town is divided into 13 sdioel dig- church have been numerou 

tricts, and contains a clecent meet-ijhaving generally continued 

ingbouse, situated near the centre, iishort time. Elder Asakel ) 

and a full compliment of stores, tav- 1 [the present pastor of this 

ems, mills, and mechanics'* shops. In 1816 there was a general 

Population, 1820, 1812. 

PuTHEY, a post township in the 

eastern part of Windham county, is 

in lat. 42° 59' and long. 4° 28', and 

is bouaded north by Westminster, 

east by Connecticut river, which 

separates it from Westmoreland, 

N. H., south by Connecticut river 

and Dummerston, and west by 

Brookline. It lies 10 miles north 

from Brattleborough, 34 northeast 

from Bennington and 33 south from 

Windsor. It was chartered, under 

N: H. Dec 6, 1753, to Col. Josiah 

WiUard, and rechartcred tinder 

of religion, and 153 memb 
ided to the Congregational < 
The epidemic of 1813 wj 
distressing, and in the co 
three months was fatal in a 
cases. The physicians are i 
der and John Campbell, and] 
iel Chamberlain. Attomiei 
ehas White, and Asa Ke^ 
This township, is so \ 
that Connecticut river foi 
whole of the eastern and 
one half of the southern bo' 
In the northeastern part, ii 
of the river, is a tract of ab* 





res of verv valuable interval cal-) 
i the Oreat Meadow. West of 
is is a range of hills running from| 
•rth to south, and west of these, 
lar tlie centre of the township 
ins Sackefs brook, on which is a 
indsome tract of interval. AJong 
e western side of this brook if n 
eai-Hfit street 1 ancl a quarter mile 
ng, on which are about 50 dwel- 
ig houses, three stores and a Con- 
egational meetinghouse. At the 
wer end of thie sti'eet in Socket's 
ook is a fall of, at least, 75 feet 
the distance of 80 rods, on which 
e erected 7 dams, 1 woollen facto- 
', a clothier's works, a papermill, 
L oil mill, a triphammer shop, a 
•ist and saw mill, and a carding 
achine. West of this street tlie 
nd rises by a succession of hills to 
le west line of the township, a 
stance of about 4 miles, and then' 
jscends about one mile to the val- 
y of Brookline. In the western 
irt of the townsliip stands the 
aptist meetinghouse. Sacket's 
rook runs from the extreme north- 
'cst to the south east part. An- 
ther stream, which rises in the 
'est parish of Westminster, pas- 
is tlirough Putney in a south- 
osterly direction. About 
>om its mouth it passes 
2dge of rocks, where are several 
aluable mill privileges. The 
ocks, which constitute the hilh 
S8t«of the centre of the township, 
re mica slate which abounds with 
Ar&^ts, and the sulpliuret of iron. 
Vest of this range commences a 
ange of argillite which has been 
uarried for roof slate, in two or 
iirec places. West of the argillite is 
>iind a kind of black limestone 
i^hicl) is in general too hard to be 
lanufactured into lime. Further 
rest mica slate again occurs. Two 
liles east of the centre of the town- 
tip near the Goaneoticat a vein of 

the flnate of lime has been discovered 
by the Rev. E. D. Andrews of this 
town. The vein is in mica slate 
and is five or six inches in thickness. 
It resembles the Derbyshire spar of 
England, and when heated it ex- 
hibitcs ft most brilliant and beauti- 
ful phosphoresence. Its color is 61H- 
erald green. From a rough frag- 
ment the primitive form — a regu- 
lar octsedron — may readily be ob- 
tained -by mechanical division. 
The nodular argillaceous oxide of 
iron is found in this township in beds 
of common clay. The masses are 
usually of an oval form, including 
an earthy nucleus. Staurotide, or 
crosstone, is also found here in 
large gray crystals, crossing each 
other in mica slate. The beautiful 
pin<? groves, which formerly existed 
'in this township, are now mostly 
destroyed. The timber is principal- 
ly birch, beech, maple, some hem- 
lock, and, along the Connecticut, 
considerable quantities of chesnut, 
walnut and oak. In the centre of 
the township is a town house, 
where the town meetings are held, 
and the town business transacted. 
There are 12 school districts, as 
many school h©uses, thr^e grist, 
a mile! jo saw and one oil mill, one woollen 
over a! factory, four stores, one tavern, one 
distillery acid three tanneries. 
Population 1820, 1547. 
July, 1824. 
QuEECHY -River, sometimes 
called Watcrqueechy, rises in Sher- 
burn, runs nearly east through th« 
south part of Bridg«water ; thence 
east northeast through Woodstock 
into the south part of Hartford, nnd 
thence southeast through the north- 
east corner of Hartland into Con- 
necticut river, about two miles a* 
bove Qaeechy falls. In Bridge- 
water it receives two considerable 
branches, namely, north bra&oh, 
which rises m the Boirth part Of iH» 




township from the north, ami 8oath|j At the first meetings of this com- . 
branch, which rises in Plymouth,; pany the Hon. Joseph Marsh las 
from the south, both considerable jichosen moderator and agent to 
mill streams. In Woodstock it re-jlprefer a petition to the Legislature 
•reives two other branches of con-:jlbr a charter, Capt. Aaron Stom 
iiderable size ; one rising in the'; was chosen cderk, and Capt Abel 
northeast comer of Bride;ewaterj| Marsh to ascertain whether there 
find seutheast corner of BarucmUl.wcre any claimants of the land ia 

falls into Queechy rirer from the' New- York, or elseirh«r«. Thi 

north just below tha nortli village | settlement was commenced here 
in Woodstock, or *^ }Vaodstock'\ihree or four years before the town- 
Grten^ the other rising in the south- 'ship was chartered. As near ascsa 
part of Woodstock, ftasses through|!be ascertained Wm, Evans and &m- 
both the villages in that town, andjily, Edward Evans, John Parks and * 
empties into it from the south just! Experience Davis, were the fint 
«bove the mouth of the last men-llpersons who wintered in the towa- 
tiouf>d stream. Both tliese streams! ship. Mr. Zadock Steele was tak- 
•afford excellent mill seatft. Queechy' en from this township by theln- 
river, in its course, receives numer-|'dians and carried into captivity, on 
-ous other tributaries of less note.|!the 17th of October, 178(5, the^ 
It is a clear and lively stream, withi jailer the burning of Royaltoo. 
a gravel or stoney bottom. Th ere! | Randolph Parmelee was the first 
are eight bridges across this riverliehild lK>rn in this township. Tke 
afler it leaves Sherburn, viz : was organized March 31, 1783| 
in Bridgewater, two in Woodstock,; and Jehiel Woodward was firrt 
one in Hartford, and one in Hart-j'town clerk. The religious denon- 
land ; and six dams, on which mills! inations are CongregatioDalistii 
•and other machinery are erected,; ' Methodists, Freewill Baptists, Uni- 
viz : two in Bridgewater, two inj'vcrsalists. Christians and somt 
Woodstock, one in Hartford, and ; Baptists, The Rev. Elijah Brtia- 
4>ne in HarUand. This stream is a-<jard was ordained over the Congre* 

bout 35 miles in length, and waters 
*bout 212 square miles. 

Randolph, a post township in 

igational church and society, Sep- 
jtember 6, 1786, and dismissed Jso- 
'uary 4, 1798. The Rn, 7V2fM 

the western part of Orange co\mX.y^\EaAtman^ his successor, was settled 
isinlat 43^56' and long. 4^ 21', j June 3, 1801, and is the present 

and is boundedtiorth by Brookfield, 
east by Tunbridge, south by Bethel, 
and west by Braintree. It lies 23 
miles south from Montpelier, and! 
34 northwest from Windsor, it wasj 
granted November 2, 1780, and" 
ohartered to Aaron Storrs and oth-l 
ers, June 29, 1781, containing! 
28596 acres. A company, consist-| 
ing of 20 persons, was formed atj 
Hanover, N. H., then called Dres- 
den, in May, 1778, for the purpose 
of purchasing this township, known 

pastor- Kldtr Ziba Pope is minis- 
ter in the Freewill Baptist society. 
The most remarkable revival of re- 
ligion commenced here in Febmaiji 
1822. It was very general throagh- 
outthe town. A^ut 80 were ad- 
ded to the Congregational church, 
and a great number united with 
the other societies. The first meet- 
inghouse erected here was built of 
logs, in 1784, and likewise the see- 
ond, in 1788, both of which hava 
long since been demolished. There 

to them by the name of Middlesex-! are, at present, three honied bt 





public worship. That, in the cen-! number of handsome dwolling- 
tre of the township, is large and el- 
egant, belongs to the Congregation- 
alists, and was erected in 1792 ; 
tkat, in the north part, was built in 
1805, and that, in the east part, in| 
1016. The town has generally beenj 
very healthy. There were a few 
cases of the spotted fever in 1811, 
and the dysentery was very dis- 

houses. Gen. Joseph Edson^ who 
was, for many years. High Sheriff 
of me county of Orange, and now 
Marshall of the district of Vermont, 
resides here. ** Orange County 
Grammar School" was incorporated 
and established in this village, No- 
vember 8, 1806. The building, 
which is commodious) was erected 

tressiujg here in the autumn ef 1823, |in 1804. There are, belonging to 

of which a considerable number 
died. The physicians are Ezekiel 
Bissell,* John Edson, P. D. Blod- 
gett and John S. Smith. Attornies, 
Hon. Dudley Chace, William Nut- 
ting, Porter Converse and Jason 
Steele. This township is watered 

this institution, a respectable philo- 
sophical, chymical and geographical 
apparatus, and also a library of 
well selected books for the use of 
the scholars. This is deservedly 
one of the most popular academies, 
in the state. The common number 

by the second and third branch of | of scholars is about 60. Ithasbeea, 
White river, the former running! 'for some years, under the instruction 

through the eastern and the latter 
through the western part of the town- 
ship. These streams and their trib- 
utaries afford a number of advan- 
tageous situations for mills. The 
timber is, principally, maple, beech 
and birch with some hemlock and 
spruce. The surface of the township 
is considerably elevated*, but is less 
broken than that of the towns gen- 
erally in the vicinity. The soil is 
productive and the farming interest 
extensive. There are here three 
pleasant villages, one in the centre 
t>f the township, another in the 
eastern, and the other in the west 
ern part. The centre village is 
very handsomely situated on eleva- 
ted ground, and contains a hand- 
some meetinghouse, an academy or 
county grammar schoolhouse, 
post office, two « attornies^ offices, 
three stores, two taverns, and a 

* Doct, Bissell deceased May 13, 
1824, aged 60 years. He was one 
of the early settlers of the iowru, and 
teas eminent and extensively useful 
in his prof ess ion. He lived respected 
and died lamented. 


of Rufas Nuttings A.,M., who is its 
permanently established preceptor, 
l^he income of the institution, ariir. 
ing from Grammar School lands, 
tuition, &c., is amply sufficient for 
its support. Randolph east village 
is situated on the second branch of 
White river, is cempactiy built, and 
contains a post office, tavern, stores, 
mills, &c., and a number of hand- 
some dwellinghouses. The west 
village is situated on the third 
branch of White river, and contains 
two stores, two taverns, and a num- 
ber of mills and other machinery. 
There are, in town, 17 school dis- 
tricts and schoolhouses, five grist, 
eight saw, five clover and two oil 
mills, nine stores, eight taverns, tw« 
distilleries, five tanneries, one fur- 
nace^' three clothiers^ works, and 
three carding machines. Popula- 
tion, 1820,2487. E.w. 
February, 1824. 
Random, a township in the west- 
ern part of Essex countv, is in lat* 
44*^ 45', and long. 5°" 2', and is 
bounded northerly by Wenlock 
easterly by Ferdinand, fsouth- 
erly by Newark^ and westerly 




by Navy. It Ues 48 miles north- 
east from Montpelier, and was 
chartered August 13, 1781, to Col. 
Joseph Nig^htingale and associates 
of Proyideoce R. I. It was named 
Random by the Hon. Joseph 
Brown, it being a random purchase 
irem an agent sent from Vermont 
to Providence. There was but 
one family in this township in the 
foil of 1823. Clyde river is the 
principal stream. Knowlton's lake 
is about two miles long, and lies 

ships. The town \vas organized 
March 30, 1 780, and Jedediaji Leav- 
ens was the first town clerk. It 
was represented the same year by 
Thomas Hapgood. Col. Tyler, of 
Claremont, N. H. built a saw mill 
here in 1780 and the first grist mill 
in 1783. Capt. David Bumam o- 
pened the first tavern in 1786. On 
the 23^ of November, 1787, the 
Rev. Nahum Sergeant was ordain- 
ed to the pastoral care of the Con- 
gregational church in Reading, with 

in Wenlock. Around this pond 
are immense quanties of beautiful, 
transparent, siliceous sand. This 
sand has been tried at the flass 
werks in Boston and was found to 
be the first rate of sand for the 
Manufactory of glass. Along Clyde 
viver are large quantities of excel- 
lent pine timber. 

Rkading, a post township in 
the central part of Windsor county, 
is in lat. 43° 30', and Ion. 4® 22', 
and bounded north by Woodstock, 
east by Windsor, south by Caven- 
dish and west by Plymouth. It 
ife 53 miles so«th firom Montpelier, 
and was chartered to Isreal Stow- 
ell, Jonathan Hammond, and others 
July 6, 1781 and contains 23040 a- 
eres. The settlement of the town 
ship was commenced about the 
year 1772, by Andrew Spear, who 
temoved his family here from Wal- 
poleN. H. This was for several 
years the only family in town. A 
bout the year 1778, John Weld, 
Ssq. moved his family from Pom- 
fret, Con. and several young men 
ftora that and the other New Eng- 
land sfktes began improvements in 
the south and eastern parts of the 
township. Most of the early set- 
tiers were fa low circumstances as 
to property, and, like the settlers of 
ether new townships, they had to 
eddure many privati«HU tsL^ har^- 

partly in this township and partly !a permanent salary for life. A log 
ir.r- 1 ,_ A .1 *i.:_ 1 meetinghouse was erected about the 

same time. The church however, 
were not long blest with his labors ; 
for in visiting his friends in Chelsea, 
Mass. he was disposed to have the 
small pex by innoculation, ef which 
he died on the 7th of Oct. A. D. 
1792. No other minister was per- 
manently settled here until the 22d 
of February, 1819, when the Rev. 
Moses Elliott was ordained to the 
pastoral care of the same church ; 
but continued here only about one 
year. There are at present, sever- 
al religious denominations in Read- 
ing, viz. CoBgregatioDalists, Bap- 
tists, Methodists, Christians andU- 
niversalists or Restorati oners. Of 
these, the Restorationers are the 
most numerous, and employ the i2ev. 
Samuel C. Loveland about one half 
the time* Mr. Loveland is publieh- 
|er of a periodical work, the ^ Chris- 
tian Repository, devoted, principal- 
ly, to doctrine, morality and reli- 
gious intelligence. ''The ability and 
candour with which it h^ been 
conducted, have contributed to give 
it an extensive oirculation. The 
other societies are occasionally 
supplied by missionaries and circuit 
preachers. A meetinghouse was 
erected here in 1801, and partly fin- 
ished ; it was, however, destroyed 
by fire on the night of the 4th 9i 
Jul/, 1810; supposed to be the 






work of an iacendiary. In 1816, 
an elegant brick meeting-house was 
erected here, and completely finish- 
ed the same year. The most re- 
markable season of mortality ever 
expei;ienc9d here, was in February 
and March, 1813, when more than 
sixty persons died in two months, 
mostly of the spotted fever. Doct. 
Silas Bowen, an eminent practition- 
er and a worthy citizen, resided in 
Readings more than twenty years 
and was the principal physician. He 
removed to Clarendon in October 
1822; since which his place has 
been supplied by Doct. Josiah K. 
Skinner, a yoang gentleman of 
l^ood acquirements, and taecessfu) 
practice. The surface of ^ts town 
is uneven, and the eleva^ons g^en- 
erAlly pretty abrupt. Towards the 
west part, is an elevated tract of land 
extending through the town from 
north to south, from which issues 
its principal streaojis. It is worthy 
of remark that no water runs into 
this township. In the southwest 
part, and on the line between 
Reading and Plymouth, is a natur- 
al pond, about two handred rods 
in length, and fifty in breadth. 
The outlet of this pond is to the 
south, and leads into Plymouth pond. 
From the northwest part of the 
town, the streams take a northerly 
direction, and fall into Queechy 
river at Bridge water. Froiii the 
middle and northeast parts, the 
streams take an easterly direction 
and anite with Connecticut river 
Mi Windsor ; whilst those in the 
southeast part take a southeasterly 
direction and /all into Black river 
at Weathersfield. Some small 
streams, however, rise in the north 
part, and taking a northeastjerly di- 
rection, fall into Queechy river at 
Woodstock Green< The streams 
in Reading, though generally small, 
a4ord u tolerable supply of water 

jfor every kind of machinery hith- 
jCrto ereeted. The soil in Reading 
lis of a middling quality, and afibrdi 
excellent pasturage. There is but 
very little pine of any description ; 
the timber is generally hard wood« 
but the high lands afford a plenti- 
ful supply of spruce, and some 
hemlock. Around the meeting- 
house, which is near the centre of 
the township, is a small village. 
The "Eastern Star Lodge," ofFrea 
Masons was established here in 
1815, under the jurisdiction ot the 
Grand Lodge of Vermont. It now 
consists of about 100 members. 
The town contains 12 school dia- 
4trict8, and ten school houses, three 
grist mills, and another erecting, 
five saw mills, one oil mill, one 
woollen factory, • two clothiers* 
works, two stores, three taverns, and 
two tanneries ; also a copperplate 
engraver, and a copperplate prin- / 
ting press. Population 1820, 160B/ 
June 1824. T. V. H. 

Rebdsboroitcih, a township in 
the southeast comer of Bennington 
county, is in lat. 42® 48^ and long. 
4° 2*, and is bounded north by Sears* 
burgh, east by Whitingham, south 
by Rowe, Mass., and west by Stam* 
ford and a part of Woodford. It 
lies 12 miles squtheast from Ben- 
nington, and 18 southwest from 
Brattleborough. This township con- 
tains 23040 acres, but the time and 
the source of the ffrant are not known 
Its population, m 1791, amounted 
to 64 persons. The surface is con- 
siderably mountainous, and much 
of it unsuitable for settlement. The 
streams are Deerfield river, which 
runs along the eafitem boundary in- 
to Massachusetts, and a branch of 
this river, which runs diagonally 
through the township from north- 
west to southeast. Theses streams 
afford several mill privileges. The 
||turnpike, from Benuiagtoa to Brai* 





tleborough, passes through the 
north part. There are here four 
schoolhouses, four saw and one 
grist mill, one store and three tav-i 
cms. Population, 1820,530. 

RiCHFORD, a jiost township in 
the northeast corner of Franklin 
county, is in lat, 44° 67' and long. 
4° 20', and is bounded north hv' 
Sutton, Can., cast by Jay, south by| 
Monjtgomery, and west by Bcrk-i 
shire. It lies 50 miles north fromi 
Montpelier, and 24 northeast from' 
St. Albans. It was granted March' 
l.>, 1780, £u:id chartered to Jonathan' 
Vv'ells and others, August $1, of the | 
same year, containing 23040 acres, t 
The eastern part of this township is^ 
high and broken. The southeast| 
corner extends on to Jay Peak.; 
1'he principal stream is Missisquej 
river, which enters the township 
from Canada near the northeast 
corner, and runs through it in a 
southwesterly direction into Berk- 
shire. Along the river is some fine 
interval. The settlement of this 
township was probably commenced 
about the year 1790. Population, 
1820, 440. 

RiCHMONi^, a post township in 
the central part of Chittenden 
county, is in lat. 44° 24' and long.! 
4°, and is bounded northerly by 
Jericho, easterly by Bolton, south- 
erly by Huntington, and westerly 
by VVilliston. It lies 13 miles south- 
east from Burlington, and 24 north- 
west from Montpelier. This town- 
ship was taken from the townships 
of Huntington, Williston and Jer- 
icho, and was incorporated by act 
of the Legislature, passed in Octo- 
lier, 1794. The town was organized 
in IVTarch 1795, and Joshua Cham- 
berlain was first town clerk. Amos 
Brownson, Esq. was the first repre- 
sentative, chosen the same year. 
Joel Brownson and James Farns- 
woith were the first justices of the 

peace. The first attempt to form a 
settlement here was made in 1775, 
by Amos Brownson and John Cham- 
berlian with their families; but 
they abandoned the township in the 
fall and did not return till the close 
of the revolutionary war. In the 
ispring ©f 1784, they returned ta the 
jfarms, on which they had made be- 
jginnings, accompanied by Asa and 
jjoel Brownson, Samuel and Joshua 
Chamberlain, James Holly, Joseph 
Wilson and Jesse McFaiplain. The 
religieus societies are, the Congre- 
gational con;«isting of 24 members, 
Baptist of 12, Freewill Baptist of 22, 
Christian of 8, and a Universalist 
society jnuch larger than either of 
the prejjgng. Elder Ezra Wilmot 
was oru^ued ,over the Baptist 
church, and continued several years. 
He was the first settled minister, and 
there was no other in town till Sep- 
tember 25, 1823, when Elder John 
Peck was settled over the* same 
church. There is a meetinghouse 
in the centre of the town, having 16 
sides with a handsome steeple rising; 
from the centre, and owned by the 
several denominations. Around the 
meetinghouse is a small village. 
The following are some of the most 
remarkable instancei^ of longevity, 
viz. deacon John Chamberlain, who 
died in 1805, aged 94 years, Amo3 
Brownson, Esq. in 1815, aged 84, 
Bigford Spooner, in 1819, aged 104, 
Daniel Bishop, in 1822, aged 86, 
and deacon James Stearns now liv- 
ing, aged 88 years. Doct. Matthew 
Cole was the first physician in town. 
lie died in 1812, and his brother 
Seth Cole is the present practicing 
physician. It is watered by Onion 
river, which runs through it in a 
westerly direction, and by Hun- 
tington river, which enters the 
township about the middle of the 
southern, boundary, and unites with 
Onion river east of the ceatre* 





liere are also several smaller 
'earns, on which mills are erected 
on^ Onion river the alluvial flats 
e extensive and beautiful. This 
wuship forms a very convenient 
atre, in which the meetinghouse 
situated. The stage road, from 
ontpelier to Burlington, passes a- 
Qg the north bank of Onion river, 
I which is a store, post office and| 
ro taverns in tliis township. The; 
wn is divided into seven or eight 
hool districts, and contains one 
ist, three saw, and one fulling mill, 
7o tanneries, three taverns, two 
ores and six blacksmiths. Fopula- 
on, 1820, 1014. ^ j. b. 

RiPTON, a township in Ad^on 
>unty,isinlat.44^ l',andisbovnd-! 
1 north and east by Avery*« gore.! 
mlh by Hancock and Goshen, and 
'est by Middlebury and Salisbury. 
: lies 26 miles southwest from! 

and others, August 30, 1781, con- 
taining 2.^040 acres. The settle- 
ment of this township was com- 
menced about the close of the rev- 
olutionary war. In the fall of 1822, 
the dysentery prevailed here to an 
alarming degree, particularly in the 
village. There were about 40 
deaths in the township in the period 
of two months. The physicians are 
Daniel Huntington and Retire 
Trask. Mason P. Mills, attorney. 
The religious denominations are 
CongTegationalists, Methodists, Uni- 
versalists and Baptists. The Rev^ 
Salmon Hurlhut was settled ove» 
the Congregational church in 1822« 
and still continues. They have a 
decent meetinghouse, which was e- 
rected in 1813. The two oldest 
persous, in this township, are Elia- 
kim Root and Seth Briggs, who are 
both between 96 and OS years of 

lontpelier ; was granted April 13,| age. The principal stream is White 
781, and chartered to Abel Thomp-'Iriver, which runs through the town- 

on and associates. Middleburyi 
iver runs through the south part,i 
ol, on this stream, is one saw mill! 
1 liipton, the only mill in town.' 
'he turnpike, from Rayalton to| 
ergennes, parses along the bank of i 
lis stream. The town is uaorgan-| 
ed, and the inhabitants, but few 
I number, mostly live along the' 
irnpike. The township is moun- 
^iuous' and broken. I'he north 
^rt of Goshen was annexed to it, 
I 1815. Population, 1820,42. I 
B,ocHESTKiii a post township iul 
^c northwest corner of Wmdsori 
»unty, is in lat. 43*^ 53' and long. 
* IV, and is bounded northerly by! 
r^intree and a smnll part of 
**^8ton, easterly by Bethel, south- 
^J by Pittsfield, and westerly by 
ancock. It lies 30 miles souili- 
®st from Montpelier, and 20 south- 
^«t from Middlebury. It was 
Wanted November 6, 1780, and 

Urtered to Hon. Dudley Chaceyiatioa. 1820, 1148 


ship from north to south. About 
half a mile south of the centre it 
receives a considerable tributary 
from the west, which originates ia 
Goshen. On each of these streams 
are good situations for mills. The 
tow^nship is mountainous and brok- 
en, but contains much good land. 
Thcr interval, along 'the river, is 
handsome, but not extensive. The 
timber is mostly hard wood inter- 
spersed with some spruce, hemlock, 
&c. There is a small but pleasant 
village situated near the centre <tf 
the township on the eastern bank pf 
White rjver, containing a meeting- 
house, and it is a place of some bu- 
siness. The town is divided inta 
13 school districts, 11 of which are. 
furnished with good schoolhouses. 
There are two grist, four saw an(^ 
two fulling miUs, one carding ma- 
chine, three stores, two taverns, one 
distillery and two taaneries. Popu- 

May^ 1S24. 

9> B. B/ 





RoCKiNOHAM, a post towa in 
the northeast corner of Windham 
county, is in lat 43^^ 11', and long. 
4^ 2!i', and is bounded north by 
Spring^eld east by Connecticut riv- 
er, which separates it fronl Charles- 
ton, N. H. south by Westminster 
and west by Grafton. It lies 85 
Iniles from Montpelier, 22 from 
Windsor, 25 from Brattleboroug^h, 
and. 455 from Washington, as the 
roads are travelled. It was char- 
tared December 28, 1752, contain- 
iag 24955 acres. The settlement 
of the township was commenced in 
1753 by Moses Wrigfht, Joel Bigelow 
^d Simeon Knig;ht, who emigra- 
ted from Massachusetts. The town 
was organized about the year 1760. 
The first town clerk was Joshua 
Webb, and he and John Roundy 
were the first representatives. 
But little is known of the early his- 
tory of this town. The attention of 
the first settlers was principally di- 
4^cted to fishing for salmon and 
shad, which were then taken in 
^reat abundance at Bellows^ fails. 
For this reason agriculture Was, for 
many years, much neglected, and 
the settlement advanced very slow- 
ly. Connecticut r'ver washes the 
eastern border of this township. 
Williams river runs through the 
central part, and unites with the 
Conn, about three miles north of 
fellows' falls. Saxton's river runs 
through the south part and falls in 
to the Connecticut a mile south of 
Bellows' falls, in the northeast cor- 
ner of Westminster. These streams 
^fibrda great number of valuable 
sites for mills. The surface of this 
.township is somewhat broken, but 
the soil is in general warm and 
productive. Bellows* Falls are in 
• Connecticut river near the south- 
east corner of this township. The 
bieadth of the river above the falls 
& frbm 16 to ^ tofy. A% tht fellB 

« large rock divides the stream into 
two channels, each about 90 feet 
wide. When the water is low the 
eastern appears crossed by a bar 
ofsolid rock, and the whole river 
flows into the Western channel, 
where it is Contracted to the 
breadth of 16 feet, and flows with 
astonishmg rapidity. There are 
several pitches,one above another 
for the distance of half a mile, the 
largest of which is that where the 
rotk divides the stream. Not- 
withstanding the velocity of the 
current, the salmon pass up this 
fall, and are taken many miles t- 
bove; but the shad are never ta- 
ken above here. In 1785, Col. 
Enoch Hale erected a bridge over 
the Connecticut at these falh. Its 
length was 365 feet and it was stip- 
ported in the middle by the great 
rock mentioned above. In 1792 
this was the only bridge across ftiat 
f treara, but there are now not lea 
than 20. The bridge here is about 
50 feet from the Water, and from it 
the traveller has an interesting and 
sublime view of the falls. The 
whole descent of the river at these 
falls is 42 feet. They are passed 
by a canal, on the Rockingfaam 
side, consisting of nine locks and are 
half a mile in length. Around these 
falls is an interesting locality of min- 
erals. The rocks are prtncipallj 
granite. There are also the follow- 
ing rare minerals, viz. trenoUte; 
prehnite, radiated in smtiU nodules 
of a greenish white color ; pinite, 
abundant in granite ; fluate of Ihneii 
few rods below the bridge, m gran- 
ite, and, also, one mile north west 
from the falls in quartz, crystalized 
massive and of a green color; oy- 
anite, or sappar« ; green iEmrbotoatb 
of copper in small quantities; 
made and indicolite. B^desthe 
above th^re are in the township al- 
lamiootts aad argiilaCeotks me, 





the latter of which is used for 
building and g^rarestones ; chlo- 
rite ; hornblende ; limpid and ra- 
diated quartz ; bitter spar ; jasper ; 
schorl ; ^mets ; zoisite ; angite, and 
sulphuret of iron. There are in this 
township several pleasant villages. 
Rockingham village is situated near 
the centre of the township and con- 
tains a meetinghouse and several 
handsome dwelling houses. JSel- 
lows Falls village is situated on the 
bank of the Connecticut at B^ows 
falls in the southeastern part of the 
township, and contains an elegant 
Episcopalian church, situated on an 
eminence which commands a fine 
and extensive view ; the extensive 
paper-making and printing estab- 
lishment of Blake, Cutler, &: co. at 
which is published the ^ Bellows 
Falls Intelligencer," a weekly pa- 
per by William Masters; a post 
office, four stores, one oil, one grist, 
one fulling and two saw mills. 
JSaxlorts River village is situated on 
the stream of that name ' in the 
8oath part of Rockingham and is 
very pleasant and flourishing. It 
was built and settled principally 
through the exertions of the active 
and enterprizing Roswell Bellows, 
Esq. This village contains an ele- 
gant meeting house, a post office, 
two carding machines, one grist, 
two saw and two fulling mills, one 
tannery, one forge, one furnace, one 
distillery, two woollen factories, 
one tavern, two stores, one law of- 
fice, and 45 dwelling houses. The 
grist mill in this village was built 
by Albee & Rusftell, and is equal to 
any in the state. Pop. 1820. 2155. 
Sepi, 1824. <, K. V. 

RoxBtrUT, a township in the 
south paK of Washington county, is 
in lat. 44"" 4' and long, 4^ 14', and is 
bo*inde(i north by Northfteld, east 
by Brookfield, south by Braintree 

It lies 15 miles southwesterly from 
Montpelier and 45 northwest from 
Windsor. It was granted Novem- 
ber 6, 1780, and chartered to Hon. 
Benjamin Cmmonds and others, 
Aug. 6, 1781, containing 23040 a- 
cres. The settlement of this town- 
ship was sommenced in 1789 by 
Christopher Huntington. He was 
originally from Mansfield, Conn., 
but resided a while in Norwich in 
this state previous to his moving 
into this township. Pie, like many 
other settlers of new townships, had 
to draw his effects several miles up- 
on a hand sled, and had many hard- 
ships to encounter. The town was 
organized in 1796. Thomas Hunt- 
ington was first town clerk and 
Zebadiah Butler first representative. 
The religious denominations are 
Freewill Baptists, Congregational- 
ists, Methodists, Baptists andUniver- 
salists. They have each a regular 
church, but are all dependant upon 
missioaaries or other itinerant 
preachers. The dysentery ^as ve- 
ry mortal here in the autumn of 
1823, particularly in tae northeast- 
ern part. This township is situa- 
ted on the height of land between 
Onion and \Vhite river and has 
consequently no large streams. 
The waters in the north part flow 
thtough Dog river into Onion riv- 
er, and those in the south part 
through Ayres' brook and the 
third branch, into White river. 
The surface of the township is un-! 
even, but the soil is well adapted to 
the production of grass, and in gen- 
eral yields good crops of grain. The 
timber is mostly hard wood, with 
some hemlock, spruce and fir. 
The rocks in the eastern part are 
argillaceous slate and abound with 
cubical crystals of the sulphuret of 
iron. There is a very small vil- 
lage in the northeast corner, on 

oy isrooKneia, soutb Dy uramtree jiage m tne nortneast corner, on a 
9Jl^ iUog^oa «ad west by Wu:rea.||irvicipal branch of Da^ nyar, coa*. 





taining one grist, one saw, one ful- 
ling and one clover mill, a mill for 
sawing stone, one school house, one 
blabksmith^s and one shoemaker^s 
shop, and several dwelling houses. 
There are in town seven school 
districts, four school houses, two 
physicians, two grist, four saw, one 
fulling and three clover mills. 
Population 1020, 512. H. B. 

July, 1824. 
RoYALTON, a post town in the 
north part of Windsor county, is in 
lat. 43° 49' and long. 4*^ 24', and is 
bounded north by Tunbridge, east by 
Sharon suoth by Barnard and "West 
by Bethel. It lies 31 miles south from 
Moutpelier, and 25 northwest from 
AVindsor. This township was orig- 
inally granted by New York to 
George Bangor, AVilliam Smith, 
Whitehead Hicks and John Kelly, 
knd was by them surveyed and al- 
lotted in 1770. The first perma- 
nent settlement was made in 1771 
by Mr. Robert Havens, who thlsj 
year moved his fumily into thei 
town. The next year he was join- 
ed in the settlement by Mr. IHisha 
Kent and family, and the inhabit- 
ants were so much increased in the 
course of a few years, that the town 
was organized. Comfort Seaver was 
the first town clerk. It was repre- 
sented in 1778, by Joseph Park- 
burst, at which ti^ne there were a- 
bout 50 freemen. It was not again 
represented till 1781, the town 
having taken exception to the pro- 
ceedings of the Legislature in rela- 
tion to a union witli a part of New- 
Hampshire. It being ascertained 
by the inhabitants, who had all 
purchased under the N. Y. charter, 
that the Legislature of Vermont 
was about to treat this township as 
vacant land aod grant it to Eliakim 
gpooner and others, the settlers ap- 
plied, and obtained a grant of the 
ll^nie, and \\x^ towoship was rechar- 

tered to Comfort Seaver, Esq. and 
jassociates Dec. 20, 1781. In 1780i 
'the settlement here consisted of a- 
Ibout 300 persons, and was in a ve- 
'ry thriving state. They had hard- 
ily secured the harvest of that year, 
;when thdy received a hostile visit 
ifrom the Indians, and the settle- 
jment was laid in ashes. In the be- 
I ginning of October an expedition 
I was planned against Newbury on 
.'Connecticut river, for the object, as 
was supposed, of capturing a Lieuti 
Whitcomb, who, in j3y 177fi, 
while on a scout, had wantonly shot 
Gen. Gordon, a British officer, be« 
tween Chambly and St. Johns, and 
robbed him of his watch and swords 
The British deeply resented this 
attack as unworthy of an officer^ 
and were desirous of getting Whit« 
comb into their power. The par- 
ty, consisting of about SOO meii» 
mostly Indians, was commanded by 
Horton, a British Lieutenant. 
While proceeding up Onion river, 
they fell in with several hunters^ 
by whom they were told that the 
people of Newbury were expecting 
an attack and were well prepared 
Tor defence. This information in<^ 
duced them to turn their attention 
towards Royalton. They accord- 
ingly proceeded up Steven'*s and 
jail branch and down the first 
branch of White river to Tan- 
bridge, where they lay in their en^ 
campment during the Sabbath anci 
on Monday morning, it being the 
16th of Oct. they commenced their 
depredations, at the house of Mr. 
John Hutchinson who lived near 
the line between Tunbridge and, 
Royaltou. After tnaking Mr. 
Hutchinson and his brother Abiiah 


prisoners, they proceeded to the 
house of Mr. Robert Havens, 
where they killed Thomas Pember 
and Elias Button. They then went 
to thQ bouse of Joseph Koeeliaodt 





71 and his father, and Simeon 
D, Giles Gibbs and Jona- 
own. Proceeding thence 
ouse of Mr. Elias Cttrtis, 
de him and John Kent, and 
ason prisoners. Thus far 
iness was conducted with 
test silence, and the prison- 
! forbid making* any potcry 
ain of death. They at 
rrived at the mouth of the 
where they made a stand, 
mall parties proceeded in 
. directions to pliHider the 
;s and bring in prisoners, 
time the alarm had become 
the inhabitants were flying 
y in every direction and 
ges filled the air with their 
ells. One party extended 
'^ages down the river into 

took two prisoners and 
tveral houses and bams. 

party proceeded up the 
ide prisoner of David VVal- 
oung lad who lived with 
tevens, plundered and set 
le GeneraFs house, and ad- 
in that direction about 
les, killing the cattle, and 
ng and setting fire to the 
3 as they passed. After 
ng their work of destruc- 
ey returned with their 
:o the place where they 
3ed their attack in the 
. From thii place they 
jd across the hill to Ran- 
irhere they encamped for 
t on the second branch of 
ver. In the course of the 

had killed two persons, ta- 
risoners, burnt upwards of 
s, and about the same num- 
irns, and killed about 150 
;attle and all the sheep and 
t fell in their way ; having 
no loss themselves and 
met with any opposition. 
3d, affrig^hted, and scattered 

from one another, the inhabitants 
could take no steps for their de- 
fence ; the alarm however soon 
spread, and a number of men im- 
mediately marched from Connect- 
icut river, and the adjacent towns ; 
by evening they amounted to sev- 
eral hundreds, and were collected 
at the place where the attack was- 
ifirst commenced. Here they or. 
ganized. themselves, and chose for 
their commander a captain John 
House, who had served several 
campaigns in the ccmtinental ar- 
my. House began his march with 
this undisciplined but brave corps, 
in quest oi the savage army, who 
by this time were encamped 3even 
or eight miles ahead. With great 
zeal they began their march in a 
dark nighty in almost n tracklessf 
wilderness, guided by a few mark- 
ed trees amidst the logs, rocks, and 
hills, with which the country a- 
bounded ; and continued the pur- 
suit witli ardor till they arrived at 
the place where the last houses 
had been btimt. Apprehensive 
that they were near the enemy, 
they now proceeded with more 
caution. The Indians had placed 
their sentries nearly half a mile in 
their rear. At the place where 
they had crossed the last stream, 
there was a large log which served 
as a bridge for foot passengers ; and 
a few rods from the river there was 
a small rise of land, and a number 
of large trees by the side of the 
path. The Indian sentries were 
posted behind these trees. Some 
of House^s army were on horscr 
back, and some on foot. The front 
guard had passed the log, and the 
enemy^s sentries ; and about one 
third part of the main body, had 
got across the stream. When the 
van had arrived within a few yards 
of the Indian sentries they were fir- 
ed upon, and one man was wountK 





eJ : Some of the Americans return- 'they returned to their own habitfr 

edthe fire, killed one of the In 
disins, and wounded one or two 
more. The g^uards then ran off to 
the Indian camp, and House^s armr 
proceeded on a little further and 
formed themselves, waiting for the 
day light, within three hundred 
yards of the Indian camp. Great 
consternation new prevailed among 
the 8ava|;es. Much fatigued, and 
in a profound slumber after one of 
their ravenous suppers, the alarm 
filled them with terror and confusion. 
They soon however concerted 
means for their own safety ; nor 
were they deficient in the arts of 
policy. They sent out one of their 
prisoners, an aged man, to inform 
the Americans that if they proceed- 
ed to attack them, they would in- 
ftantly put all the prisoners to 
death. To two of them, the ex- 
pectation of an attack had already 
proved fatal. One of the prisoners, 
expecting the Americans would re- 
lieve them, refused to march ; an- 
other was doomed to be a victim on 
account of the Indian that had been 
slain ; their €avage masters toma- 
hawked and scalped them, as they 
lay bound on the ground: And 
their warriors took their station to 
cover tlie retreat. Having taken 
these measures they immediately 
crossed the stream, proceeded up 
the west side, some distance into 
Randolph, took one prisoner, pass- 
ed through the west part of Brook- 
field, went to Onion river, and in 
that way to St. Johns and Montre- 
al. House and his men were wait- 
ing for the da-^n of day, and de- 
liberating on the message brought 
them by the prisoner, till the ene 
my were all gone from their camp. 
They proceeded about five miles 
further to Brookfield, where they 
found all quiet; judging it to be 
JA vain to .make further pursuit, 

tions, having lost the opportonitj 
'of attacking the enemy to tdvis- 
Itage, by their caution and delay. 
jOn their march to Canada, tfat 
prisoners were not treated with as* 
verity. With respect to profii» 
'ions, they fiire^ as well as their 
masters. When they arrived it 
; Montreal, a British colonel boogjit 
several of them at the price of ejgiit 
'dollars a head. Of the twenty lii 
'that were carried away, one died ii I 
Icaptivity, the rest were liberated I, 
and returned to their friendi tHr 

next summer. In their ^''"^.^ 1^ 
itues and exertions, in the bospita]i< I 
ty and kindness of their neighbeo 1 ^ 
-and friends, the worthy bat di8ti» 1 j^ 
!sed inhabitants of Royalton fyad J 
'relief and support, through a k^| 
'and tedious winter."* In l781,tli 
inhabitants having mostly retail* 
ed, the town was again repreaenijd 
!in the General Assembly, byEte 
! Stevens, and this year the toff^ 
{ship was rechartered as alreadjn* 
lated. The most nomeroos reli|^ 
'society in this town is the Coogn* 
Igational. There is, however, art* 
spcctable number of MethodWi 
land some Baptists. The IUf< 
'John Searle was the first setflrf 
minister. He was ordained of* 
the Congregational ehurchlnlTlft 
{and died in 1787 or 88. In ITM 
'the Rev. Azel Wadibum was »- 
dained in his place, and diniiM^ 
in 1792. The Rev. Martin TuDf 
was ordained in 1794 and died ii 
1813. The Rev. Ebeneier Hil- 
ping was ordained in 1818 anddii- 
missed in 1823. The J2er. Jei# 



*For several ctariotu «*«**J|i 

\connected with the depredations i^M I 

tRoyalttmy and offemcUe AerotiHi* 

Williams History of Vermofd^V^ 

II p. 239. See aUo, SteeWs "ij 

count of the B^minj^ 9f fOnftdta^ 






orrey, the present minister, was 
rdained in Angust 1824. Their 
leetinghouse is in the village near 
le centre of the township and was 
rected in 1792 and 1793. It is a 
ommodioas building, in good re- 
air and has a handsome cupola, 
dded in 1823. The surface of the 
)wn9hip is somewhat broken and 
lountainous, but the soil is good, 
articularly along wbite river, and 
a branches, where it it of a supe- 
ior quality. White river runs 
iirough the township in an easter- 
f direction aud receives here its 
rst and second branch, which 
re the only streams of much con- 
sqaence. Roytilton village is 
leaaantly situated on the bank of 
Vhit« river, about half way be- 
ween the mouths of the first and 
Msond branches, and near the cen- 
re of the township. It contains an 
dQg;ant meetinghouse, an academy, 
two attorniets, viz. John Francis 
md Jacob CoUamer ; one physi- 
lian,Tiz. Joseph A. Denison, four 
rtoreft, two taverns, a respectable 
lumber of meohanic^s shops, a num- 
k>er of handsome dwelling houses 
and about 300 inhabitants. Roy- 
Hilton Academy was incorporated 
in 1807 and located here. The 

first building was accidentally 
Consumed by fire. A good build- 
ing has since been erected, which 
Is pleasantly situated upon a 
lianasome common. The school 
is flourishing, under able instruc 
ters, with^ from 40 to 60 scholars. 
The town'contains 13 school hous- 
es, three grist, four saw and three 
'foiling mills, four carding macdiiives, 
lour stores, four taverns, two dis- 
tilleries and four tanneries. Pop 
tUation 1820, 1816. r. c. 

October, 1824. 
RirpifiRT, a post township in the 
Vestem part of Bennington county, 
Jk ia leiU 43^ 15' and long. 3^ GO', 

and is bounded north by Pawlet« 
east by Dorset, south by SandgatCii 
and west by Hebron, N. Y. It lies 
26 miles north from Bennington, and 
78 southwest from Montpelier. It 
was chartered August 20, 1761, 
containing 23040 acres. This town- 
ship was settled very early, but Wf 
have obtained no account of its his* 
tory. It is watered by Pawlet riv- 
{er, which passes through the north* 
east corner, and by White creekt 
which originates here in several 
branches, and runs southwesterly 
into Battenkill river in Washing- 
ton county, N. Y. The surface of 
the township is uneven, and the 
eastern part mountainous. It is a 
very good farming township, and is 
divided into 11 or 12 school districts. 
It also contains a meetinghouse and 
a number of mills and other ma- 
chinery. Population, 1820, 1332. 

RVTLAND, a post town and capital 
of Rutland county, is in lat. 43^ 
37' and long. 4°i and is bounded 
north by Pittsford, east by Parkers- 
town, south by Clarendon, and west 
by Ira. It lies 50 miles southwest 
from Montpelier, 60 south from 
Burlington, and 52 northeasterly 
from Bennington. It was chartered 
September 7, 1761, and contains, 
according to the words of the char- 
ter, ** exclusive of pon^s, rivers, 
rocks, &c., something more than 
26000 acres of land.'' The length 
of the north li^e is seven i^iles 4od 
a half, that of the east line, five and 
a half, the south line, six and three 
quarters, and the west, fiVe milei( 
and a half. The original proprie- 
tors of the township mostly resided 
in New-Hampshire, none of whooi 
ever located tlieinselves permanent- 
ly in Rutland. Some of the earliest 
surveys were made in the spripg of 
1770. Among the earliest proprie- 
tor's records now to be found in the 
town clerk's office, is one bearings 





date 2d i'uesday of October, 1770. 
Notliing^ is known in the early his- 
tory of the towusliip to distinguish 
it from the other towns in its Ticin- 
ity. During^ the war of the revo- 
lution, it was, for some time, a| 
frontier town, and was subject to 

Porter, John CleTeland, Joel Green, 

David Reed and Sheldon. The 

attomies are Messrs. R obert Temple, 
Moses Strong^, Wm. Pag^e, Reubea 
R. ThralU Ambrose L. Brown and 
Rodney C. Royce. The principal 
stream is Otter creek, which eaten 
all the commotions and inconven-jithe township, about the middle of 
icnces incident to its situation, lithe south line, and leaves it aboat 

Through it lay the only military 
road from Charlestown, N. H., to 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point, on 

lake Champlain. During the war,4iare West river, rising* in Tinmoath; 

the Vermont troops, or Green 
J\Tountai7i Boys^ erected here two 
small picket forts, sulficient to con- 
tain about 100 men each. One of 
them was situated on the gi-ouud 
occupied by the .present village in 
the cast ):arish about 12 rods north 
of the spot where the court-house 
now stands. Some of the stumps 
4ire still remaining in the highway, 
fiovered with earth, and also a well 
sunk for the accommodation of the 
garrison. The other fort was sit- 
uated at the head of the falls in 

the middle of the north line, cutting 
it into two nearly equal parallelo- 
grams. Tributary to this strets, 

and East creek, one of wboN 
■branches takes its rise in Chittes- 
•den, and the other in Farkerstown, 
'the latter of which enters Otter 
icreek one mile above Gookin*s &lhi 
jand the former about 40 rods be- 
llow. In addition to these, then 
.are two other streams oflessmigBK. 
jtude, flowing in above East creek; 
jon the right bank, the first of whidi, 
;near the south line, is Cold rirffi 
jthe other, one mile and a half be* 
low, is the confluent stream fomed 
^by the imion of the Moon vA 

Otter creek, then called Mead's jMussey brooks, so called. Netf: 
falls. No traces of its position arc ;the northwest comer of the town- 
no w remaining. As a mean of jship, on the north line, anotbv 
checking the incursions of the en- 1 -stream, called Castleton riva,0i- 

emy and of facilitating the commu- 
nications between the eastern part of 
the state and lake Champlain, these 
forts Were found to be very useful. 
The religious denominations are 
'Congregationalists, Episcopalians, 
Baptists and Methodists. T^here 
are two Congregational societies,' 
one in each parish, each of which 
lias a large and commodious meet- 
ing house. TTiat, in the east parish, 
is of brick, that, in the west, of 
wood. The ministers of this order 
are the Rev» Charles Walker in the 
cast parish, installed January 1, 
1823, and the Rev. Amos Drewry^ia 
the west parish. There are no set- 
tled ministers in the other societies. 
The physicians arc Docts. James 

Iters, and, after pursuing^ a 8ontba^ 
jly course about three miles, tom 
•to the right, and passes off into In* 
iOn all of these streams are oon- 
jvenient sites for mills and other 
-machinery, most of which are al- 
ready occupied. Among the matt 
eligible, are two on Otter credt, 
one at Southerland's ialls, where 
there are a saw and grist mill, and 
the other at Gookin^s falls, (former- 
ly called Mead's falls,) where then 
are also a saw mill and grist BuUf 
together with a woollen fiictorr ; 
and a paper mill is erecting apon an 
extensive scale, and ' nearly ooB- 
pleted. The soil of this towxufaip 
presents all the varieties from heavj 
loam to a light eand^ the casteni 





balfappearing^ to be chiefly of prim- Ijoiners' and cabinet makers' shops, 

nice formaiion^ while that of the 
western ia trajuition and iecondary. 
Among^ the useful minerals, are 
found considerable quantities of 
iron, superior clay for bricks,* and 
an abundance of lime in almost ail 
its various primitive forms. In the 
west part several qu&rries of very 
beautiful White and clouded g;ran- 
Qlar limestone have been opened, 
and from which fire places, monu- 
ments and other useful and orna- 
mental articles are manufactured, 
both for domestic use, and for the 
New-York and other markets. 
These quarries are in the same 
rang^ with those in the western 
parts of Berkshire county, Mass., 
a(nd in Benning;ton, Manchester, 
Dorset, Tinmouth, Clarendon, Pitts- 
ford, Brandon, Middlebury and 
New-Haven, in Vermont. The nat- 
ural productions are the beech, 
birch, maple, ash, elm, oak and 
pine, together with a numerous 
class of other veg^etable produc 
tions. This township is divided 
into two parishes, denominated, the 
etttt and west parish. In the east 
pariah is the principal villag;e, con- 
taining^ 92 dwelling-houses, three 
taverns, eleven merchants* shops, 
including; one bookstore, one print- 
ing; office, at which is published the 
** Rutland Herald," a weekly paper, 
by William Fay, two saddlers' shops, 
four, blacksmiths' shops, six house 

♦ ** Pipe ehxy^ suHable for cru^ 
MiibUs^ u not found in this tmony <u 
.rikUedby Doct. Morse. A single local' 
iiy was discovered.^ many years since^ in 

two tanneries, one schoolhouse, on< 

meetinghouse, one 



Hall, and a court-house.. Here, 
the principal part of the publie 
business of the county is transacted, 
there being held one session of the 
Supreme Court, two sessions of the 
County Court, annually a Probate 
Court, every month, and two ses- 
sions, yearly, of the United States 
federal courts. In the west parish 
also are two considerable villages, 
containing; from 15 to 20 dwelling;, 
houses, each. In that near the 
meetinghouse, besides that edifice, 
are two stores, two tanneries, two 
taverns, one marble factory, and 
two blacksmiths' shops. In the oth- 
er, at Gookins' falls, are a com and 
saw mill, a paper mill, one distillery, 
one tavern, two stores, and one 
blacksmith's shop. The town is 
also divided into 13 school districts^ 
in each of which is a commodious 
schoolhonse, and in all of them, 
English schools are kept throug;h 
the winter months, and in those lo« 
cated in the villag;es, the schools are 
maintained throughout the year. 
Population, 1820, 2369. 

October, \H24. j, o. 

RvTLANB CoirifTT, is Situated 
on the west side of the Green Moun- 
tains, and is bounded north by Ad- 
dison county, east by Windsor 
county, south by Bennington coun- 
ty and west by Washington county, 
N. Y. It lies between 43® 18' and 
43° 54' north lat and between 3® 
37', and 4° 15' east long, being 42 
miles long from north to south, and 
34 wide from cast to west, con- 

:ihe bank of East creek, but the quan* /taining 958 square miles. It 

tity in the bed was small, and has 
long since been washed out by the 
floods. Repeated examinations have 
been made since the first discovery, 
but without succeeding in detecting 
taty thing of that substance, 



incorporated in February 178|. 
Rutland, situated near the centre of 
the county, is the seat of justice. 
The Supreme Court commences its 
session here on the Tuesday next 
after the 4th Tuesday of January; 





the County Court on the first Mon-jiBftlb, in Grafton county, N. H., 
day uf June and 2d Monday of De-' and contains 20492' c,«£re8, or 3:^ 
oember. The United States^ Cir-'jsquare ibiles. It is 33 littles easter- 
^uit Court sits here annually ou:;ly from Montpelicr, 58 miles north- 
the 3d and the District Court onijerly from Windsor, and 150 north- 
the 6th day of October. There; westerly from Boston, eb the roads 
are several other pleasant villag^esijare travelled. This township was 
in this county, of -which Castleton'ja New-Hampshire g^ant, and was 
is the roost important. Otter jjchai-tered Septembers, 1763. Rye- 
creek flows through the county i 'gate was originally settled from 
form south to north and is the prin-jiScotland. A company was formed, 
cipal stream. Black, White andjiin 1772, by a number of fanners in 
Queechy rivers^ all originate in the .the shires of Renfrew and Lenark, 

eastern part, and flow easterly in- 
to Connecticut river. Pa wlet river 
runs across the southwest corner 
and Poultney, Castleton and Hub- 
bardton rivers water the western 
part. Along Otter creek and in 
the southwestern part of the coun- 
ty, the surface is level and hand- 
sokne and the soil of the first quali- 
ty. The remaining parts are hilly! 

for purchasing a tract .of land for a 
settlement in North America, and' 
1000/. sterling raised to defray the 
expense. In March, 1773, Mr. 
David Allen and James Whitelnw, 
Esq., were sent by the company to 
explore the country and purchase 
such a tract of land as their funds 
would permit. After examimng 
much of the country, they purchased 

and broken, but the soil is warmj !the sodth half of the town of Rye- 
and well adapted to the production! Igate, and immediately gave notice 
of grass and grain. A range of thereof to their constituents, b 
granular limestone passes through the spring and summer of 1774, a 
the county from south to north a-| number of families and several 

long Otter creek, in which a great| 
number of quarries of excellentj 
marble have been opened and; 

young men came over and com- 
menced a settlement. Aaron Hos- 
mer and family were the only per- 
wrought. Along the foot of the! jsons in town previous to this time. 

Green Mountains beds of excellent 
iron ore have been found in sever- 
al places, particularly in the town-| 
ships of Tinmouth, Pittsford and 
Brandon* The county extends o- 
verthe height of the Green Moun- 
tains through the whole length of 

In 1775, 60 persons left Scotland to 
settle in Ryegate. But unfortunate- 
ly for them^ before they arrived, 
the revolutionary war had com- 
menced, and they were detained in 
Boston by Gen. Gage, who gave 
them their choice^ either to join the 

the eastern boundary. The Grand iBritish army, go to Nova Scotia, or 

List of the county for 1823, was 

^364081. Population 1020, 29975* j 

Ryegate, a post township in the; 

southeast corner of Caledonia coun-j 

Canada, or return to Britain. Some 
of them settled in Nova-Scotia, bdt 
they generally returned to Scot- 
land ; so that no addition was made 

ty, situat^ii in lat. 44^^ 12' and long, jto the settlement during the revo- 
4^ 50', is bounded north by'lution. But they, who had settled 
Bar net, east by Connecticut river,! Ipreviously^maintained their ground, 
siouth by Newbury, in the county of [After peace was concluded, in 17^ 

Orange, and west by Groton. It lies 

<$rectly opposite to the township ofl a number of yeare^ among which 

a few families arrived, annually, for 





a female charitable society, each 
membsr of which pays annually 

were one UiJoiily which had returorj 
edto Scot&nd.from Boston, and two 

youn^ men who had gone to Nova-] 52 cents for religious purposes, and 
Scotia, in 1775. These were all of j a library society with a small, but 
the 60 mentioned above, who everi well chosen library. The inhabit- 
arrived^at Ryegate. There is still ants are mostly employed in agri- 
now and then a family, or young' culture, and are industrious and 
man from Scotland to join the set- jfrugal. Their dress is pi*incipally 
tlement. Nearly two thirds of the] 'the product of their own wheels 
inhabitants of this township are of||and looms. The surface of this 
Scotch descent. They still, in a[ township is uneven. In the north and 

gpreat measure, follow the habits, and 
subsist upon the diet to which they 
"were accustomed in Scotland. They 
introduced the method of manufac- 
turing oat meal into the country, 
which was a great benefit to the in- 
habitants during the cold seasons. 

east part it is hilly and ledgy. Near- 
ly all of it, however, is fit for past- 
ure, and a large proportion of it 
arable land. There are only three 
small tracts of interval on Connect- 
icut river in this town. The soil, 
near the river, is principally clay, 
between 1810 and 1817. In those; In other parts of the township, it is 
seasons, about 8000 bushels of oats! a chocolate colored loam, and in the 

^ were annually made into meal in 
this town, and about as many in 
Barnet. They also annually hull 
several hundred bushels of barley, 
which they use for broths, soups, 
puddings, &c. About ten tons of 
butter are yearly sent to market 
from this town, besides what is 
made for home consumption. From 
the first settlement of the town it 
was occasionally supplied' with 
preaching, by the presbytery and by 
neighboring Congregational clergy- 
men. In the year 1800, the Reo, 
William Gibson^ of ths Scotch Re- 
formed Presbytery, was settled in 
this town, and was the first settled 
minister. He relinquished his con- 
nection with the church in 1816, 
and the town was without a settled 
minister till 1818, when the Rev. 
James Mdligan was settled over the 

.^ Reformed society, and still con- 
tinues their pastor. There is an- 
other Presbyterian church, in town, 
over which the Ren. Thomas Far- 
rier was settled in September, 1822. 
There are some persons of other 
denominations, but these are the' 
ooly churches in town. There arej 

western part, very rich, producing 
all kinds of grain, and garden veg- 
etables in abundance, but pecu- 
liarly adapted to grass. In 1822, 
there were, in the town, 132 horsei, 
and 1090 cattle of two years old 
and upwards, and 3009 sheep. 
Ticklenaked pond lies in the south 
part of the town, and covers 64 
acres. It discharges its waters by 
a stream, which carries a saw mill, 
and running south, falls into Wells' 
river a litUe south of Newbury 
line. JSTorth pond, in the north 
part of the town, discharges its 
waters to the east into Connecticut 
river. On its outlet are two saw 
mills. Connecticut river, upon the 
eastern boundary of this town, is a* 
bout 24 rodsjwide. At Canoe FaXls^ 
against the middle of this town, 
there is a dam across this river, and 
a grist and saw mill on the Ryegate 
side. Just below the fall is Neil- 
son's ferry. Nearly opposite to the 
southeast corner of the town, the 
Great Ammonoosic river in New- 
Hampshire, enters the Connecticut. 
About half a mile above, are the 
Narrows^ where the whole river is 





contracted to a breadth of only 80 
feet. Jus^ above the narrows is a 
swift bar, and the course of the riv- 
er nearly east, but it turns suddenly 
south throu^Ii the narrows where it 
is remarkably deep and still at low 
water. The ledge, which forms the 
east side, is a long ridge, called thej 
Middle, extending from Gardner's 
mountain, and is not more than four 
rods broad. In very hiffh floods 
the water passes over this ridge 
near the mountain. Below it, the 
river immediately assumes its usual 
width. JVells^ river runs between! 
three and four miles in this town,| 
through the southwest part. It is' 
about four rods wide, and aflbrdsj 
many excellent mill seats. The 
rest of the town is well watered 
with small streams. Blue mountain^ 
titrated about a mile northwest of 
tU.2 centre, is the only one in town. 
'i'liis mountain is composed of gran- 
ite, and affords inexliaustible quar- 
ries of mill stones, &c. Limestone 
is abundant in many parts of the 

'of births, for some years past, has 
I been about 36, and the annual num- 
iberof ^eaths« seven or eight. Pop- 
ulation, 1820, 993. J. w. 
October^ 1823. 
Sauem, a township in the north- 
eastern part of Orleans county, is in 
lat. 44° 54 and long. 4^ 46', and is 
bounded north by Derby, northeast 
by Morgan, southeast by Navy, aad 
southwest by Brownington and 
Coventry. It lies 50 miles north- 
east from Montpelier, was granted 
Nov. 7, 1780, and chartered Au- 
gust 18, 1781 to Col. Jacob Da- 
vis and others, containing 17330 a- 
cres. I'he settlement of the town- 
ship was commenced by Ephraim 
Blake in March 1798. Amasa 
Spencer came into town in 1801, 
and David Hopkins, jr. in 1802. 
The town was organized April 30* 
1822, and Samuel Blake was first 
town clerk. Clyde river ruDS 
through the township in a north- 
westerly direction, and falls into 
Salem Pond, alias Derby pond, 

town. The timber is beech, maple,^ which is partly in this township 

hemlock, spruce, and, near the riv- 
er and ponds, white pine and oak. 
Two great roads lead through this 
town. The road, from Newbury to 
Peacham, Danville, Greensbbrough, 
&c., called Hazen^s road, runs nine' 
miles almost diagonally through the' 
town, in a northwesterly direction,' 
and the Passumpsic turnpike runs 
more than six miles through, the 
cast part, along Connecticut river. 
There is a good meetinghouse, sit- 
uated near the centre of the town. 
The town is divided into eight 
school districts with a schoolhouse 
in each ; and in March, 1823, there 
were 435 scholars between four 
years of age and 18. There are, 
in town, two ministers, one physi- 
cian, one store, three taverns, seven 
law mills, three grist mills and a 
IgUing n^* The aonual number 

and partly in Derby. There u no 
other stream of consequence, and 
no mills nor mill privileges in town. 
There are two other ponds, vffioe of 
which lies in the course of Clyde 
river, and the other on the line be- 
tween this township and Brownug;- 
ton and they are each about one 
mile in length and three fourths of 
a mile in breadth. South bay of 
lake Memphremagog extends into 
the west corner of the township. 
The surface of the township is gen- 
erally level and the soil good. 
The timber is principally maple, 
beech, birch, ash, hemlock, spruce, 
fir, cedar and pine. There are 
three school districts but no school- 
houses. Population 1820, 80. 
JVbv. 1823. D. H.jr. 

Salisbury, a small post town- 
ship in the central part of Addison 





county, is in lat. 43*^ 55' and long- lithnt no path or foot steps were to 

3^ 53' and is bounded norlh by ijbe seen leading* to tlieir subterrane- 

Middlebury, east by Goshca, south jous abode. The f unily of Abel 

by Leicester, and west by Corn-'|VVaterhouse "was the second in 

Wall and Whitin*. It lies 34 mil'^^' town. The religious denoinina- 

south west from Montpelier, 40 1 lions are Con^regationalists and 

south from Burlin^on, and was ; Methodists. The Congregational 

chartered Nov. 3, 176L The fir-jt jchurch consists of about 40 mem- 

jperson who came into this town-' bers and has a meetinghouse which 

ship with a view of settling was; 

Amos Story. He built a loa;jr hut 

was built about 1304. The Rev. 

Rufus Pomeroy was settled over 
'which was consumed by fire amljlthis church, September 15, 181J, 
lie himself wss killed by the falli'but the church is now destitute. 
€>f a tree before his family moved Washington Miller is the only phy- 

licre. Thomas Skeelos and A- 

"bel Waterhouse, were the two 

next to make beginnings. 

Tho widow of Mr. Story, and 8 orj 

sician. Otter creek forms the west- 
ern boundary of this township, 
f'he other streams are Middlebury 
river, which touches upon the north 

10 small children were th^ first! part, and Leicester river which wa- 
faHjily which moved into town, audi ters the southern part. Lake Dun- 
Mrs. Story was consequently enti-jjmore is about four miles long and 
tied to 100 acres of land, by a vote, from half to three fourths of a mile 
of the original proprietors. She; wide, and lies partly in this town- 
came into the tovrn the 2'2d day of||ship, atid partly in Leicester. On, 
February, 1775. She endured al-;|tlie outlet of this pund, called Leices- 
most- every hardship, laboring in,iter river, are several falls which 
the field, chopping down timber' afford some fine mill privileges, a- 
and cultivating: the^ round which, near the south line of 

this township, is a thriving little 
village containing about 30 families, 
two saw mills, one. grist mill with 
three run of stones, one shovel fac- 

and clearing 

soil. She retreated several times! 

to Pittsford during tho revolution, 

on account of the danger appre- 

Bended irom the enemy, but at 

length she and a Mr. Stevens pre-> tory, on6 carding machine, one 

pared themselves a safe retreat. 

This was effected by digging a hole 
horizontally into the bank, just a- 
^ove the water of Otter creek, bare- 

jclothie^'s Works, one clover mill, 
one store, one cotton factory, two 
blacksmiths* shops, onetanncry and 
three shoemakers. The surface of 

^y sufficient to admit one person at a this township is somewhat uneven, 
^ttie. This passage led to a spa- 
^'ous lodging room, the bottom 
^^ which was covered with straw, 
^•tid upon this their beds were laid 
^r the accommodation of the fami- 
^^8. The entrance was concealed 
^^ bushes which hung over it from 
^e bank above. They usually re- 
•i red to their lodgings in the dusk 
tf the evening, and left them be- 
^re light in the morning, and this 
*^9a effected by means of a canoe 90 


but tho soil is generally good. The 
eastern part extends on to the Greea 
Mountains. In the western part, are 
some fine tracts of meadow. In the 
mountain east of lake Dunmoreis a 
cavern which consists of a large 
room and has the appearance of hav- 
ing been inhabited by the Indians, aa 
their arrows and other instruments 
have been found here. There are 
several considerable swamps, which 
furnish cedar for fencing and •ther 


The timber- ia maplr 
beecb, oak, pine, cedar, Sui. The 
!tnj;e road from Ratlaud la Middle- 
bury pnaaii through the villnge in 
this towDihip. I be town 19 divided 
iota five ichoul iliBlricla sjid con- 
tiiui lour tchoolhausea. Fop. 1B2U, 

Saltish— Name altered to Fly- 
moutb, Febmary 33, 1797. See 
Plymouth. I 

aASDCATK, a townfhip in Ihe, 
lfeettr[i puit of Bennington coun-1 
ty, la in lut. 43= Iff and long. 3^ 
60', Biitl ia bounded north by Ru- 
pert, fast by Mancheiler, south hj 
Ariiegton uud wtat by SfiUoi, N. 
Y. It lies SO Didea Dorlb froin 
Bennington, 3i »oulhwest Iron 
Bullaiid, and WSa chartered Au 
^UftlB, 1761. ThenuifacE ofthi. 
townehip is very broken and moun 
lainouG. Tbe most contiderabli 
elevationa are ^hettar. cic t-aii Buld 
monntaiii in the norlUneit cor 
Spruce and a purt of EquI 
mountain in Ibe nortbeasteru part, 
Red moanlnin in the loulheai" 
purt and Sweuring hill in the 

The I 

ire all 
■mail, QonMiling; oraeveral brinch- 
e» o[ Batienkill river, and ofWhite 
creek, and tne mill pri«ilegi 
few. The town it divided into 
I school diBlricla, and 

9 the I 


lla and other machinery. Fo| 

Etven, is formed i 
■ I of sever 

ISa), 11B5. 


raftoii by 
elreamB from Windhi 
ning au eaalerly course aboui lei 
luilei through the south part o 
Rackinghaai, falls into Connect! 
cut river ia the northeuat corner o 
'VVeetmineleT, about olie mile belov 
Bellowt' Falls. It deriiei ita nani' 
from a Mr. Saxton, who wb», ma 
n; jeara liuce, drowned Dcac it 

fmall township 
in the eastern part of Bennili;toa 
rounty, i> in lat 43^ 46' and Ion;. 
4° 2, and is bounded north by 
Sonierset, east by Wihnipgton, 
■oulb by Readsborough and vregl 
by Wnodford, It IJee 11 milei eul 
Irom BenningloD and 17 treel froia 
Brat tie borough. It irai granleil 
md chrirlered to WilIiaiD Williaim 
md other?, Feb. 23, 17BI, cnn- 
niLing l«240 acres. Detr' " 
iver enters this lowmhip 
Somerset, and, afterpassing ai 

■aai line into Witmitigton. II lies 
iiostlj upon the Green Mountaias 
lud the greatest part of il ia idc^' 
pnble of bfiog settled. Hayslack 

onntaln lies partly in the nolth- 

lit corner. Fop. 1820, 9. 

SiiAROR, a post tewneiiip in tiie 

north part of Windsor county, ii 

lat. 43° ■I?' and long. 4° 3r,flfl(l 

bounded north by SlraBbrd, eait 
hj Jiorwich, south by Pomfrtt, 
ind west by Rojallon. It lier ■' 
iiilei north from Windsor aod H 
iGUtheast from Montpeliifr. Il 
ffua chartered August 17, 1761, 
.■ontaining aatSo Acrtr. Tbe set- 
liement of this township was com- 
menced about the jesr l'e3 bj - 
uDigranta from Connecticul. Ai 
near Bi can be ascertained Kobert 
Havens and family wer« the first 
iclio wintered in the tonoihip. 
The town was organized March 8, 
ITOa, and Benjnojio Spalding wsl 
tirst town clerk. Tlie religioal 
deliominatiooa are, Congregalion- 
ulials. Baptists, and Melhodisli. 
The Congregational is the oiilf 
regular church and waia organi»il 
Seplembtr U, 1702. The Rti. 
Laibrbp Thouipsofl was Ihe Gnl 
kitlird raiui>,ter, and was arduiixil 
over Ihis.churcfa, Utc. 3, l7Ht I 

!ed Mnrih 
''Tbe Rev.HatnutlBaictim, the, 

l7Ht I 





ent minister, was ordained IVfarch 
12, 1806. Mr. Joel Marsh was 
the first settler on White river 
in Sharon, and was 40 years a jus- 
tice of the peace. The physicians 
are Josiah Frink and Albee South- 
ard. Samuel Shuttleworth, attor- 
ney. White ri\rer runs through 
this township in an easterly direc- 
tion and affords a number of valu- 
able mill privileges. On one of 
these near the centre are erected 
an excellent saw and grist mill, and 
•n another towards the eastern 
part is a ptlper mill and some other 
machinery. There are several 
smaller streams on which mills arc 
erected. The surface of the town- 
ship is very uneven and broken, 
but the soil is good, producing fine 
crops of corn, grain and grass. The 
Congregational meetinghouse, sit- 
uate near the centre, is the only 
one in town. Around the meeting- 
house is a pleasant and flourishing 
little village, lying on the bank 
of White river, and containing a- 
bout 20 dwelling houses, and a va- 
riety of mills, mechanic's shops, &c. 
There are in town 13 school dis- 
tricts and school houses, three grist, 
seven saw, one paper and one ful- 
ling mill, one carding machine, two 
stores, four taverns, one distillery, 
and one tannery. Population 
1820, 1431. 8. s. jr. 

August, 1824. 
Sheffield, a township in the 
north part of Caledonia county, is 
in lat. 449 57', and long. 4^ 4l\ 
and is bounded northeast by Glov- 
er and a part of Barton, easterly by 
Sutton, and south and southwest by 
Wheelock. It lies 35 miles north- 
east from Montpelier, and 40 miles 
north from Newbury. This township 
was granted November 7, 1780, 
containing 22607 acres. The set- 
tlement of this township was com- 
menced about the year 1 792« The 

townshig lies on the height of lands 
which separates the waters which 
flow into Connecticut river from 
ithose which flow into the lakes. 
It is watered by some of the head 
' branches of the Passumpsic and al- 
!so of Barton river. In the north 
;part are several small ponds. The 
streams here afford several good 
-mill privileges, some of which are 
'occupied. Population 1820, 581. 
I Shelbitrn, a post township in 
;the western part of Chittenden 
county, is in lat. 44^^ 23' and long. 
;3^ 45', and is bounded north by 
Burlington, east by St. George, 
;8outh by Charlotte, and west by 
lake Champlaiu. It lies 33 miles 
west from Montpelier and 26 miles 
'northwesterly • from Middlebury. 
It was chartered August 18, 1763, 
containing exclusive of bays and 
ponds 14272 acres. A small settle- 
ment was made in this township 
previous to the revolutionary ..war. 
The two earliest settlers were 
Messrs. Logan and Pettier, who 
commenced upon two points of land 
extending into lake Charaplain, 
which still bear the names, '^ Pot- 
tier's point** and ^^ Logan's point." 
Before the revolution commenced^ 
there had about ten families settled 
along the lake shore, among whom 
were Thomas and Moses Pierson. 
During the war the settlement was 
abandoned, but recommenced im« 
mediately upon its close, rhe early 
settlers were mostly from Connec- 
ticut. In 1787, there were about 
24 families here, and on the 29th of 
March of this year the town was 
organized. Caleb Smith was the first 
town clerk. The religious denom- 
mations are Episcopalians, Meth- 
odists, Congregationalists, Freewill 
Baptists and Christians. The pres- 
ent Episcopal church was formed 
here in 1819, and the same year 
they settled the lUv, Joel Clapp^ 





who preaches here two thirds ofj 
the tine. He was the first, and is! 
itic only settled minister. I'he} I 
have a meetin«^hou8C near the ceu-! 
tre of the town, which was erected I 
in iyo7. The distance of themcei ' 
inghouse from Burlington court- i 
house is six miles and a half. The 
epidemic of 1813 was very morta] 
iu tiiis township. -The physcian? 
ure Frederick. Maeck, Isaac C. 
Isham and Joel Fairchild, jr. Piatt 

or Laplott river is the principal! 
stream. It enters the township from 
Charlotte, and falls into the head 
of Shelburn bay, affording some 
mill privileges. Shelburn bay ex- 1 
tends about four miles into tliei 
township in a southeasterly direc- 
tion. Fottier's or Shelburn point 
projects into the lake on the south- 
west side of this bay. Shelburnj 
pond is in the northeastern part of i 
tlie township, and covers about 600i 
acres. 1 he soil is of an excellent 
quality, and is principally timbered 
with hard wood. l here are, in 
town, ten school districts, eight 
schoolhoases, one saw, one grist and 
one fulling mill, one trip hammer, 
one store, 6ne distillery and two 
taverns. Population, 1^20, 936. 
May. 1824. 
Sherburn, a township in the 
eastern part of Rutland county, is 
ia lat. 43° 38' and long. 4° 11', and 
is bouu'Jed north by Stockbridge, 
east by Bridgcwatcr, south and west 
by Parkerstown. * It lie* 22 miles 
northwest from Windsor, and nine I 
northeast from Rutland. It was char- j 
tered to Ezra Stiles and Benjamin 
EUery, of Newport, Rhode-Island, 
by the name of Killington, July 
7, 1761, containing 23040 acres. 
A tract of laud called 'Parker's 
gortT, lying between this town- 
ship a^d Bridgewater, wax an- 
nexed to it November 4, 1822. It 
i^as surrey ed and lotted, into 70 1 

aqual shares, by Simon Stevens, Esq. 
'f Springfield, Vt. iu 1774. The 
ettlcment was commenced in 1785 

y Isaiah ^V^a8hburu. The towa 
vas organized in 17D4. Albro 
VuUiony was the first town clerk, 
md John Anthony the first repre- 
sentative. A Congregational church 
was formed here March 26, ll>23, 
out there is no meetinghouse or 
iCUlcd minister. Queechy river 
originates near the northwest cor- 
aer of the town,- and, after running' 
a soutiicasterly course seven miles, 
enters Bridgewater. ^There are 
several tributaries to this river, 
which are sufficiently large for 
mills. There are three natural 
ponds here, covering about ten a- 
cres each. From one of these is- 
sues a stream called Thundering 
orook, in wliich is a considerable 
fall. This township is very moua- 
lainous and broken except a narrow 
strip along Queechy river, where 
there is some very good interval. 
The celebrated summit of the Green 
viountains called Killington Peak 
is situated iu the south part and is 
3924 feet above tide water. There 
are, in town, three school districts 
and one schoolhouse, two taverns, 
one grist and one saw mill. Popu- 
lation, 1820, 154. A. A. 
Mai/, 1824. 

Shrewsbury, a post township 
iu the eastern part of Rutland 
county, is in lat. 43^ 31' and long. 
4"^ 7', and is bounded north by 
Parkerstown, east by Plymoatb» 
south by Mount Holly, and west by 
Clarendon. It lies 22 miles west 
from Windsor, and nine southeast 
from Rutland. It was chartered 
September 4, 1763, containing 44 
square miles. This township lies 
mostly on the Green Mountains and 
I he eastern part is very much ele* 
vated. In the north part is Shrews- 
bury peak) YfhxQh id oae o^the high* 





BLinits of the Green Moun- 
.nd is more than 4100 feet a- 
ide water. This is often 
en for Killington peak J 
ver runs through the south> 
eirt of the township, and Cold 
hrough the north part, both 
oh are sufficiently large for 
There are two considerable 
in the southerly part called 
and Ashley's pond. There 
mch of the Cong;regational 
. in Clarendon here, which 
3 of about a dozen mem- 
There is a decent meeting- 
ituated in the sputherly part 
townslup, around which is a 
village. This township is 
lapt^ to the production of 
uid th^ timber is such as is 
n to the n^untain towns, 
are, in town, four saw mills, 
Pi mill, one clothier's works, 
rding machine, two stores 
5 taverns. Pop., 1820, 1149. 
BRSET, a township in the 
1 part of Wmdham county, 
.. 42° 58* and long. 4^ 4', and 
led north by Stratton,eastby 
and apart of Wardsbo rough, 
>y Searsburgh and a part of 
igton and west by Glastenbu- 
lies 14 miles northeast from 
gton and 16 northwest from 
borough. The township is 
le settled, and is very moun- 
;. The ipoost noted mountain is 
Pisgah, which extends alon^^ 
(tern part of the township, 
dd river is the principal 
, It runs through the town- 
cm north to south. Moose 
runs along the western part 
township, and unites with 
»ld river in Searsburgh. It 
9 three schoolhomes, a saw 
id a meetinghouse. Popu- 
1820, 173. 

m HxRo. a post township 
watbpurtofGnuid Isle coun 

ty, is in lat. 44° 38', and long. 3^ 40', 
and is bounded north by the town- 
iship of Grand Isle, and on all other 
parts by lake Champlain. It lies 
twelve miles northwest from Bur- 
lington and 16 southwest from St. 
Albans. This township was char- 
tered together with Grand Isle, 
North Hero, and Vineyard, to E- 
than Allen, Samuel Herrick and 
others October 27, 1779. North 
and South Hero were separated 
into two tovraships in 1788, and in 
1798 South Hero was divided into 
two townships by the name of 
South Hero and Middle Hero. 
The name of Middle Hero has since 
been altered to Grand Isle. Soutli 
Hero contains 9065 acres. Th6 
settlement was commenced here a* 
bout the year 1784. A Congrega- 
tional^ church was formed in this 
town in 1795 and a Methodist so- 
ciety in 1802. In the early setttle- 
ment of this part of the country the 
inhabitants of this as well as other 
townships in Grand Isle county 
were afflicted with intermittent fe- 
vers ; but since the country has be- 
come cleared and cultivated, this is 
as healthy as almost any portion o^ 
the state. The communication be- 
tween this township and Chitten- 
den county is facilitated by a sand 
bar, which renders the lake forda- 
ble for a considerable part of the 
year. The mouth of the river La- 
moile is now more than a mile 
south of this sand bar, but it is sup- 
posed to have been formerly 
on the north of it ; aod the bar 
has probably been formed by the 
sand brought down by this river. 
The sand is thought to be continu- 
ally accumulating and this bar may 
at some future period become a 
dry and permanent road from the 
island to the main land. T\^!& Vac- 




ST. A 

county, i^ limestone of dififcrent va- 
rieties, but mostly of the compact 
kind. In some parts it abounds 
with shells- The surface of the 

'Krater is about eig;ht feet. Tbe 

lake is usually at its greatest height 

'■ about the middle of M ay. The ex- 

!tensive yalley, which embosoms the 

land is g^enerally level. The soil ; lake and its islands, the spacioas 
isexcellcnt,consistiugofloara, sand,; and verdant plains, and the distaat 
marl and clay, but marl is the most 
common. There is but little 
doubt but that lake Champlain 
was once much more extensive 

than it is at present, and the whole 
of the county of Grand Isle was 
probably covered with water. 
Shells of clams are found in the 
marl and incorporated with the 
rocks on the hig^hest parts of the 
islands. * The barrier, which re- 
tained tbe waters might have 
been on the St. Lawrence, not 
not far from the three rivers in 
Canada. If this was the case the 
lake must have been very exten- 
sive and have overflowed all 
the country far above Montreal. 
But it is perhaps more probable 
that the barrier was on the outlet 
of lake Champlain, at no great dis- 
tance from St. Johns ia Canada; 
and is there not some reason to sup- 
X>ose the barrier was such that the 
waters of this lake formerly flowed 
to the south- into the Hudson? 
Who knows but that a scene was 
acted here at some remote period, 
similar to what has recently taken 
place in Glover, but on a scale far 
more stupendous ? There are, how- 
ever, some indications of the lake 
having been brought to its present 
level not at once, but at three or 
four distant and distinct periods. 
The most observable of these w the 
succession of banks one above an- 
other, which appear to have been 
for along period washed and beaten 
by the waves. No alteration of j ling 23040 aecres. Jesse Waldes > 

mountains towering among the 
clouds, afford a prospect at once 
beautiful and sublime. The coon- 
ty of Grand Isle appears to have 
I been a favorite spot for the nativi 
I Indians. The lake and the riven 
I which supply it afforded them fiA 
I and the forests a plenty of g;tBie. 
I Near the sand bar they bad a ibbd- 
ufactory of those implements, wlach 
.'they made of flint stone. Tbe 
jstone, however, must have bees 
brought from a distance as there ii 
none of the kind in the coontf. 
Here they made- their hatebelii 
chissels, spear heads, arrows and i 
variety of other articles, yhoA 
were distributed among the neigh- 
boring Indians. Fragments of their 
work are found in abondasee. 
(The limestone in South Hero is 
generally of the shelly kind, makes 
good lime, and some quarries of i(r 
though capable of being burned ii- 
to lime, are employed for fire pli^ 
ces and will endure the heat of i 
culinary fire for a long time. Pop- 
ulation, 1820, 842. 

St. Albans, a post town and 
capital of Franklin county, is in 
lat. 44"^ 49', and long. 3^ 50^, vA 
^irbounded north by SwantoD,eBst 
by Fairfield, south by Georgia, tod 
west by lake Champlain, a part of 
which separates it from North fio- 
ro. It lies 23 miles north inm 
[Burlington and 46 northwest froB 
Montpelier. This township iwi 
chartered August 7, 1763, cmitaiii- 

consequence has taken place in the Supposed to have been the Mtta* 
lake since it was first discovered byijilized person who settled in thii 
the Europeans. The variation be- fi township. He removed here do* 
tween tbe extremes of high and low Ij ring the revolutionary war, aoi 



ST. A 


co^an itnprovetnenU at the bay.l'a handsome square codimou 25 by 
'here was no addition to the sct-iUO rods in extent. The site is cle- 
exneut till 1785, when Andrew- Ivated and ascends g:eutly towards 
otter emigrated to this township,! !tlie east. The public buildings 

ad from that time the settlement ad- 
anced rapidly, by emigrants from 
lie south part of this state and 

arc a court house andjail, a Metho- 
dist chapel of brick and an acade- 
my. An Episcopal church is about 

roin the other states of New £ng;-i;beiDg erected, and the Cong^rcga- 

and. Among; the earliest settlers 
vere the families of Messrs. Potter, 
Irlorrill, Gibbs, Green and Meigs. 
The town was organized in 1788. 
fLndrew Potter was the first r^pre- 
lentative, in the General Assembly. 
I^he religious denominations are 
Congregationalists, Methodists and 
Episcopalians. The Rev. Jona- 
than Nye was the first settled min- 
ister. He was settled over the 
Congregational church in 1807, and 
dismissed in 1810. The Rev. 
Willard Preston was settled over 
the same society in 181 1, and dis- 
missed in 1815; the Rev. Henry 
P. Strong was settled in January 
1817 and dismissed in October. 
1891 ; the Rev. VVorthington Smith, 
the present minister, was settled in 
June 1822. The Methodist So 
eiety is at present supplied by cir 
toit preachers, and no minister has 
yet been settled over the Episcopal 
church. There are no large 
streams, nor good mill privileges in 
^^ township. There are, howev- 
^, one g^ist mill and one fulling 
mill on a small stream which have 
'I supply of water during a part of 
the year. The soil is a dark loam, 
rich and in a good state of cultiva- 
tioQ. The timber is maple, beech, 
birch, and near the lake, oak. Si. 
^Ibant village is very pleasantly 
situated in the centre of the town- 
abijx. It lies 25 miles north of Bur- 
ling^n, 15 south of Canada line. 
«nd three miles from the lake. 
The village, consisting of about 80 
dwelling houses, besides stores anci 
«ther buildings, is situated arauad 

tional society contemplate building 
a meeting house soon. There are 
12 English and India goods stores, 
one bookstore, one printing office, 
at which is published the *' Ameri- 
can Repertory," a weekly paper 
by J. Spooner, three taverns, sev- 
eral cabinet makers, one hat facto- 
ry, two chair factories, two man- 
ufactories of tin ware, one gold- 
smith and watchmaker, three tan- 
neries and a variety of other me** 
chanics^ shops. The practising 
physicians, are Ephraim Little, 
Charles Hall and John L. Chandler. 
There are also ten practicing attor- 
nies. In consequence of a commu- 
nication being opened between lake 
Champlain and the navigable wa- 
ters of Hudson river, and, also, of 
the opening of a new road to the 
county of Orleans through Hazen^s 
Notch, this village is rapidly in- 
creasing in wealth and importance. 
The inhabitants are industrious 
and enterprising. The first vessel 
I that arrived at the city of New 
York from lake Champlain through 
the northern canal was built and 
owned here. St. Albans Academy, 
or Franklin county grammar school, 
iwas incorporated and established 
here in November 1799. The 
town is divided into eleven school 
districts in which are nine school 
houses, and 613 scholars between 
four and eighteen years of age. 
Population 1820, 1636. s. w. 
I September^ 1824. 
i Stamford, a township in the 
Houth part of Bennington county, is 
|ia Ut. 42^ 47; and long. 3° 56', aad 





is buonded north by Woodford,' 
east by Reedsborough, south by 
Clarksburgh, Mass. and west by 
Pownal. It lies nine miles south- 
east from Bennington, 21 southwest 
from Brattlcborougfa, and was 
chartered March 6, 1753, contain- 
ing, by charter, 23040 acres. The 
ftarface of this township is Fery un- 
even, and a considerable share of it 
waste land. The south part is wa- 
tered by some of the head branch- 
es of Hoosac river. In the north 
part are several natural ponds, the 
most important of which are Moose 
pond and Fish pond. ' The waters 
from this part run northerly into 
the Walloomsac. The streams 
here are all small. The town is di- 
vided into four or five school dis- 
tricts, and contains several mills. 
Population, 1820,490. 

STARK8BORouGH,a posttownship 
in the north part of Addison coun- 
ty, is in lat. 44^^ 13* and long. 3° 
57\ and is bounded north by Hun- 
tington and Hinesburgh, east by 
Huntington and BueFs gore, south 
by Lincoln and Bristol, and west by 
Monkton. It lies 22 miles south- 
west from Montpelier, and 20 south- 
east from Burlington. It wai* grant- 
ed November 7, 1780, and charter- 
ed the 9th of the same month, Con- 
taining 18500 acres. A part of 
Monkton has since been annexed to 
it. I'he settleifient was commenced 
in April, 1788, by George Bidwell 
and Horace Kellogg with their fam- 
ilies. John Ferguson and Thomas 
V. Ratenburgh came into that part 
of Monkton, which has since been 
added to this township about the 
same time. The first settlers emi- 
grated principally from New- York 
and Connecticut. In 1781, the in- 
habitants of this part of the coun- 
try suffered severely on account of 
the scarcity of provisions. The 
town was organiased in March, 1796.| 

Warner Pierce wasfiirBt townderfc, 
and John Ferguson first represent- 
ative, both chosen this year. The 
religions denominations are Coo- 
gregationalists, Methodists, Friends 
and Freewill Baptists. Eider Bat- 
Mah Maynard is minister in tbt 
Freewill Baptist society, but is not 
permanently settled. The Fnendi 
have a meetinghouse erected ii 
1812, which is ti^e only one in town. 
There was a remarkable revival of 
religion here in 1798 and 9^vuli 
tiiere have been several awaken- 
ings since. There were some ctin 
of the epidemic in 1 813, but it wi! 
less distressing here thanjin the ad- 
jacent towns. The physicians afs 
Alfred Clark and Orange Smitfa. 
Mrs. Hannah Lane died here is 
November 1823, aged 100 yeui 
and three months. The priodpil 
stream in this township is Lewii 
creek, which rises in the sontheHt- 
em part, and runs first weiteilf 
and Uien northerly along thet iresl- 
|em part. Huntington tiver waten 
■the eastern part. The streams here 
abound with excellent mill seetL 
The surface of the township is veiy 
uneven. A mountain lies alon^ tto 
west line and extends into BnstoL 
jcalled Hogback. Another raogf 
■extends through the central ptib 
from south to north, called £ait 
mountain, dividing the waters, of 
Lewis creek from those of Has- 
'tington river. Here is a stresa 
;which is formed by the confldciit 
waters of tliree springs that are 
not more than 20 lods asundar* 
They umte, after running a short 
jdistance, and form a stream oa 
[which stand a saw mill, a fiiSas% 
mill, a foi^ and two trip-hamacr 
shops, all within half a mile of ito 
head. The soil is Biostly loaBi 
The timber is principally htri 
wood, with some spruce, heakxik 
and cedar. There are two nuB 




ST. J. 

Tillages both near Lewis' creek in 
*' the westerly part of the township. 
The principal village contains a 
store, tavern, post office^ forge, ful- 
ling mill, trip hammer shop, Szo, 
There are in town eleven school 
districts and school houses, three 

;in Pcacham, are several mills in 
that town. The branch that has 
its source in Ryegate carries one 
saw mill in that town, and falls into 
Harvey's Lake, which is a beauti- 
ful sheet of clear water. It is a 
mile and a half long, and 200 roda 

l^st mills, one of wood and the oth- wide at the widest part, and covers 
«r of stone, three forges, four trip 300 acres. There ^re on this 
Hanimer shops, six saw mills, two jstream within the limits of Bamet 
fulling mills, two carding machines, |ibur com mills, five saw mills, a 
two tanneries, one furnace, three ;fulling mill and a carding machine, 
distilleries, one tavern and two At Stevens' mills, about half a mile 
stores. The mills, except two of from the mouth of the river, is a 

the saw milb, and the forges, fur- 
nace, carding machines, &c. are sit- 
uated' on Lewis' creek and its 
branches. Population 1820, 914. 
June, 1824, j. w. 

StsrliiFG, a township in the south 
east eorner of Franklin county, is 
in lat. 44° 35', and long. 4=^ 12', and 
if bounded northerly by Johnson 
easterly by Morristown, southerly 
bj Mansfield, and westerly by Cam- 
bridge.' It lies 24 miles northeast 
from Burlington, and the same 
distance northwest from Montpe- 
lier. This township was chartered 
February 25, 1782, containing 
S3040 acres. Sterling contains no 
lai^ge streams and is but thinly in- 
habited. The settlement was com- 
menced about the year 1799. Its 
mriace is mountainous and part of 
it Tery elevated. Sterling peak, in 
the southern part ranks among the 
Highest summits of the Green 
Mountains. It contains two saw 
tnills and two school houses. Pop- 
nation, 1820, 131. 

Stkvbn's River, is a lively 
little stream, two branches of which 
dare their sources in Peacham and 
^ne in Ryegate, and all meet about 
« mile east of the line between 
]Bamet and Peacham, and runs 
easterly through the middle of Bar- 
aiet« and falls into the Connecticut. 
On each of the branches which rise 


ihigh faU, perhaps 60 or 70 feet. 

J. w. 

St. George, a small township 
in the central part of Chittenden 
county, is in lat. 44** 24', and long. 
3^ 48', and is bounded north and 
northeast by Williston, south by 
Hinesburgh, and west by Shelbum. 
J It lies eight miles southeast froni 
iBurlington, and 28 nearly west 
:from Montpelier. It was chartereil 
JAugust 18, 1763, containing 2i^00 
acres. The settlement was com- 
jmenced here in the spring of 1784, 
by Joshua Isham from Colchester, 
Connecticut. The next year sev- 
eral others joined the settlement. 
The town was organized in March 
1 8 13. Jared Higbee was first town 
clerk, and Lewis Higbee first rep- 
resentative. Ths surface of the 
township is very uneven with some 
considerable elevations. The tim- 
ber is principally maple, beech and 
I birch. There are no streams of 
consequence and no mills or mill 
privileges. The soil is loam, clay 
land gravel. There are in the town 
two school districts, two schoolhous- 
es and one tannery. Pop. 1820, 
120. p. H. 

May, 1824. 

St. Johnsbcrt, a post township 
in the eastern part of Caledonia 
county, is in lat. 44*^ 27' and long. 
4^ 54' and is bounded northerly by 



ST. J. 


LyndoB, uortheast by Kirby, south- 
east by VVatcrford and southwest 
by Danville. It lies 31 miles north- 
east Irom Montpelier and 26 northj 
from Newbury'. It was granted the 
27th of Oct. and chartered Nov. 1, 
1786, to Jonathan Arnold and asso- 
ciates containing 21167 acres. The 
settlement of the township was 
commenced in April 1788 by Mar- 
tin Adams, and sons, and Simeon 
Cole. The next year they were 
joined by Thomas Todd, and Bar- 
nabas Barker. The town was or- 
g^anized June 21, 1790, and Jona- 

than Arnold was first town clerk, l 

es, one oil /nill, one furnace, one 
fulling, four grist, and seven nv 
mills, three carding machines, three 
distilleries, two tanneries and two 
potteries. Population 1820, 1404. 
Stockbridge, a post township 
in the north we6 tern part of AVind- 
sor county, situated in lat. 43° 4o, 
and long. 49 14', and containing a- 
bout 48 square miles. It is bound- 
ed northerly by Bethel, easterly 
by Barnard, southerly by Sher- 
burn and westerly by Fittt-field, aod 
lies 36 miles south westerly from 
Montpelier, and 26 miles northwest 

fiom Windsor. The charter is da- 
ted July 21, 1761. Population in 
1820,964. The settlement of this 
township was commenced in 1784 
and 1785 by Asa Wtiitcomb, Elita 
Keyes, John Durkee and Joshaa 
BarQetwith their families. The 
settlement of the town proceeded 
slowly for some years. TJie first 
grist mill and first saw mill were 
erected by the Hon. Klias Keyes, 
in 1786. The town was not organ- 
ized until about the year 1792. The 
prevailing religious denominations 
are Congregationolists^ Methodists 
and Universalists. The Rev, Jvi- 
tin Parsons was settled over the 
Congregational church in this town 
and Pittsfield September 15, 1812, 
and still continues the connexion. 
He resides in Pittsfield. In 1803 the 
dysentery swept off a great part of 
the children in this town, and 
in 1813 the spotted fever pre- 
vailed and proved very fatal. 
'1 he town has generally been 
very healthy. White river runs 
across the northwesterly comer of 
this town and in its passage re- 
ceives the fourth branch, or Tweed 
.river, from the west. The mill 
I privileges in this town are not na* 
jmerous, but those at the Great 
j Narrows in White river are very 
sch««»l ditftricts, twelve school hous-{ I good* -The whole river is here 

The religious denominations are 
principally Congrcgationalists, Res- 
torationers and Christians, The 
Congregational church was organ- 
ized November 21, 1809, and then 
consisted of 19 members. The 
number of members in 1818 was 
115. The whole -number which 
had been admitted up to that time 
was 133. The Rev. Parson Thurs- 
ton was settled over this church in 
1816 and dismissed in 18 18. There 
is a decent meetinghouse near the 
centre of the township which was 
erected in 1803. The surface of 
this township is uneven, but it con- 
tains no mountains. The Pas- 
sumpsic river runs through it from 
-north to south, and is the only! 
stream of consequence. Along this 
stream are some fine tracts of inter- 
val and there are many beautiful 
farms in other parts. St.fJoknsbu- 
ry plain^ is situated about two 
and a half miles south of the centre. 
Here is a pleasant village contain- 
ing several stores, a tavern, post 
office and several handsome dwel 
lings. The physicians are Abner 
Mills, Zebina K. Pangborn, Morril 
Stevens, and Jerry Dickerman. 
Ephraim Paddock, and James Stu- 
art, attornies. There are in town 15 




ST a 

compressed into a channel but a 
few feet in width. Steatite, or 
soapstone is found in considerable 
quantities in the north part of the 
town, but it is of a quality inferior 
to that found in Bethel, Bridgewa,- 
ter and several other places in the 
state. There are here, a small 
meeting-house, seven school districts 
and school houses, two ^rist mills, 
three saw mills, (and three others 
building-,) two fulling- mills, two 
carding- machines, one clover mill, 
one store, two taverns, one distille- 
ry and one tannery. Population 
1820, 964. £. K. 

May, 1824. 
Stow, a post township in the 
northwestern part of Washington 
county, is in lat. 44^ 28', and lon^. 
4° 16', and is bounded north by 
Morristown, cast • by Worcester, 
south by Waterbury and west by 
Mansfield. Itlies 15 miles northwest 
from Montpelier and 25 east from 
Barling-ton, and was chartered 
June 8, 1763, containing 23040 a- 
cres. The settlement of this town- 
ship was commenced about the 
year 1793. A larg-e share of the 
present inhabitants are emig-rants 
from Woodstock in this state. The 
town was org-anized in March 1797,' 
and Josiah Hurlbut was first town 
clerk. It was first represented iu 
the g-eneral assembly by Nathan 
Robinson in 1801. The religious 
denominations are Cong-reg-ational- 
ists. Baptists, Christians and Uni- 
Tersalists. There is a handsome 
meeting-house, situated near the 
centre of the township, erected in 
1818. Around the meeting-house 
is a small village. There are two 
other small villages in town, one 
about a mile north, and the other 
about the same distance south of 
the meetinghouse. In the latter 
are several mills, and other ma- 
chinery. This township is water- 

ed by Waterbury river and its 
several branches, which afford 
good mill privileges. A considera- 
ble part of th» surface of this town- 
ship is very level, §bd appears to 
be of alluvial formation. There 
are here some of the handsomest 
tarms in the state, and they are 
surpassed by few iu fertility. The 
township lies between the Mans- 
field mountains on the west, and a 
range called the Hogback on the 
east, and contains no elevations of 
consequence. There are in town 
eight school houses, three stores, 
three taverns, two tanneries, one 
distillery, three saw mills, and one 
valuable grist mill, recently built, 
of brick and stone, two stories high 
with three run of stones. Popula- 
tion 1820, 957. R. c. 
Maj/, 1824. 
Strafforp, a post tovrnship in 
the south part of Orange county, is 
in lat-43<^ 52^, and long. 4° 35', and 
is bounded north by Vershire, east 
by Thetford, south by Sharon, and 
west by Tunbridge. It lies 30 
miles southeast from Montpelier, 
the same distance north from Wind- 
sor, and was chartered August 12, 
1 76 1 , containing 24325 acres. The 
settlemerit of this township was 
commenced just before the revolu- 
tionary war. Several of the . early- 
settlers became tories, left the coun- 
try, and their property was confis- 
cated. The suiXace is uneven, but 
the soil is generally good. It is 
watered by a principal branch of 
Ompompanoosuc river, which af- 
fords several good mill privileges, 
on which are erected a woollen fac- 
tory, and a number of mills and oth- 
er machinery. In the southeast 
corner of this township is an exten- 
sive bed of the sulphuret of iron, 
from which immense quantities of 
copperas are manufactured. The 
ore is situated on the east sidft of aa 



eUvatiou, uud the bed is about half; tu the actiou of the air and moie- 
a mile iti lcn;^th, and from two to; ture until a spontaneous combus- 
three rods in width. Its depth ha»!tiun takes plac«, and the vhole 
not been ascertained. A company! heap is convtrtcd from the sulphu- 
was iiioorporaftd by the name oi\,ret to the sulphate of iron, ^bich 
the *'\'ermont Mineral Factorylj usually takes several weeks. Here 

Company," in October 1809, which 
immediately commenced the man- 
ufacture of copperas, at this place. 

it may not be amiss to observe, for 
ithc inforD)ation of those who ait 
J unacquainted with the science of 

Bcin^ io^uorantof the business they Ijchemistry, that the sulphuret of 
for some years labored under many'jiron is a combination of iron aod 
embarrassments ; but by persever-'Isulphur in their simple state, and 
ance and a regular course of exper-'jthat the sulphate of iron is a com- 
iment, they have at lenj^th discov-Iibination of iron and sulphuric acid, 
ered melliods of facilitating thej.or the oil of vitriol. Hence itap- 
process of manufacturing:, and t!.e;'pears that the sulphur, by being 
('stul>li<hmcnt has become a source ;iex)>osed to the atmosphere, takes 
ct profit to the proprietors. In fire and is converted by the com- 
l:''«:*J, 1(>0 tons of copperas werc;ibustion into sulphuric acid, and 
njaiuiiactured here; in 1B23, loS^Jthat this acid, as it is thus formed, 
♦ivi?, and, the vuiks having been combines with the iron and con- 
^i.ii'-idr.rably enlait;;ed,it ie expect-'jvcrts it into the sulphate of iron, 
ed lliiit tlic product of the pres- 1 which is copperas. After the pro- 
eiit ^j-xoa will be about 300j|cess of burning; is completed, the 
tons, 'i'hc buildin* in which theljresidue is removed to the leaches, 
manufacture is carried on is IfiOlj where water is passed through it 
feet long and 48 wide. The ![ which dissolves the copperas and 
ore is covered to the depth of a-jileaves the earthy matter behind, 
bout three feet with a stratum ot'iThe water is then conveyed to the 
earth. Below thig is a stratum of', boilers, which are made of leadi 
ferruginous petnfuctions, which ex- Ijfour in number, and weigh about 
hibits forms of buds, leaves, limbs of I 2500 pounds each. Here it is 
trees, &:c. in admirable perfection.|!boiled and evaporated to certain 
This stratum varies from two to 'extent, and suffered partially to cool, 
three feet in depth. Below thisjjlt is then transferred to the crys- 
liea the bed of sulphuret of iron.; italizers, where the copperas contin- 
It is very compact. Its colors are! ucs to crystalize, while cooling, and 

brilliant, varying from that of steel 
to a bright yellow, and its appear 
ance is occasionally diversified by 
small quantities of green copper 
ore. It ii also traversed in many 
parts by small veins of quartz. The 
ore is detached from the bed in 
large masses, by blasting. It is 
then beaten to pieces with ham- 
mers and thrown into heaps several 

when the crystalization ceases, the 
water is again returned to the boil- 
ers, mixed with water from the 
leaches, and again evaporated. 
During eight months of the year 
these works employ about 20 men, 
and consume 5 or 600 cords of 
wood. They are under the super- 
intendcMice of Mr. Jcremiiih Dow, 
jr. who has been instrumental in 

rods in length, about 12 feet in! 'introducing many improvements in 
width, and seven or eight in hcight.jjthe process of manufacturing. 
Here it is suffered to lie exposed! Most of the proprietors of thb es- 





tablishment reside in Boston. 
N^ar the copperas works schorl i^ 
found in acicular crystals. Popu- 
latien 1820, 1921. 

Sunderland, a township in the 
eastern part of Bennington county, 
is in lat. 43° 4\ and long. 3^ 57Mlfive school districts, and school 

jore has been discovered in gran a 
lar limestone. Specimens of the 
ore have been annalized^ which 
yielded between 60 and 70 per cent, 
of pure lead, and two or three pni* 
cent, of silver. The town contains 

and is bounded north by Manches-[ 'houses, one grist mill, three saw 
ter, east by Stratton, south byi mills, one store, one tavern, two 
Glastenbury and west by Arling-j distilleries, two tanneries and one 
ton. It lies 15 miles northearitij woollen factory. Population 1820» 

from. Bennington, 87 southwesterly; 

from Montpelier, and was charter-' 
cd July 30, 1761, containing 23040 
acres. The settlement of the town- 
ship was commenced in 1765, by 
Messrs. Brownson, Bradley, War- 
rens, Evarts, Chipman and Webb, 
emigrants from Con. The town was 
organized in 1769, and Gen. Gide- 
on Browson was first town clerk. 
Joseph Bradley, Esq. Was repre- 
sentative to the first Legislature, 
and Col. Timothy Brownson was 
one of the first councillors. The' 
religioos denominations are Con- 
gregationalists, and Methodists. 
The Rev. Chauncey Lee was thej 
first settled minister. He was set- 
tled over the Congregational church j 
ill 1786, and dismissed in 1795.; 
They have a n^etinghouse situa-j 
ted in the northwest part of the' 
township. Battenkill river passesi 
through the northwestern part in a 
southwesterly direction. On this 
stream are some fine alluvial fiats, 
which are overflown every spring. 
Roaring brook originates in sever- 
al large ponds in the eastern part 
of the township, and running west- 
erly, unites with the Battenkill, in 
Arlington. On this stream are sev- 
eral excellent situations for mills 
and other machinery. The soil con-, 
sists -of alluvion, loam and marl.: 
Near the foot of the Green Moun- 
tains the sulphate of iron is found j 
in considerable quantities. Oa the 
tide of the mountain a vein of lead] 



J. A. G. 

SxTTTOir, a post township in the 
north part of Caledonia county, is 
in lat. 44«> 38', and long. 4^ 52', 
and is bounded northeasterly by 
Westmore, and a part of Newark^ 
east by Burke, south by I^yndon, 
and west by Sheffield. It lies 3B 
miles northeast from Montpelier, 
and IS north from Danville. It 
was chartered, by the name of BiU 
lymead, February 6, 1782, to Jona- 
than Arnold and associates,, and 
contains 23040 acres. In 1812 the 
name was altered to Sutton.. The 
settlement of the township was 
commenced about the year 1791, hy 
a Mr. Hacket, who was soon after 
joined by other fiimilies froia 
Rhode-Island, and Connecticut. 
The jreligious denominations are 
Baptists and Freewill Baptists. 
Elder Amos l)eokwith was ordain- 
ed over the Baptist church in 1804* 
A meetinhouse was erected here in 
1813. This town has been gener* 
ally^ heahhy* The epidemic of 
1812 commenced about the 10th of 
February of that year. In the 
space of seven weeks there were a- 
bout 60 cases of tbe disease and six 
deaths. The township is watered 
by two considerable branches, 
which unit6 near the south line of 
Burke, and join the Pkssumpsie 
river in Lyndon. There are sev- 
eral ponds.of whiehFish pond is the 
largest, and lies in the northwest 
corner. It covers about 200 acres 





and (libchargea its waters into Barton! 
river. The surface of tbe town- 
ship is generally even and consider- 
able tracts of it so low and wet as 
to be incapable of . cultivation. 
There are several bogs of marl in 
tliis townbhip. The town is divid-| 
ed into seven school districts, and! 

Charles Parsons. Attornies, James 
Fisk, Charles Stevens, Shadnck 
Hathaway, Staphen S. Brown and 
R. L. Paddock. Missisque river 
runs through the township, fertili- 
zing a considerable tract of interval 
along its course. At the distance 
of six miles from its mouth is a M 

contains several mills and othcrj |of about 20 feet, affording a oum- 
machinery. Population 1820, 697.! iber of very valuable mill pri vile- 
SwAivTorr, a post township in iges. Sfhe river is navigable froa 
Franklin county, is in lat. 44^ 53',! jthis fall to the lake, for vessels of 
and long. 3' 50', and is bounded north ! |50 tons burthen. McQuam creek, 
by Highgatc, east by Sheldon andjjwhich flows from Missisque river 
Fairfield, south by St. Albans andjjinto the lake several miles south of 
west by lake 
separates it from 

Champlain whichitthe principal mouth of the river, 
>m Alburgh and! forms a delta called Hog bland, 

North Hero. It lies 28 miles north 
from Burlington, and 50 northwest 
from Montpelicr, and was chartered 
October 17, 1763, containing 23040 
acres. The first civilized inhabit- 
ants who settled in tliis township 
were John Plilliker and .'family, a- 
bout the year 1787. At this time 

which is partly in this town sjkI 
partly in Higli^te. Besides these 
there are several small streams 
which flow., in different directions. 
Along the river the land is low and 
moist. Further back it becomes 
more elevated, dry and sendy, and 
is timbered principally with pine, 
the lands were in possession of the! jln the southern part the soil is grav- 
St. Fiitiicois Indian:!, who had here aljcUy '^and timbered with hard 
village of about 50 huts, togethcr| wood. T\\t, northwestern part is 

marshy and during the summer sea- 
:ion is the favorite resort of wild 
ducks, geese, cranes and other wa- 
terfowl. Bog iron ore of an excel- 

with considerable cleared laud uponj 
which they cultivated corn. Mr.; 
Hilliker was soon joined by other! 
settlers, and in 1790 the tovrn waslj 

organized and Thomas Dutterfield;jlent quality is found in the north 
was chosen town clerk. There are! part of the township. As yet but 
at present five religious denomina- little of it has been wrought here, 
tions in this township, viz. ; Con-, jbut large quantities have been 

transported and wrought at tbe 

g^egationalists. Baptists, Methodists,! 
Episcopalians and Friends. There! 
are two houses for public wor- 
ship ; one erected in 1816 and 17,1 {([uality is found here in inexhaosti 

furnaces in Sheldon, Highgate and 
Vers:eunes. Marble, albo, ofafine 

belonging to the Congregatioualists 
and Baptists, and the other in 1822 
and 2:i belonging to the Congrega- 
tionalists, Episcopalians, Methodists 
and Friends. The most remarka 
ble instance of longevity, is that ofj 
Walter Scott, who died here in 
1815 aged 110 yeais. The physi- 
cians are Jonathan Berry, Franklin 
Bradley, Isaac N. Foster and 

ble abundance. It covers an a- 
rea of more than 300 acres and ex- 
tends to an unknown depth. It 
is generally found at the distance of 
from two to eight feet below the 
surface. It is detached from its 
original bed in large blocks bjr 
Jblasting, and these are conveyed 
about half a mile to the milli at 
[Swantoa falls. Here they tie 




iquirei! <1 

lusce. of anj 
IS, bj ll>e cou- 

platei moiiog horiioulallj- upoa 
the blocks. II ig UBXt ptnced up- 
on a proper upparatoB aad snour 
ed doivD to a ptrreDl Uret aud, M 
iiaeveaiicBs beine remoTedi ever} 
Ibin' i> carcfujlf wiped away, 
■which might in any Wftj ecralnh or 
iujiire it. In thia tiate it \b placed 
horizon ta 11 jr upon o table, where i' 
ia tubj£oted lo tbe (KctiuD of wool- 
len clodii, and a preparation or 
the white oxide of tin, for ecvtrHl 
bourj, wbeD it will be round 
have acquired an Kk'gnBt polish. 
The Disrble ia of a beautiful black, 
or light blue clouilj color, aocord- 
ing to (he quarriei Cioiu «. bici) it U 

IS rorir 

diitilleriea, Two tannerits and one 

pottery, besidC'stlieinilii and olber 

ichiiisr; meTilioned uboTe. Pap- 

Btiun IRSO, 1607. L. c. r, 

Jane, 1824. 

SiitrrBBunT, a post town in the 

estem part ol' Bennington comity, 

in lat. 4a^ 5M', niiJ long. 3" Sff, 

and iibouaiiednartiiby Arlington, 

east bj Glaslrnburj, Boutli by Ben- 

ainjtou nnd Trest by Camhriilee 

». Y. It lies 97 mUes souttiweat- 

arly from Montpelier,46 from Rut- 

Inrid. uud 31 weat from Bratllebo- 

c bartered August 

aioing- by ebarter 

The ^ettlemeut* of 

[tbe year 1763. Among the early 
'leet'lera may bo mealioued M«h 

are traiupnrted by wal 
ny. New York BUd otht 
Most of Ihe proceia of m 

il articlKJi, whJL-h Cole. Wilioughby, Clark, Dooliltle, 


nhy -. 

nd I 

espenas is thereby innoh di 
ed. MisB;*'qile village i» siiuHien 
o'l both iide« of Miasisque river, 
six miles from it* aiouth, and 
one mile from take Chnmpluiii 
' in a direct line. It oonlains e 
jiieeliagbouie, two achool houa- 
«i, three laverni, fife alorBi, ODf 

triat mill five saw mills, two fol- 
Dg milit, two wollen factoriei, foui 
jnllls for tbe oiaiiufucture of mar 
ble, one lorge, and about 75 dwel- 
ling boiuei. Tiie ground ui 
which the village ia ailuated, is ele 
vated, picaaaiit and henllhy. 
-viiiled at all tin.ei duriii^ th« 
mer 'euaon by oanul buala, whii 
ply between it and New Ynrk ai 

ry olTfroni thi» pince lumber, m.i 



(Waldo aod several famili 
|MatUsDQs. The Han. Jonas Ga- 
iluiiliiL, late Governor of Vermont, 
came into tliistowQ in the Borin-r 
,afl775. Dunns Ihe revolulione^ 
;ry M'Ar, ho Was made caplain of one 
ioftho tiro compan IDS uf mditia in 
'this tonnihip, and the other was 
'coramanJed by Oapt. Amoa Hunt- 
lingloo. Capl, Hantingloii wai 
jtakcn prisoner at the baltlo of 
tfubbaidtun on Ihe 7lh of July 
I77T, and sent to Canada, after 
vrihch tbe Ivro companies were 
united under the command of 
Capt. Galusha, who fought at 
their heed in Bennington battle. 
Ihis hu always been tbe seconj 
town in the county in point of pop. 
uIilIioii. It WHS o^aniied «>aie 
lime beilpre the revolution, umt 
Thamtu Mattiaun was first town 
clerk. Jacob Galnaba was the 
aecaaJ and ii the present town 
i:lerk, whicli ofliLa he ho: held more 
40 years. There are in this 
ItovQ thrsB Baptist oburehea aod a 





BDiall Methodisl society. The 
town giros name to the Bap- 
tist association in this section ortUe 
atat':;, it being called the '* Shafts- 
bury association/^ and is one of the 
fiFct formed in the state. The 
Rev. Caleb Blood was for many 
years a zealous and succesi^fui 
preacher of the gospel here. He 
removed to Boston about the year 
18U7, and was succeeded by the 
Rev, Josiah Maltison^ who still 
ministers in the second and third 
church. The first church is small 
and is not supplied with stated 
preaching, 'i'here have been two 
very general revivals of religion 
here ; the former about the year 
I7li8, and the latter in 1810. Doct. 
Daniel Huntington has for 20 years 
past been the only practicing phy- 
sician. This township lies be- 
tween the Battenkill and Walloom- 
sac rivers, and consequently has no 
large stream-. Same tributaries of 
each of these rivers rise here which 
afford sevenil mill privileges. 
West mountain lies partly in this 
township, and partly in Arlbgton. 
It exterwls into Shaftsbury about 
three miles, and is about two miles 
in widtli. This mountain is tim- 
bered withchesnut interspersed ivith 
oak, maple, birch, &;c. The soil is 
generally of a good quality, and in 
the southwestern part, is probably 
not exceeded in fertility by any in 
the state. The timber on the high 
lands is mostly chesnut and oak. 
There is a small tract here, which 
■was formerly covered with a beau- 
tiful growth of white pine, of which 
nothing now remains but- the 
stumps. The minerals are iron ore 
of an excellent quality^ of which 
large quantities are conveyed to 
Bennington furnace, and a beautiful 
white marble which is said to be 
extensively quarried. There are 
two meeting houses in town both| 

^belonging to the Baptists, and the 
Itown is dividid into 16 school cKs- 
stricts. The fund for the support 
|of schools amounts to ^10000, and 
yields an annual income of ^600. 
There are three gristmills, 11 saw 
! mills, two fullic^ mills, two carding 
machines, one cotton factory, one 
! store, three taverns, two distilleries 
{and five tanneries.. Population, 
1820, 2022. BT. H. B. 

October, 1824. 
Sheldon, a post township in the 
jcentral part of Franklin county, is 
in iBt. 44® 54', and long. 4^ 1', and 
is bounded north by Highgate and 
F|-anklin^ east by Enosburgh soath 
by Fairfield, and west by Swanton. 
It lies 46 miles northwest (rooi 
Montpelier, and 32 northeast from 
! Burlington. The township wu 
'chartered August IQ, 1763 contain- 
jing 23040 acres. The settlement 
of this township was commenced 
about the year 1790 by Col. Elisha 
I Sheldon and Samuel B. Sheldoo» 
'emigrants from Salisbury Con. 
jThc settlement advanced with con- 
|5iderable rapidity, and the town 
jwas soon organized. Samuel B, 
I Sheldon was the first town clerk 
'and also the first representa- 
tive in the General Assembly.. 
'The religious denominations, are- 
i Methodists, Episcopalians and Con- 
igregationalists. Eacli of these 
i churches is small, and without a 
settled minister. An Episcopal 
! church, ereeted in 1824, is the only 
'house for public wors^p» The 
physicians are Samuel Cl«800» 
John Grail up, Samuel S. Fitch and 
Jabez H. Fitch. The only streams 
I of consequence are Missisqae riveiv 
'which runs through the township 
|from east to west and Black creek 
'a considerable tributary of the 
jMissisque. On the latter are some 
igood mill pt ivileges. The surface 
jof the township is diyersifiled with 





hills aad vallies, and the soil is 
g^enerally good and easily cultiva- 
ted. There are in town five 
Echool districts, five school houses, 
one grist, four saw and two fulling 
mills, two carding machines, one 
Troollen factory, three stores, four 
taverns, two tanner res, and two 
furnaces. Population 1820, 927. 
October^ 1824. J. w. s. 

Shoreham, a post town in the 
southwest corner of Addispn county 
i3 in lat. 43^ 53', and long 4^ 41', 
and is bounded porth by Bridport, 
east by Whiting and Cornwall, 
south by Orwell, and west by lake 
Champlain, which separates it from 
Ticonderoga. N. Y. It lies 31 
miles south of Burlington, 12 south- 
west from Middlebury, and was 
chartered Otober 8, 1761, contain- 
ing 26319 acres. (See additions 
and eorreeiUm* at the cloze of the 

• SPRiirGFiKLD, a post town in 
the southeast corner of Windsor 
county, is in lat. 43° 17', and long. 
4^ ^', ahd is bounded north by 
Weatfaersfield, east by Connect- 
icut rivet which separates it 
from Charleston N. H. south by 
Rockingham, and west by Chester, 
and a fmall part of Baltimore. It 
lies thirteen miles south from 
Windsor, 68 from Montpelier, and 
30 north from Brattleborough. It 
was chiirtered August 20, 1761, 
containing 26400 acres. (6'c€ addi- 
tions and corrections at the close of 
the volume.) 

Stratton, a township in the 
western part of Windham county, 
is in lat. 43® 3^, and long. 4° 4', and 
is bounded north by Winhall, east 
by Jamaica and Wardsborough, 
south by Somerset and west by 
Sunderland. It lies 18 miles north- 
east from Bennington and 22 north- 
west from Brattleborough. This 
towaship WAS settled principally by 

emigrants fix)m Massachusetts. 
Among tlje early settlers were sev- 
eral families by the name of Mors- 
man and Patch. There are two 
ireligious societies, the Congrega- 
tional and Baptist. A meeting 
house was built here, about the 
year 1809 which is occupied by 
both denominations. Bald moun- 
tain branch of West river rises in 
the eastern part, on which are erec- 
ted a saw and grist mill, the only 
mills in town. Deerfield river 
rises in the western part, and runs 
south into Somerset. There are 
two natural ponds ; one in the south 
part called Ilolman^s pond, and the 
other in the northwestern part cal- 
led Jones' pond. They cover a- 
bout 100 acres each. The waters 
of the former are discharged to the 
south into Deerfield river and those 
of the latter to the north into Win- 
hall river. There are in town four 
school districts, one school house 
and one tavern. Pop. 1820, 272. 
October^ 1824. R. s. 

SuDBURT, a post township in the 
north part of Rutland county, is in 
lat. 43® 47', and long. 3® 50', and is 
bounded north by Whiting, east 
by Brandon, south by Hubbardton, 
and west by Orwell, and a part of 
Benson. It lies 47 miles south 
from Burlington, 65 north from 
Bennington, and 43 southwest from 
Montpelier. It was chartered 
August 6, 1761, containing 13426 
acres. The early settlers of this 
township were generally frqm 
Connecticut. The religious de- 
n ominations . are C ongregationalists 
and Methodists. The Rev. Silas 
Parsons was settled over the Con- 
gregational church about the year 
1806 and was dismissed about the 
year 1815. The Rev. Mason Kna- 
pen^ the present minister, was set- 
tled in January 1820. This 
church at present consists of about 



THE - 


60 members. They erected a 
)ncetiiig;house about Ihe year 1805. 
The Methodist society consists of a- 
bout30 members. 'Ihe practicing 
physicians are Dects. Hale, and 
Dyer. Otter creek touches upon 
ihe eastern border of this township. 
The othter streams are small. 
Hubbardton pond extends into the 
&outh part, and there are in town 
several smaller ponds, of which 
Hinkum pond is the most consi ier- 
able. On the outlet of this pond, 
which falls into Otter creek, is one 
saw mill, and on the outlet of an- 
other pond, which is the source 
iDf Hubbardton river, is another 
saw mill. The surface is uneven 
and a hig;h ridg^e of land extends 
throug^h the township near the cen- 
tre from south to north. The soil 
is g;enerally a rich loam. The tim- 

May 10, 1768. The town was or- 
ganized in 1778, and Abner How- 
jard was first town clerk. The 
Congregationalists are the most 
numerous denomioation of chris- 
tians. Tlie Rev, ^sa Burton^ 
D, D. was ordained over tb» 
church J{;n'iary 19, 1779, at which 
time the church consisted of 16 
members. Tliere was a mmister 
settled here previous to this (Ii&e, 
but he became a torj at the com- 
mencement of the revolution, and 
ran away. The Congregational 
society has a meetinghouse situa- 
ted in a village near &e centre of 
the township* This church con- 
sists at present of 320 members. 
There has been a Baptist church 
recently organized here, but it is at 
present small. There have bees 
two very considerable revivals of 

ber is principally pine, beech andJ religion here, and as fruits of the 

maple. There is a small villaf^J 
in the westerly part of the town- 
ship containing a meetin^;, a store, a 
tavern and about a dozen dwelling 
houses. The town contains four 
school districts a^d school houses, 
two saw mills, two stores, two tav- 
erns, and two tanneries. Popula- 
tion, 1820, 809. M. K. 
October, 1824. 
TiiETFORP, a post town in the 
southeast corner of Orange county, 
is in lat. 43° 50', and long. 4° 43', 
and is bounded north by Fairlee 
and West Fairlee, east by Con- 
necticut river, which separates it 
from Lime, N. H. south by Nor- 
wich, and west by Strafford. It 
lies 34 miles southeast from Moiit 
pelier, 23 northeasterly ' from 
Windsor, nnd was chartered Au 
gust 12, 1761, containing 26260 a- 
ores. The settlement was com- 
menced here about the year 1764- 
The first meeting of the proprie- 
tors was held in this township at 

latter, which was in 1821, 150 were 

added to the Congregational church. 

This township is watered by Om- 

pompanoosuc river, which runs 

'through it in a southeasterly direo- 

jtion, and by a large branch, whieh 

'rises in Strafford, and anites with 

Ompompanoosuc in the south part 

of the township. Both these 

'streams afford fine mill privileges. 

lAbout half of fairlee lake lies in 

,the north part of the township, 

'aind there are several smaller ponds. 

•One of these covers about nine a- 

Icres, and is situated in the eastern 

part, about four rods from the west 

bank of Connecticut river, which 

is in this place more than 100 feet 

above the level of the river. 

It is fed by no stream, nor is there 

any stream issuing from it. It is 

very deep and in summer falls two 

or three feet. It contains large 

quantities of perch and other fish. 

The road passes between the ponJ 

and the river. A vein of galensi 

the house of Abner Chaaberlain,|[or the sulphuret of lead, has bee* 





discovered here. The mine is sit-; 
uated ebout 100 rods northeasterly | 
from the meetinghouse on the 
south side of a hill. The ore is 
rich, yielding 75 per cent, of pure 
lead, but the vein is small, and has 
been pursued to the depth of 23 ft. 
into a rock, which consists princi*i 
pally of quartz. The surface of 
Thetford is uneven, and in sonie 
parts rocky. There are in town 
three small villages, two of which 
are situated on the Ompompanoo- 
suc and the other near the centre 
of the township. The latter is the, 
most important and contains a 
meetinghouse, an academy, a tav- 
ern, several stores, and a number 
of handsome dwelling houses. 
Thetford academy was incorpora- 
ted and established here in 1819, 
and is undr the care and instruc- 
tion of the i2ev, John Fitch. The 
average number of scholars is from 
40 to 50. ■ There are in town four 
teen school districts, and school 
houses, a small woollen factory, &c. 
Population 1820, 1915, 
y?</y, 1824.' 
TiWMouTH, a township in the 
central part of Rutland county, is 
in lat. 43=» 27* and long. 3® 58\ andj by 
is bounded north by Clarendon and! 
Ira, east by Wallingford, SDuth by 
Danby, and west by Wells and 
Middletown. It lies 41 miles north 
from Bennington, eight south from 
Rutland, and was chartered, Sep- 
tember 15, 1761, to Joseph Hooker 
and others, containing originally 
^040 acres. Its size has since been 
reduced, by contributing to neigh- 
boring townships, about one third. 
The settlement was commenced 
here about the year 1770. Among 
the first settlers were Thomas feck 
and John McNeal. This town was 
Organized March 11, 1777, and! 
Charles Brewster was first town 

this year the inhabitants of Tin- 
mouth had a meeting and ** Toted 
not to raise money towards paying 
Seth Warner-s regiment." Soon 
after, the following oath of alle- 
giance was imposed upon the free- 
men of this town. " You each of 
you swear by the living God, that 
you believe for yourselves, that the 
King of Great Britain hath not any 
right to command, or authority in 
or over the States of America, and 
that you do not hold yourselves 
bound to yield any allegiance, or 
obedience to him within the same, 
and that you will, to the utmost of 
your power, maintain and defend 
the freedom, independence end priv- 
ileges of the United States of Amer- 
ica, tfgainst all open enemies, or 
traitors, or conspirators whatsover; 
so help you God." The Congre- 
gational church is the only one in 
town. It was formed in 1780, and 
in September of this year the Rev. 
Benjamin Osborn was ordained over 
it. Mr. Osborn was dismissed in 
October, 1787, and in Februaiy, 
1804, they settled the Rev. 'William 
Boyce, who was dismissed about 
the year 1819. He was succeeded 
the Rev, Stephen Martindale^ 
who is the present minister. A 
Mrs. Carpenter died in this town, 
aged about 98 years, and Messrs. 
Rice and Porter are now living 
here, aged about 90. The epi- 
demic of 1813 was very inortal. 
Furnace brook, or Little West riv- 
er, rises from a small pond in the 
south part of the township, and 
runs nearly north through Claren- 
don, and unites with Otter creek in 
Rutland. A dam was formerly e- 
rected on this stream, which caused 
the water to flow back for the dis- 
tance of three miles, and the pond 
was, in some places, half a mile in 
width. In this pond the fish mul- 

clerk. On tjie I7th of February of [tiplied and became remarkably 







numerous and 

year 1815, this dam was takea a- 
way, and tbe furnace, which stood 
nipon it, was removed further up the 
stream near the centre of the town- 
.ship, where it is now in operation. 
Poultney river waters the western | 
part. There »re two ranges of- 
hills or mountains extending^- 

the out of the 34 succeeding' years. It 
was first represented in the General 
Assembly, in 1801, by William 
rhompson. The relig^ious denom- 
inations are Congregationalists, 
Freewill Baptists, Baptists, Univer- 
salists and Methodists. The Rer, 
TVilliam Shan is minister of the 
Congregational church and was or- 

through the township from south to jdained in 1821. Elder E, Sand 
north, one on each side of Furnace !i6om was ordained over the Free 

brook. Several quarries of fine 
marble have been opened and iron 
ore is found in abundance in several 
places. There are two forges and 
one blast furnace in town, but the 
latter only is now in operation. 

will Baptist society, August 14i 
1806. A town house, which is also 
occupied as a meetinghouse, was e- 
rected here in 1806. The physi- 
cians are Docts. Huntley, Pctrie 
and Hall. I'he township is watered 
The town contains six school dis-jlprincipally by the head branches 
tricts and schoolhouses, two grist,!, of Wait's river, several of which 
two saw and two fulling mills, twOjiare considerable mill streams. The 
carding machines, two stores, four I surface is very uneven, and much 
taverns and two tanneries. Popu- - • —' 

latiou, 1820,1069. 
May, 1824. 
ToMLiwsojff. — Xame altered to 
Grafton, October 31, 1791- See 



a post township in! 

of it stoney. The rocka arc prin- 
cipally granite. The timber is 
maple, beech, birch, spruce and 
hemlock. There are in town tea 
school districts, ten schoolhouses, 
three saw mills, three grist mills, 
one fulling mill, one carding ma- 

the north part of Orange county, is I 'chine, two distilleries, one store, 
in lat. 44^ 8' and long. 4^ 41', and is, land one tannery. Pop. 1820, 1020. 

bounded north by Groton, east by 
r^ewbury, south by Corinth, and; 
west by Orange. It lies 19 miles' 
southeast from Moutpelier, ani47i 
north form Windsor. It was char-j 
leredJune 17, 1763. The settle- 
ment was commenced about the! 
year 1781, by Thomas Chamberlih, 
Thomas McKeith and Samuel Far- 
num. In l7i>3, they were joined 
by Robert Mann, Samuel Thomp- 
son and John Crown, and, in 1784, 
by Lemuel Tabor, The first set- 
tlers were generally emigrants from 
New-Hampshire. Lemuel Tabor 
built the first saw mill here in 1784, 
and the first grist mill in 1787. The 
town was organized March 15, 1790, 
and Lemuel Tabor was first town 
clerk, which office he has held 33 

May, 1824. 
To WASH END, a post township in 
the central part of Windham coun- 
ty, is in iat. 43° 3' and long. 4° 20', 
and is bounded north by Acton and 
Athens, east by a part of Athens 
and Brookline, south by Newfane, 
and west by a part of Jamaica and 
a pai-t of Wardsborough. It lies 
28 miles northeast from Bennington, 
and 12 northwesterly from Brattle- 
borough; and was chartered J nne 
20, 1753, containing about 23000 a- 
cres. The first settlement was made 
here in 1761, by Joseph Tyler, who 
was soon joined by John Hazjetine, 
whose mother lived to the age of 
104 years, and others, from Upton, 
Mass. The first meeting for the 
traosactioQ of town business was on 





the 30th of May, 1771. Joseph! 

Tyler was first t6wn clerk. The 
religious denominations are Con- 
gregationalists, Baptists and Uni- 
versalists. The Rev. Mr. Dudley 
was the first settled minister. He 
was ordained over the ConsTregra- 

tional church, June 26, 1777, and 
dismissed about the year 1780. 
This church having become ex- 
tinct, it was reorganized in 1792, 
and then consisted of 15 members. 
The Rev. Luke Knowlton was or- 
dained over it, August 30, 1815, 
and died at Savannah, Georgia, 
January 2,1821. The Rev, Phi- 
letus Clark was ordained in his 
place, November 21, 1821. At tlie 
time of his ordination the church 
consisted of 58 members. The 
present number is 121. There are 
two meetinghouses in town ; one at 
the centre, erected in 1790, and the 
other in the northwestern part, built 
in 1816. Around each of these is 
a small village. There are now 
living in this township three per- 
4K>ns, who are between 90 and 100 
years of age. Among the early and 
distinguished inhabitants of this 
township may be mentioned the 
late Gen. Samuel Fletcher. He 
was bom at Grafton, Mass., 1745, 
At the age of 17 he enlisted as a 
soldier in the contest between the 
British and French colonies, in 
which service he continued one 
year. On his return he learnt the 
trade of a blacksmith, which he 
followed about four years, when he 
married a young lady with a hand- 
some property, and, riesigning the 
sledge, removed to Townshend to 
wield the ax among the trees of the 
forest. In 1775 he joined the A- 
meriean standard at Bunker''shill 
with rank of orderly sargeant. He 
returned to Townshend in January 
following, where he was made a 
captain of militia. He was^ at this 


time, principal leader in the county 
convention, and was ordered as 
cai)tain, to raise as many minute 
men as possible in his vicinity, who 
were to hold themselves in readi- 
ness to march at the beat of the 
drum. His whole company vol- 
unteered, and in 1777, they march- 
ed to Ticonderoga for the purpose 
of relieving the American army, 
which was there besieged. On this 
expedition, with 13 volunteers, he 
attacked a British detachment of 
40 men, killed one and took seven 
prisoners, without sustaining any 
loss himself. He soon after received 
a Major's commission and continued 
in the service till after the capture 
of Burgoyne. After his return, he 
lose through the different grades of 
office to that of Major General of 
militia, which office hie held six 
years. He was several years mem- 
ber of the executive council, andy 
in 1788, was appointed high sheriff 
of the county of Windham, which 
office he held 18 years successively, 
and he was three years a judge of 
County Court. He died Septem- 
ber 15, 1814, aged about 70 years. 
The surface of this township is gen- 
erally uneven, and many of the 
hills are high . and steep. West 
river runs through the township in 
a southeasterly direction. It is a 
very rapid stream, and is about tea 
rods in width. Along its banks are 
some fine tracts of interval. There 
are also several brooks^ which af- 
ford good mill seats. The town 
contains nine school districts and 
schoolhouses, two grist, four saw 
and three fulling mills, three stores, 
two taverns, two carding machines, 
one trip-hammer, one distillery and 
two tanneries. Pop. 1820, 1406. 

Trout Rivkr, is formed in 
Montgomery, by the union of south 
and east branch, the former rising 






in A:ery's gore, and the latter in jtotrn was organized March 30, 

Westfield. The junction is formed 1802, end was then called Missis- 

about half a mile west of the cen- que. Cnrtis Elkins was the first 

tre of the town, from which the town clerk. This township is well 

river takes a. northwest course, and, watered -by Missisqae river, which 

after running about four miles, en- runs through it near the western 

ters Enosburgh. It passes through'; border from south to north, and bj 

the northeast comer of Enosburgh, iseverel of its tributaries. The falls, 

and falls into the Missisque river ion the Missisque, in the north part, 

near the south line of Berkshire. j are a considerable curiosity. Here 

Trout river receives, in its course, a the river precipitates itself down a 

number of tributary streams, affords' ledge of rocks about 70 feet. These 

several valuable mill privileges and Ifallsand the deep still water below, 

fertilizes a handsome tract of in- present a grand and interesting 

tervallanJ. The Rev. Mr. Gray,' scene, whea viewed from a roci, 

an Episcopalian clergj'man, was j which projects over them, 120 feet 

drowned in this river, during a re- in perpendicular height. The soil 

markablc freshet in the fall of 1^22. lis in general a strong loam, suitable 

He was a man respected and be- 'for grass and most kinds of grain. 

loved, and his loss was much la- 

Trot, a post township in the 
north part of Orleans county, is in 

The surface is generally level, and 
along the river are tracts of inter- 
val of considerable extent and fer- 
tility. The principal rocks are 

lat. 44° 55' and long. 4° 32', and isjlchlorite and mica slate, serpentine, 
bounded north by Potton, Caa., limestone andsteatite or soap stone 
east by Newport, south by Kelly- 

vale, and west by Westfield and 
Jay. It lies 47 miles northeasterly 
from Montpelier, and 51 from Bur- 
lington. This township is eleven 
miles and a half long from north to 
south. The length of the north 

The timber is mostly maple, bircb, 
beech, spruce and hemlock, with 
some pine. The town contains four 
school districts, four schoolhowses, 
two saw, two grist and two falling 
mills, one carding machine, two 
distilleries, one store and two tav- 

line is nearly five miles, and that ofj'erns. Population, 1820,277. 

the soulli nearly two, and the town- 
ship contains about 23000 acres. 
This township was granted in two 
separate gores. The south part 
was chartered to John Kelly of 
New -York city, October 13, 1792, 
and the south half to Samuel Ave 
ry. The settlement of this town 
ship was commenced about the 
year lUOO, by emigrants from dif- 
ferent towns on Connecticut river. 
During the laie war with Great 
Britain, most of the inhabitaats left 
the town. A part of them, how- 
ever, returned after the war, and 
the settlement has 
with ooiibiderable 

Aprilt 1824* p. M. c. 

TuNBRiDGE, a township in the 
south part of Orange county, is in 
jlat. 43^ 54' and long. 4° 28', and is 
bounded north by Chelsea, east by 
Strafford, south by Royalton, and 
,west by Randolph. It lies 30 miles 
north ;rom Windsor, and 26 south- 
,east from Montpelier. It was char- 
tered, September 3, 1761, to Abra- 
ham Root, Obadiah Noble and 
others, containing 23040 acres. The 
settlement of the township "was 
commenced about the year 1776, 
by James Lyon, Moses Ordway and 
since advancedl'othcrs, emigrants from New-Hamp- 
rapidity. The||shire. James Lyon, jr., was bom 





January 25, 1730, and wad the first 
child boru ia town. The Indiaus 
passed through the to wash ip, at the 
time they visited Royalton, and 
took one or two prisoners here. 
Tlie town was organized in March, 
1786, and A. Stedman was first 
town clerk, I'hc town was first 
represented in 1787, by Seth Austin, 
who was also the first captain of 
militia and the first justice of the 
peace. About this time the ingress 
of inhabitants was so great . that 
grain could not be procured for 
their support, and they were re- 
duced almost to a state of starva- 
tion. Since that period the inhab- 
itants have been generally blessed 
•with a competency. The religious 
denominations are Congregational- 
ista, Freewill Baptists, Baptists, Re- 
formed Presbyterians and Christ- 
ians. The first settled minister was 
the Rev. David H. Williston. He 
was ordained over the Congrega- 
tional church, J une 26, 179:^ and 
dismissed in 1802. The Rev. Jacob 
Allen was ordained over the same 
church in September, 1813, and dis- 
missed in 18^1. The Congrega- 
tional church WAS organized Feb. 
5, 1792, and the Baptist church, in 
September, f799. There are two 
meetinghouses ; one, near the cen- 
tre of the township, and owned by 
the several denominations in com- 
mon, was built in 1797, and the 
other, in the eastern part, belonging 
to the Freewill Baptists, was built 
about the- year 1808. Among the 
instances of longevity may be men- 
tioned that of Daniel Hunt, who 
died here aged 100 years, Daniel 
Hopkins, who died here in 181$, 
aged 100 years, and Mrs. Mary 
White, who died in 1822, aged 95 
years. This town has never ex- 
perienced any remarkable season of 
mortality. The practicing physi- 
cians are ThgJtlas ]M[ox;by, Sewall 

ISeavy, Jonathan IGiights and 
ICharies Chandler. The township 
lis watered by the first branch of 
: White .river, w^hich runs through 
jfrom north to south, near the centre. 
'There are, on this stream, several 
'very good mill seats, which are al- 
ready occupied. The soil is gene- 
rally a deep, rich loam, and along 
the branch is some interval. The 
surface of the township is uneven, 
broken, and the elevations are ab- 
rupt. There is a medicinal spring 
in the western part of the town- 
ship, the waters of which arc im- 
pregnated with sulphuretted hy- 
drogen. They have been consider- 
ably resorted to by persons afJicited 
with cutaneous complaiuts, and 
have been found beneficial. The 
town is divided into. 18 school dis- 
tricts, and contains 17 schoolhouses. 
There are also four grist, ten savr 
and four fulling mills, three cai-ding 
machines, one woollen factory, one 
gunsmith, two stores, two distil- 
leries and two tanneries. Popula- 
tion, 1820, 2003. s. A. 
jlugust, 1824. 
TuRNERSBURGH. — Name alter- 
ed to Chelsea, October 13, 1788. 
See Chelsea. 

Under HILL, a township in the 
northeastern' part of Chittenden 
county, is in lat. 44° 33' and long. 
4° 3', and is bounded northerly by 
Cambridge, easterly by Mansfield^ 
southerly by Jericho, and westerly 
by Westford. It lies 15 miles north- 
east from Burlington, and 26 norths 
west from Montpelier. It waa 
chartered, -J une 8, 1763, to Joseph 
Sacket and others, containing 23040 
acres. ThQ eettlement of the town- 
ship was commenced about the year 
1786, the first surveys having beei^ 
made in 1785. The town was oiv 
ganized March 9, 1795, and Wm. 
Barney was first town clerk, and 
also^the first repreeentative chosea 





thesiunc year. 2'he relig^ious de- 
noniinulions are Congrrcg^ationalbts 
und Methodists. 2Tae Congregation- 
al church was organized in Deccm- 
ier, 1002. And they, in 1804, set- 
tled the Rev. James Parker, whoi 
was dismissed in 1812. The Rev.; 
N. B. Dodge was settled in 1814,' 
and dismissed in 1820. The Rev,\ 
J/r. Robiiison was settled the pres-j 
ent year. 'I'hey have a meeting-; 
house, erected in 1805. The sur-| 
ffice of a large portion of the town-: 
£hip is very uneven. The timber isj 
principally hard wood, interspersed; 
witli spruce and hemlock. I'he 
streatjis are all small. The most 
important are the head branches of 
lJrowu"'s river, which rise in thei 
.'•ouih part. The town contains six 
fchool districts and schoolhouses,' 
oiie saw mill and one tavern. Popit- 
lution, 1320, 633. W. B. 

October, 1824. 

University of Vermont. — See 
Burlington; also General View, 
page 36. 

Verceknks, the only city in 
Vermont, is situated in lat. 44*^ 10', 
and loiig. 3° 43', aud is bounded 
north and east by Ferrisburgh, 
south by VValthara, and west by 
Panton and Ferrisburgh. It lies at 
the head of navigation on Otter creek 
and was incorporated with city 
privileges October 23, 1788, being 
480 by 400 rods in extent. The 
first meeting under its charter was 
held March 12, 1789, and Samuel 
Chipman,jr. Esq. was first clerk. 
Its first Mayor was Enoch V^ood- 
bridge, Esq. who was afterwards 
chief judge of the Supreme Court. 
He was chosen July 1, 1794, and 
the same year represented Ver- 
gennes in the General Assembly. 
In 1798 a large building was erect- 
ed here for a state house in which 
the General Assembly this year 
beld its session. The building has 

jsince been occupied txa a place ibr 
I public worship, for city meetings 
land for mayor's courts, 'i'he fint 
isettlement within the present limits 
of Vergennes, was made in 1766, 
;by Donald Mcintosh, a native of 
'Scotland, who was in the battle of 
jCiilloden. He eonigrated to this 
country with Gen. Wolf's army 
during the French war, an4 died 
July 14, 1803, aged 84 years. The 
emigrants, who subsequently loca- 
ted themselves here, were princi- 
pally from Massachusetts, Connect- 
icut and the south parts of this 
jstate. The Congregational is the 
'principal church, and now consists 
jof about 60 members. The Rey. 
Daniel Sanders, D. D« was settled 
over this church in 1793 and dis- 
missed in 1801, being elected pres- 
ident of the University of Vermoat 
llie Rev. John Hough settled in 
1812, and was subsequently ap- 
pointed professor of Divinity in 
Middlebury College. The Rev. 
Alexander Covell, the present in- 
cumbent, was settled in 1817. 
There is also a small Episcopal 
church here, but they do not at 
present hold regular meetings. 
Vergennes has always been healthy, 
having sufiered as little as almost 
any place of its size in the state, by 
sickness. Otter creek, or river, 
passes through this city, and at the 
falls here, are some of the finest 
stands for mills in the country. At 
the head of the falls the stream is 
about 500 feet wide, and is divided 
by two small islands, into three 
channels, forming three distinct sets 
of falls of 37 feet. On these falls 
are two grist mills, with nine run 
of stones, four saw mills, four card- 
ing machines, four fulling mills, 
three small woollen factories, one 
blast furnace, one' patent fence 
factory, and one marble fiicto- 
ry. During the war the man* 





ufactories here were much more 
exteasiye. There were theo 
in operatioa, besides the above, one 
blast furnace, one air furnace, eight 
forgoes, one rolling mill, and one, 
wire factory, and daring that timet 
177 tons of cannon shot were^ cast' 
for government- These works were, 
suspended in June, 1816 and have; 
not since gone into operation. The; 
creek is navigable to the foot of the j I is evidenlljr increasing. The city 

lery two tanneries, and three tar- 
erns. The situation uf the water 
privileges for some years past has 
been unfortunate. The iron works^ 
which occupied one set of falls^ 
have been su;:»pended, and the east 
falls have been in the hands of non- 
residents, afid very lillls used» 
These falls have recently changed 
owners, and the amount of business 

falls here,a distance of seven miles, for 
the largest vessels on the lake, l^ 
width varies from 14 to 20 rods. 
The channel is so crooked ia many 
places as to render the navigation 
difficult with the most favorable 
ivind. To obviate tliis ioconven- 
Lence it is now contemplated to con- 
struct a tow path along the bank ol 
the creek, by which the naviga- 
tion will be greatly facilitated. 
The shore of this creek is very bold 
and vessels of 300 tons burthen 
may receive or discharge their car- 
g^oes at almost any spot with the 
assistance of ten feet plank.. The 
Hotiila, commande 1 by the brave 
McDonough, which, captured the 
British fleet in Plattsburgh bay on 
th0 11th of September, 1814, was 
fitted out at this place. Four large 
steam boats have also been built 
here, since that period, and those 
which now ply between Whitehall 
and St. Johns, always return to this 
place for winter q^uarters. TTiere is 
no place in the state which: affords 
greater facilities for ship building. 
Yergennes is^ surrounded by a rich, 
fertile country. Its trade has always 
been considerable, and since the 
completion of the Champlain canal, 
has evidently been increasing. 
There is a regular line of canal and 
steam boats, which ply betweea 
Yergennes and New York, and. oth- 
er boats, which run occasionally to 
New York and St. Johns. There 
are now here ten. stores, one distil- 

is divided inta two school districts,, 
with & school house in each, in 
which common English schools are 
kept the whole year. The pres-- 
ent population is about 1000* 
Septetnbery 1824.. p. c. t. 
Ybuno^t, a small .post townsliip. 
in Windham county, situated in the 
southeast corner of the state, is iu, 
lat. 42^ 46- and long.. 4° 28', and is 
bounded north by Brattleborough, 
east by Cx>nnecticut river, which 
separates- it from Hinsdale, N. H., 
south by Northfield, Mass., and west, 
by Guilford. It lies 33 miles, near- 
ly east from Bennington, and 50^ 
south from WindsoTi This town- 
ship constitute il a part of Uinsdale«. 
N. H., which was chartered Sep- 
tember 5, 1753, till- Yermotut be- 
came a separate states U then be- 
come the township o( Hinsdale ia^ 
Yermont^ which name was altered, 
to Yernon, in 1802*. Tfes was one- 
of the first settled townships in the- 
state, but tiie precise time of its: 
commencement is not known. The 
earliest inhabitants^ were emigrant* 
from Northampton and Northfield,.- 
Mass. The inhabitants ef this, 
township encountered all the dan> 
gees and solicitudes of Indian wars,, 
and struggled with, all those ditfi-^ 
cnlties and hardships, which are in-- 
cident to frontier settlements.^ Fort 
Dummer in! Brattleborough, Hins-. 
dale^s fort in Hinsdale^ and Bridge- 
maci's fort in this township, were alJk 
insufiicient to shield the ix^abitantss 





from the incarsions of the ladiaos. 
On the 24th of June, 1746, a party 
«f 20 Indians came to Bridg^eman^s 
fort, attacked a number cf men who' 
were at work in a meadow, killed! 
William Robfoins and James Parker,' 
wounded M. Gilson and Patrick' 
Roy, auil rssile pridOQdrs of Daniel 
iiowe and John Beeman. Howej 
killed one of the Indians before he; 
was taken. In 1747, they burnt" 
Bridgeman's fort, killed several 
persons and made others prisoners. 
On the 27th of July, 1735, the In- 
dians ambushed Caleb Howe, Kil-, 

reg^ar church in this town, bat 
the Baptists are the most nameroos 
religious sect. A meetinghouse wu 
erected here in 1802, in which £^ 
der Daoid Aeirman, a Baptist, hu 
o&ciated a considerable share of 
the time since that period. Tht 
Rev. Bunker Gay, a Cong^r^tioo- 
alist, was ordained over this town 
and Hinsdale, N. H., in 1764, and 
dismissed in IjBOS. Tlie epidemic 
of 1813 was very distressing^ in this 
town. About one fifth of the in- 
habitants were afflicted with it, and 
about one thirtieth part died. There 
kiah Grout and Bei^amin Gaffield,'lwere 21 deaths, mostly of children 
as they were returning^ from their, land youth, in the course of a few 

labour in the field, and then pro- 
ceeded to Bridgeman^s fort, where 
they made prisoners of Mrs. Howe, 
Grout and Gaffield, with their 
children, who were carried prison- 
ers to Canada.* Startwell's fort 
was built here in 1740, and is now 
standing in the north part of the 
township, and is occupied as a 
dwellinghouse. It is probably thej 
oldest house, now standing in the 
fttate. The records of the town 
were accidentally burnt in 1797, 
and thlr^fore the time of its organ- 
ization cannot be ascertained. It 
was, however, before the revolu- 
tion. The Hun. John Bridgeman, 
who has subsequently been, many' 
years, a judge in this county, was I 
the first town clerk, and the Hon.; 
Jonathan Hunt, who was. after 
wards Lieut. Governor of the state, 
was the first representative. He 
died June 1, 1823, aged 85. The 
Hon. Araa Hunt, formerly Major 
General of the first division of Ver- 
mont militia, is still living here at a 
very advanced age. There is no 

* For a more particular account 
ef these trajisactions, see Oay^s nar' 
rative in a school book^ entitled the 
" vi/mrican Preceptor J^ 

weeks, and fbur died in the space of 
24 hours. Doct. Cyrus Washbara 
was the first, and has evef since been 
the only regular physician in town. 
He has been in successful practice 
more than 20 years. The streams, 
in this township, are all small. 
White lilly pond covers about 100 
acres. A large proportion of the 
surface of the township is moan- 
tainous, and the soil is dry, stoney 
and thin, except kome small tracts of 
interval along Connocticut riyer, 
which are "very fertile. In the 
western part are some quarries of 
excellent slate. The original growth 
of timber, on the mountains, has lon§ 
since been destroyed by fires, and a 
young and handsome growth of oak 
and chesnut sprung up. Between 
the meadows and the hills is a con- 
siderable tract of pitch {line plain, 
which produces g^ood crops of rye, 
when cultivated. The town con- 
tains six school districts, five school- 
houses, two 'grist mills, four saw 
mills, two taverns and two stores. 
Population. 1820, 627. 

Jkfarc/t, 1824. s. 8. 

Vbrshirb, a township in the 

central part of Orange county, U 

in lat. 43° 57', and long. 4*^ 3T, 

and is bounded north lnj Coristhi 




cut b; Weit Fairlee, iniitb by\ 
StraSurd, and wtst by Cbelnea. 
It lies is milei BaulJieoat from 
Montpeliec, anil 33 north ftoiu 
AVindsor. It was grunled Nov. T. 
1780, and chartered August 3, 
ITBltoAUner Sealy and others, 
foutuining SlSSl acres. Tlit 
leltlemcDt wai -com nje need in 
Ihejenr ITBO. The town wh- 
ol^aniied ill 1733. Andrew Peter? 
waa 6ift town clerk and Ebenserj 
Weit was first representative.! 
The religiouB denomiiirttioiu are 
CoDgregBlionatiitJ, Biiplitlf,Fre(r-j 
will Puplitts, MelliudiiU and 
Cbrislmni. rbe Rev. Thataas 
Simpion is (he only olerf f man. 
T'lie most coD^idernble re^JTala of 
religion were in 1810 KUd 1821 
7'here are four meetinshoutes ii) 
difft rent parts of the township, biil 
thej aremaattj imall. Doct. Ez 
ra BlisBM the only pmcticlii; plij'- 
BJoian. It is watered by the heud 
branche* of Onipompauooeuc rir- 
pr, wliicb are here small. The 
Biirr;ice is V«ry uacveo, and in 
Fame paria stouejr. There are ten; 
.sclioot districtf and school tiout«s,| 
one grist mill, Tour bsiit mills, two' 
atorea and one tavern. Popula 
rion, 1820, 1313. ^ h. J.jr. 

ViCTORT, SO uniohabiteil town-' 
■hip in the southwettero part ofj 
'Esaex county, is in lat, 44° 32' ujd] 
lon^. 5^ 5', and is bounded north- 
westerly by Sorke anil a part of 
Kirbj, north easterly by Grnoby 
anJ a part of Eaat-Haven, south- 
east by Lunenbnrgh and Caoconl, 
andsDuthwest by Bradleyvale. It 
was grnntea November 6, 1730, aodj 
cbartered Septcmtier 6, 1781. to 
Ebeneier Fisfc and othen, contain- 
ing '23040 seres. It is watered by 
Moose river, -which runs throngh it 
from □nrtlieasl tu southwest. 

ViNBKdHD, a township in Grand 
ble CO ailt;i isin Ut . 44° S I'uiiUiuig. 

3^37', and is boaude,t,on all Bides,by 

lake Champlaiu. being; an island. It 


froni Burlington, and 13 nearly 

fmm St. Albans.' Itwaschar- 

tered, by thecRmeoflslo LaMolte, 

Benjamin Wait and others, Oc- 

ier27, I78Q, uaiiKiiaiiig'1630 a- 

is. The name was altered to 

Vineyanl.rjovemberl.lBOa. The 

settlement of this town was com- 

iced about the year 17B5. A- 

ig llie early settlers were Eben- 

■ Hyde, Enoch Hull, William 

iBloDchard and luhaboJ Fitoh. The 

Itown was Ofgaoiied about the year 

190. Ahnham Knapp was tint 

erk, and Nathaniel Wales Erst 

ipreseotstive. There 



tends across it frnm east to west, 
which « bounds witli exceUent cc- 
Jar. The rocks arc limestone, and 
are extensively fjuarried for build- 
ing, for which purpose they answer 
weU. The townij JiTidediatolwo 
school districts, with a scboolhouse 

each. Population, 1820,312. 

Oelobtr, 1824. e. c. 

WArrsFiF.r^o, a post township ia 
Ihe southwestern part of Washing- 
ionnty. is in lat. 44'' II' and 
4° ir. and is bouuJed north 
by Moretown, east by Nopllifleld, 
south by W.irren, and west by 
Payston. It lies II miles south- 
west from Montpelier, and 30 south- 
east from Burhnglon, It was char- 
tered February S5, llBZ, to Roger 
Benjamin Wait and others, 
containing S3S00 acres. The set- 
tlement of this township wai coin- 
menced in' 1 789, by Geo. Beujaniia 



March 25, 1794, and JVloses Ueuton 
was Arsttown clerk. The first free. 
ni«i's meeting was held in Sep(„ 
1795, when Gen. Wait was cho.ea 
to represent the town in General 
Anemblf. Ttie nombec of legal 





voters, ia town, was, at this time, ihere, he removAd his family to thii 
<f7. Gen. Wait, the first inhabit- jtownship in 17^9, and cootinued 
ant of this town, was bom at Su J- here without seeing any other ha- 
bury, Mass., February 13, 1737. jman beings or havings any nei^- 
He possessed a firm and vi«;orou9 jbors within 14 miles. Here he 
constitution, and early manifested a -lived to behold the wilderness con- 
disposition and talent for military 'verted into fruitful fields, in the en- 
enterprise. At the tLge of 18, he -joymeut of competence, and died, in 
entered the service of his country j 1 822, aged 86 years. A religions 
under the brave Gen. Amherst. In jsocicty of the Congregational order 
1756, he was taken by the French, iwas formed here in 1794. October 
carried to Quebec, and from thence 7, 1801, the Kev. WiUiam Salis- 

sent to France as a prisoner. On 
the shore of France he was retaken 

bury was ordained overit» and^dis- 
missed January 3i» 1809. He was- * 

by the British and carried to Eng- ^succeeded by the Rev. Amariak 
land. In the spring of 1757, he re-; Chandler^ the piesent minister, who> 

turned to America, and in 1758, as 
sisted in the capture of Louisburgti. 
During the two succeeding years, 
he aided in the reduction of Can-, 
ada. After the submission of Can-i 
ada,he was sent^ by the coJimand-! 
ant at Detroit, to Illinois, ta bring 
in the French garrisons included in 
the capitulation* He left Detroit,. 
December 10, and returned on, the 
first of March following, having per*, 
formed tlus difficult service with! 
singular perseverance and success.' 
At 25 years of age he had been en-! 
o-aged in 40 battles and skirmishes \\ 
had his clothes several times per- 
forated with musket balls, but 

was ordainei^ February 1, 1810. 
This society has^ a cfmveoient meet<^ 
inghouse. A Methodist society wa» 
formed here in 1823, wiiich is sup* 
plied by itinerant preachers. The 
town, is settled with indastrioos, en^ 
terprising and generally flourishing 
farmers. The soil is diversified^ 
but generally a mellow loam, deep* 
and of excellent quality, prodadog 
grass ia the greatest abundance.. 
Wheat, rye, barley, oats, com, kc 
are raised in such quantities as amply ■ 
to reward the hand of industry. 
Flax has been cultivated with pe- 
culiar success. Mad rives» a small 
rapid stfevn, with many a. beauti- 

never received a wound. In 1767, Iful meander, passes through the 
he removed to Windsor .in this; town near the western boundary in 

state, and constituted the third fam- 
ily in that township. He acted a 
decided and conspicuous pai*t in 
favour of Vermont, in the contro- 
versy with New- York. In 1776, 
he entered the service of the United 
States as captain, and fought under 
the banners of Washington till the 
close of tiie war, during which 
time he had been raised to the rank 
of Colonel. After this, he was 
made a Brigadier General of mili- 
tia, and was seven years high sher- 
iff of the county of Windsor, 
iiaring made a large purchase {proper for earthem ware, is plentyi. 

a direction from southwest to north- 
east-. It has three bridges in Waits-, 
field, and falls into Onion river in 
Moretowu, seveamiles below Mont^ 
pelier. The banks of this river are 
adorned with some of the most, 
beautiful and fertile meadows to be 
found on any stream of its size in. 
New-England. They extend, gen- 
erally, from one hundred to two 
hundred and fifty rods in width. 
Several beds of iron ore h»ve been 
^discovered, but have not been 
wrought to any extent. Clay, 





1 some good specimens of rock 
rstal have been fouad. Tbere 
2, io tow a, six schoolhoases, one 
ist and four saw mills, one card- 
; machine, one store, two tav- 
as. Population, 1820,935. 
October^ 1824. A. c. 

Wait's River. The main 
Binch of this river rises in Harris' 
re, and runs southeasterly along 
e we«t line of Top^ham. An- 
her branch, called Jail branch, 
;es in Washington, and running 
nrtheasterly, joins the main 
ancb in the southwest part of 
spsham. Another stream rises 
im several heads in the north 
irt of Topsham, and, running 
utberlj unites with the main 
ream near tlie northeast corner 
'Corinth. Another 8tr«am, cal- 
d the south branch, rises near the 
iddle of Washington, and pursu- 
^ a southeasterly course joins 
B river at Bradford. Wait's riv- 
and all its branches are lively 
"earns, and afford a number of 
ry good mill privileges. In 
'adford, where this river is cros- 
i by the main road leading up 
e Connecticut, i% a fall which 
raishes a nudaber of fine mill 
ats, on which are a grist mill, a 
w mill, a carding machine and a 
kper mill. Below this fall, the 
rer meanders through a tract of 
terval, and falls into the Con- 
icticut by a mouth six rods wide. 
Waldeit, a pobt township six 
lies square in the western part of 
aledonia county, is in lat. 44^ 28\ 
id long. 4° 4r, and is bounded 
Ktherly by Goshen gore, easterly 
f Danville, southerly by Cabot, 
id westerly by HardwicK. It lies, 
t miles northeast from Montpelier, 
as granted November 6, 1780 
id chartered to Moses Robinson, 
iq. and others August 18, jl781. 
tthaoel Perking Esq. moved his 

family i^to t))is township in Janu- 
ary 1789, and his was for three years 
(he only tamily in town. Nathan 
Barker, E«q. ivas the second set- 
tler. Jesse, son of N. Perkins was 
the first child born here. The set- 
tlement was commenced on tite 
Hazen road, at a place where 
there was a block house erected 
during the revolutionary war. 
The town was organized March 24, 
1794. This township lies between 
the head waters of Onion and La- 
moile rivers, and contains no large 
streams. The most considerable 
is Joe's brook, which originates in 
Cole's pond, and passes off in an 
easterly direction into the Pas* 
sumpsic river. The river Lamoile 
touches upon the northeast corner 
and a head branch of Qnion river 
originates in the southwestern 
part.x There are two considerable 
ponds, viz. Cole's pond, in the north 
e astern, and Xrt^orcTs /?on<{ in the 
southeastern part. The north- 
western part has a handsome sur- 
face and a productive soil. The 
other parts are but little settled. 
The town is divided into eight 
school districts, in four of which 
are school nouses. James Bell, 
Esq. attorney, is the only profes- 
sional man. There are here two 
grist, and 5 saw mills, three tav- 
erns, three distilleries and one tan- 
nery. Population 1820, 580. . 
September, 1823. 
Wallingford, a post township 
in the southeastern part o£ Rutland 
county, is in lat. 43° 27', and long. 
4° 4', and is bounded north by 
Clarendon, east by Mount Holly, 
south by Mount Tabor, aijyd west by 
Tinmouth. It lies 42 miles north- 
easterly from Bennington, and ten 
miles south from Rutland. It was 
chartered November 27, 1716, and 
contained by charter 23040 acres. 
The settlement was commenced ia 





177J by Abraham Jackson and fam- 
ily. The early settlers were most- 
ly emi^ants from Connecticut. 
The town was organized march 10, 
1778. Abraham Jackson was first 
town clerk, and also first represent- 
ative. The religions denominations 

are Coo^eg^tionalists and Baptists. 
Elder Henry Green, a Baptist, wa; 
the first settled minister. The 
present minister in the Baptist 
church is Elder Luman Andrut. 
The first Congre|ational clei^man 
was the Rev. Benjamin Osbom, 
and the present is the Rev, Kli S. 
Hunter, The physicians are John 
Fox, David Holden, jr. and Joseph 
Kandall,jr. Attomies, William F. 
Hall, and Abial Child. The town- 
ship is watered by Otter creek, 
which runs through it from south 
to north, by Mill river in the north- 
eastern part, and by a number of 
brooks, all which afford convenient 
sites for mills. Lake Hiram, some- 
times called Spectacle pond, lies on 
the mountain in the southeast part 
of the township and covers about 
350 acres A mile and a half south 
west of lake Hiram is a pond, cov- 
ering about 50 acres, and west 
of Otter creek, opposite the 
village, is one covering about 100 
acres. The eastern part of tlie 
township lies on the Green Moun- 
tains, and the highest ridge here is 
called the White rocks. The soil 
near Otter creek is of a superior 
quality. In other parts it is good, 
and produces excellent grass. A 
range of primitive limestone passes 
through the western part of the 
township, in which have been o- 
jiened several quarries of excellent 
marble. Green Hill, situated near 
the centre, is composed almost en- 
tirely of quartz. A part of the 
range called White rocks appears 
to be granite, jand the rest quartz, 
ifurther east the rocks are princi- 

pally granite. At the foot of the 
White rocks are large cavitia 
farmed by the fallen rocks, called 
I the ice heds^ in which ice is found in 
abundance through the summer 
season. The principal village ia 
jthis town is situated near Otter 
■creek, in the nosth i)art, aboat i 
mile from Clarendon line. It eoD- 
tains 40 dwelling houses, and about 
50 families. It is a very floorish- 
ing village, containing a number of 
stores, mechanic's bhops, &c. and is 
built principally upon one street, 
running north and south. The 
town contains one house for paUie 
worship, eleven school districts and 
school houses, two grist mills, ten 
saw mills, two falUng mills, two 
carding machines, one cotton facto- 
ry, five stores, one lavcm, two dis- 
tilleries, one furnace, four tanne- 
ries and six blacksmiths. PopidA- 
tion, 1820, 1570. w. r. H. 

Jti(y, 1824. 

Waloomsac Rivsr, \b a small 
stream, which is formed in Qenniogf- 
ton by the union of several branch- 
es, which vise in Glastenboiy, 
Woodford and Pownal. It takes a 
northwestern direction," leaves th« 
state near the northwest corner d 
Bennington and unites with Hoo* 
sac river, nearly on the line be- 
tween Washington and Rensalaer 
counties, N. Y. Between thk 
stream and Hoosac river was fooglit 
the Bennington Battle. On tU 
Waloomsac and its branches v» 
many good mill privileges and 
some fine meadows. 

Walthadc, a township in ^ 
central part of Addison coanty, ^ 
in lat. 44« 8\ and long. 3° 45', t»l 
is bounded north by Ferrisbuijhi 
east and south by New Haven, iw 
west by a part of Vergeones and 
Otter creek, which separates it 
from Panton. It lies 24 miles south 
from Barlington, and sine no(lhp, 





west from Middlebury. This' 
township is about three miles' 
square. It was set off from New- 
Haven and incorporated in 1796, 
and was named .Waltham by Mr. 
Phinehaa Brown of this town, who 
emigrated from Waltham, Mass. 
It was org^anized immediately after, 
and Andrew Barton was first town 
clerk. The settlement o( this 
township was commenced just be- 
before the beg^inaing of the revolu- 
tionary war, by a family of Gris- 
"wolds and others from Connecticut. 
During the war a Mr. Griswold of 
this town was taken by the Indians 
and carried a prisoner to Canada, 
where he was detained about 
three years, and the settlement 
liere was broken up. At the close 
of the war the settlement was re- 
commenced by Messrs. Griswold, 
Brown, Cook and others, and ad- 
vanced with considerable rapidity. 
The religious denominations are 
Congregationalists and Baptists ; 
but no meetinghouse or settled 
minister. Otter creek washes the 
western border, but there are no 
mill privileges in town. Buck 
mountain lies near the centre of the 
township, ^nd is the highest land 
, in the county west of the Green 
Mountains. It commands a very 
extensive and beautiful prospect. 
The soil is generally good, and a- 
long the creek are some fine tracts 
of interval. The timber is pine, 
oak, maple, beech, birch, walnut, 
butternut, ash, and hemlock. The 
town is divided into four ^hool 
districts, and contains three school 
bouses. Pop. 1820, 264. r. b. 
Matf, 1824. 
. Wardsborough,* a post town- 
ship in the western part of Wind- 
ham county, is in lat. 42° 59', and 
~ long. 4° ir, and is bounded north 
by Jamaica, east by Newfane and 
Townshend, south by Dover, and 

west by Stratton and Somerset. 
It lies 20 miles northeast from Ben- 
nington and 15 northwest from 
Brattleborough. It was granted 
November 7, 1J80, and chartered 
to William Ward of Newfane and 
others, the same day. In 1788 this 
township was divided into two dis- 
tricts, called the North and South 
districts. In 1810 the two districts 
were incorporated into two sepa- 
rate and distinct towns ; the north- 
ern by the name of Wardsborough 
and the southern by the name of 
Dover. The settlement of Wards- 
borough was commenced in June 
1 780, by John Jones, Ithamer Al- 
len and others, from Milford and 
Sturbridge, Mass, The town was 
organized March 14, 1786, and 
AarOn Hudson was the first town 
clerk. He was also the first repre- 
sentative chosen the next year. 
The Congregational and Baptist 
are the ooly religious societies. 
The Congregational church was 
organized May 1, 1793, over which 
the present pastor, the Rev, James 
Tufls, was ordained November 4, 
1795. Their meetinghouse is in 
the centre of the town and was e- 
rected in 1796. The Baptist church 
was formed about the year 1793, 
has a meetinghouse in the north 
part of the town, built in 1 795. El- 
der Stephen Cheat was ordained 
over this church in 1806 and died in 
1811, since which they have, had 
no settled minister. There was a 
considerable revival of religion 
here in 1800, and 77 added to 
the church. In 1795 the canker 
rash was very mortal here among; 
the children, and the epidemic of 
1814 carried off about 40 persons, 
mostly adults, in the course of six 
months. '^I'he physicians b re John 
P. Warner, and Paul Wheeler. 
The surface of this township is Ve- 
ry uneven and some parts 'of it 





rocky. Between this and Dover 
is a rang:e of hi<:h hills. The soil 
is better adapted to grazing than 
til]a§;e, yet there is sufficient ara- 
ble land to produce grain for the 
lupport of the inhabitants. The 
township is watered by a con- 
siderable branch of West river, 
which affords some tolerable good 
mill privileges. Of the rare min- 
erals found here tremalite and zois- 
ite are the mo^t important. The 
tremalite is in fine crystals some- 
times six inches long, penetrating 
quartz. The zoisite is in prismat- 
ic crystals, of a gray color, some- 
times a foot in length, and from one 
to two inches wide 1 here are here 
seven school districts, seven school 
houses, three gri&t, lour saw, and 
two fulling mills, one carding ma- 
chine, three stores, two taverns 
and three tanneries. Population, 
1820, 1016. J. R. k J. T. 

August, '>824. 

W^ARKER'S Gore, a tract of 2000 
acres of land, lying in the north 
western part of Essex county, is 
bounded north by Norton, east by 
Warren's gore, south by Morgan, 
and west by Holland. It was grant- 
ed October 20, 1787. It contains 
no streams of consequence, and is 

Warren, a post township in the 
eastern part of Addison county, is 
in lat. 44=^ S' and long. 4° 7', and is 

bounded northerly by ■ Waitsfield ,31', and is bounded north by Onnft, 

and S. Lard was chosen town clerk. 
I Thomas Jerrells was the first rep* 
resentative. The religious deson- 
inatioDs are Congregati(Hudi8t^ 
■Methodists and Baptists ; but tbeit 
'is no meetinghouse or settled nun* 
jister. Henry B. Peabody is the 
.only physician. Mad river rises in 
I Avery *8 gorei, and runs through thii 
^township in a northerly directioa 
jinto Waitsfield, affording a comid- 
erable number of good mill prir- 
ileges. This township lies between 
'the two ranges of the Green Movn- 
jtains at the place where the two 
ranges commence, but the surftiMis 
not very mountainous. It is di- 
vided into four school districts with 
aschoolhouse in each. There ar« 
here two saw mills, one grist mill, 
one carding machine, one store and 
jone tavern. Population, 1 820, 320. 
I October^ 1824. a. r. 

I Warrsn^s Gorb, an uninhab- 
ited tract of 6380 acres, lying in the 
northwestern part of Essex county, 
and belonging to Warren, is boond- 
ed north by Norton, eastbyAvery^ 
gore, south by Morgan, and west \fj 
Warner^s gore. On the line bfr> 
tween this gore and Norton is a con- 
siderable pond, the waters of which 
flow to the north into Missuippe 
lake in Canada. 

WASHurGTOir^ a post township ii 
the northwestern part of Orange 
county, is in lat. 44^ 4' and long. 4^ 

and a part of Fayston, easterly by 
Roxbury, southerly by Kingston, 
and westerly by Lincoln. It lies 
31 mile? southeast from Burlington, 
and 16 southwest from Montpelier. 
It was chartered October 20, 1789, 
to the Hon. John Throop and oth- 
ers, containing 16660 acres. The 
settlement of this township was 
commenced about the year 1797, 
by Samuel Lard and Seth Leavitt. 
The town was organized soon after. 

east by Corinth, south by Ofaelieit 
!and west by Williamstown. tt lies 
|15 miles southeast from Iffontpelier, 
'and 43 north from Windsor. It wii 
jgranted November 6, 1780, and 
chartered to Major Elisha Burtoa 
'and others, August 8, 1781, con- 
.taining 23040 aofea. Before the 
isettleroent of this township wsi 
commenced, a log jail was erected 
here by the proprietors in order to 
comply with a requisition in the 





<2harler, and this gave naioe to two; 1810, by the name of Jefferson 
•branches, •ne running into Onion. |co«aty, and organized December 1, 
river, and the ether into Wait's '1811. The name was altered to 
river. The town was organfzed a- Washington county, November 8, 
bout the year 1792. Jacob Burton :1814. Montpelier, lying near the 
^was first town clerk, and Thaddeus 'centre of the county, is the seat of 

While the first representative. The 
religious denominations are Congre- 
^tionalists, Methodists, Freewill 
fiaptists and Baptists. The former 
are the most numerous. There are 
two meetinghouses, one in the north 
part, completed in 1823, and the 
other, in the southwest part, now 
building. There are two persons, 
one man and one woman, living in 
town, who -are between 90 and 100 
years of age. There are two phy- 
sicians, Docts. Benjamin Blodget 
and Ebenezer Bacon. Branches of 
Onion, Waist's and White river 
originate in this township, bot they 
are small, and afibrd few mill priv- 
ileges. The timber is principally 
maple. On jail branch of Onion 
river is a small village, containing 
. ten dwellinghouses, two storey, one 
tavern, one schoolhouse, one fulling 
mill and one clover mill. The 
town is divided into eleven school 
filiatricts, and contains nine school- 
house?, one grbt, one saw and one 
falling mill, one carding machine. 

two stores, one tavern and one tan- 
nery. Population, 1820, 1 160. 
October, 1824. 8. b. 

Washiwgtow CoirwTT,lies prin- 
cipally between the two ranges of 
Uv$ Green mountains, and nearly in 
th^ pehtre of the state. It is sit- 
uated betjveen 44*' 1' and 44° 32' 
Borth lat. and between 4° & and 4° 
37' east long., being about 36 miles 
from north to south, and 31 from 
east to west. It is bounded north 
by Orleans county, east by Cale- 
donia county, southeast by Orange 
county, southwest by Addison coun- 
ty, and west by Chittenden county. 
It was incorporated November 1, 


[justice and is a place of consider- 
jable business. The Supreme Court 
sits here on the last Tuesday of Au- 
gust, and the County Court on the 
second Monday of March and sec- 
ond Monday of September. This 
county is very uneven and is water- 
jed by Onion riyer and its numerous 
I branches. In the eastern part there 
jis an abundance of excellent gran- 
ite. West of this the rocks are 
'principally argillaceous slate, 
quartz, chlorite slate, and mica slate. 
The Grand List for 1823 was 
J 129253. Population, 1820, 14725. 
I Waterbury, a post township in 
'the western part of Washington 
'county, is in lat. 44^ 23^, and long. 
4° 13', and is bounded north by 
I Stow, east by Middlesex, south by 
Onion river, which separates it from 
Duxbury, and a part of Moretown, 
and west by Bolton It lies twelve 
miles northwesterly from Montpe- 
lier, and 24 southeast A*om Burling- 
ton; and was chartered June 7, 
1763, containing 21220, acres. U 

June, 1784, Mr. James Marsh mov- 
jed his family, consisting of a wife 
land eight children, into this town- 
ship from Bath, N. H. and took pos« 
session of a surveyor's cabin, which 
was standing near Onion riv- 
er. Mr. Marsh was induced to 
move his family here at the time he 
did, by the promise of the proprie- 
tors, that several other faWiiliet 
should be procured to move into 
the town in the following fall. 
This promise was not fulfilled, and 
for nearly a year this solitary fam- 
ily scarcely saw a human being but 
themselves, ami for more than 
two years, the nearest neigh- 





boring family lived on the farm 
where James VVhitcomb, Esq. now 
lives, in Bolton, a distance of seven 
or eight miles. In the spring of 
1785, Hon. Elzra Butler visited this 
town, and spent some time in pre- 
paring a place of residence. In 
September, 1786, he moved his iam- 
ily from Weathersfield, Vt. to this 
town. In 1788 Mr. Reuben Man-! 
ion moved into the town with hiej 
family and soon after was followed I 
by several others. The first town; 
meeting was held, and the towni 
organized the 31st day of March, 
1790. The Hon. Ezra Batler was 
the first town clerk, and Dr. Dan- 
iel Elise the first representative. 
About the year 1800 a revival of 
religion commenced in this town 
and continued through that, and' 
a part of the following year. The 
awakening was very general in ev-1 
ery part of the town, and in those! 
years about eighty made a profes-| 
sion of religion. About this time a' 
Congregational, a Baptist and a 
Methodist church were organized,' 
and Hon, Esra Butler was ordainedj 
Elder of the Baptist church, with! 
which he has ever since been con-j 
nected. In 1803 the Rev. Jona-1 

has been erected the present sea«oQ, 
and completely finished. The 
lown is coBsiderod very healthy, 
there having been no remarkable 
reasons of mortality since its settle- 
ment. The physicians, are Ste- 
phen Pierce and Oliver W. Drew. 
Attornies, Dan Carpenter, Henry 
F. Janes and P. Dellingham, jr. 
There is much level land in thii 
town, and where the surface is un- 
even, the swells are g^enerally so 
gradual as to present little or no 
ol)stBcle to cultivation. The soil m 
good, being in gei^ral dry ainl 
warm. The interval lands, on On- 
ion river, and on several smaller 
streams, are not surpassed in fertil- 
ity >]l)y any in the state, ani the lamls 
in every pari of tlie town produce in 
a manner, that amply repays the 
labor of the skilful farmer. The 
timber is generally hard wood, 
with a considerable mixture of 
spruce and hemlock. The town is 
separated from Duxbury by Onion 
river. In the western part of the 
township is a stream, called Water- 
bury river, which rui^ through it 
from north to south, and falls into 
Onion river. In the easterly part 
there is a large brook, called 

than Hovey was ordained and set-' 'Thatcher^s branch, runjaing through 
tied as pastor of the Congregation-; jthe town nearly parallel to Water- 
ml church in this town. He was! bury river. These two streams af* 

dismissed about four years after his 
settlement. In the years 1819 and 
20, there was another awakening 
here. The attention to religious 
concerns was pretty general, and! 
many were hopefully converted.! 
There are now in town one Con- 
gregational church, consisting of 
about 35 members, one Baptist 
ohurch, consisting of about 38 mem- 
bers, one Methodist Society ofj 
about 35 members, and a Society 
of Freewill Baptists, under the care 
9f Elder Samuel Lord* A haj;id- 
sf »• CoBgregatiooai meetinghoiise 

ford se^^eral excellent mill privi- 
leges, most of which are now occu- 
pied. Smaller streams are numer- 
ous in all parts of tHe township* 
In the southwest comer of the 
township the passage of Onion riv- 
er through a considerable hilli 
is reckoned a curiosity. The 
stream has -here worn a channel 
through the rocks, which in timet 
past, undoubtedlyt fi>rmed a cat- 
aract below of no ordinary height, 
and a considerable lake above. 
The chasm is at present about one 
hundred feet witjie, and nearly as 





deep. On one side the rocks are! 
nearly perpeadicular, some of; 
'Which have fallen across the bed of 
the stream, in such a manner as to 
form a bridge ; passable, however, 
•nly at I6w water. On the samei 
side the rocks which appear to havcj 
been loosened and moved by the; 
underminki§^ of the water, have 
a^in rested, and become fised in 
suoh a postare as to form several 
caverns, or caves, some of which 
have the appearance of rootbs fit- 
ted for the convenience of man. 
Several musket balls and flints 
were found in the extreme part of 
this cavern, a few years since , with 
the appearance o^ havings lain there 
many years, which makes it evi- 
dent^ that it was known to the early 
hanters. In this town are eight 
school districts, seven school hous- 
es, two grist mills, five saw mills, 
and two carding machines, two 
stores, three taverns, two distille- 
ries, and two taimeries. Popula- 
tion 1820, 1269. p. D. jr. 
Augusl^ 1824. 

Watsrburt River, rises in 
Morris town, and runs south through 
the western part of Stow and Wa- 
terbury into Onion river. In Stow, 
it receives one considerable tribu- 
tary from the east which rises in 
Worcester, and two from the west 
which rise in Mansfield. It also; 
receives several tributaries from 
the west, in Waterbury, which o- 
riginate in Bolton. The whole 
length of the stream is about 16 
miles and it afibrds a number of 
good mill privileges. 

Wat£RFord, a post township, 
in the eastern part of Caledonia 
county, is in lat. 44^ 22', and long. 
4° 67', and is bounded northeast by 
Concord, southeast by Connecticut 
river, which separates it from Ly- 
man, N. H., southwest by Baruet, 
an4 northwest by St. JoivnsV>ury. 

It lies 32 miles nearly cast from 
•VIontpelier, and 21 north from New- 
bury. It was granted November 
7, 1780, and chartered to Benjamin 
Whipple and others, November 8, 
1730, by the name of Littleton. 
The settlement of this township 
was commenced in 1787. The 
town was organized May 6, I793i 
and Selah Howe was first town 
jclerk. The name was altered from 
jLittleton to Waterford in 1797, 
iThe relisrious; denominations arc 
iCongregationalisls, Freewill Bap- 
jtists, and Baptists. The Jlcv. Asa 
iCarpenter was ordained over the 
■Cougregational church, May 30, 
jl708, and dismissed in UllG. Th« 
\Rev, Rtuben Mason^ the present 
Ipastor, was ordained in ll> 19. The 
jchurch at present consists of about 
70 members. There are three 
meeting houses ; that belonging to 
the CongregationalistSf is near the 
centre, and that belonging to the 
Freewill Baptists, is near the line 
between this to^prnship and St. 
Johnsbury. The other is smalls 
and only occasionally occupied. 
The number of deaths in this town 
up to the year 1814, was 110, aver-? 
aging seven per. year, since the com* 
jmencement of the settlement. The 
iphysiciuas are Ralph Biigbee* 
|and Amasa Kellogg. Attornies, 
iCharles Davis, and Azor Weather- 
|by. The Passumpsic river runs a- 
cross the northwesi corner, and 
Moose river just touches upon this ' 
township. Stiles^ pofnd is in the 
southeast part, and <:overs about 
jlOO acres. The fifteen mile falls in 
jthe Connecticut are partly against 
I this township. There are soma 
I'fiatd along the river here, but they 
are- narrow and not overflown at ^ 
high water. The surface is gener- 
ally rough .and stoney, and the tim- 
ber maple, beech, birch, spruce, 
hemlock, &c. There arc here two 



oil mills, aud two clover mills.ijyoulh. Coosiderable. number 
PopulatioB, 1820, 1247. jlwere aUo added to the other 

VViiATnERSFiELD, a post town -churches. 'A meetinghouse was 
iu the eastern part of V.'iadsor' built iu this town b}' a land tax a- 
couiity, is in lat. 43® Si* and long:. '.bout the year 1787, which was cou- 
4° 20', and is bounded north by^.^sumed by fire in March, 1S21. The 
Windror, east by Connecticut riv-!'^anle year the Congregational so« 
er, which separates it from Clarc-l ciety commenced a building of brick 
jnonl, \. Jl., fouth by Springfield, near the spot "where the old meet- 
andv.e«t by Cayendish and Balti-iug house stood, which -was dedi- 
more. It lies 61 miles south from > cated to the worship of God, in 
Montpelier, and 50 northeast from] October, 1C22. 1 he epidemic of 
Bennmgton, and was chartered,!' 1B12 prevailed here to an alarniic* 
Aug;ust 20, 1761, to Benjamin Allen,- .degree, and. was fatal to between 
and oiherf, containing 22030 acres.' 60 and 70 of the inhabitants. 7 he 
It was settled by emigrants from Hon, William Jarvis^ late .United 
Ne'^iV-Uhvcn, Con. The town was Stales's consul at Lisbon, has here 
t«r^aiiiz£?d iu March, 1778, and! 'one of the beat farms in New-Eng[- 
lienorii iLiltie was first town clerk.! land. It is situated on the banit of 
It \va- firiireprcsentodby I?r:iel Bur- C ounecticut river, at what is ealleil 
hn^;. 'i he religious denuminations; the i>otr. M. J. resides upon this 
are CungTegationalisti, Methodists, larm^ and has been instrumental in 
Baptists and Freewill Baptists, .introducing into the state many im- 
The Cuugi'igational church con-'jprovements inhuebandrj andinthe 
si«ts of more than 200 members. In!, breed of cattle and sheep. He has 
3779, tliey settled the Rev. Mr.;jprobably the best flock of full 
Tread way, who was the first settled; [blooded Merino sheep in the state, 
minister in town, and was dismissedllBlack river r«ns through thesouth- 
in 178S. The Rev. Dan Fostcr|iwest part of this township, and aP 

was settled in 1787, and dismissed, 
in 1794. T'he /2cr. James Converse^ 

fords a number of excellent mill 
seats. T'here are also several oth- 

the present miniHer, was sett led; ler streams, in different parts of the 
February 10, 1802. The Methodist; township, which are sufficient for 
church consists of about 50 mem-'lmills and other machinery, fiear 
bers, and is supplied by circuit,' !the centre is a small natural pond, 
preacherf. The Baptists belong to.lknown by the name of Coolt^s fiond. 
the church in the northwestern jA part oif Ascutney mountain lies 
part of Springfield, over which thejjin the north part of Uie township. 
Hev. Richard M, Eljf is settled; jThere are four or five villages iu 
The Freewill Baptists are connect- this town, but they are all small. 
ed with a society of that order in < At the. centre of the town is a Con- 
the west part of Windsor. There||gregational meetinghouse, a store, 
was a general revival of religion! la tavern and several mechanics^ 
here in 1810, in consequence ofjjshops. Near the southeast comer 
which 58 were added to the Con-{)of the township is a small village, 
gregational church, 44 of whom ^called the Bote, Here is a post 

were heads of families. In 1820, 

there was another very general re 

vival, and 98 added to tlie Congre- 

ioffice, bearing the name of the 
itown. Near the northeast comer 
!is another small village, called the 

l^tiooal church, 60 of whom were |!^ JPour atrners,^ lathe southwest 





part is anoth«r, called Black m'*ri 'one hall* the time. The first set- 

village. In the northwest part is 
one, called Greenbask villase^ where! 

tiers of this township were afflicted 
with fever and ague, but the town 

there is a post ofTice, beario* thft ha?, for many years past, been re- 
name of the villajje. In each ofi'marjrably healthy. Wells pond, 
these villages is iv store, a tavern.' 'called al?o Pt. Au^stine, is about 
and several mechanics' shops.' ;five miles lon-y, and, in some places* 
There are, in town, 12 school dis-! -one mile and a half wide, and it 

tricts, with a convenient school- Icovcrs upwards of 2000 nw res. A- 
house in each, five gcist mill?, nine!', bout one third part of this pondlie^ 
saw mill?, two woollen factories, jin Poultney. The outlet of this 
five store?, six taverns an4 three,; pond is the principal stream, and on 
tanneries. Pop., 18"20,^301. -this «re two saw mills, one gfrist 

September, 1824. d. b, [mill, one clothiers' works and two 

WsLT<s, a small post township in 

the western part of Rutland county,: 


machines. There is one 
other stream on which are a sa^nr 
is in lat, 43^ 27' and long. 3*^ 50',;lmill un<l one grist mill. The west- 
and is bounded north by Poultney 'em part of this township is general- 
and a part of xMiddletown, east by^'ly level, ami tho eastern part is 
a part of Middletown and Tin- imonntainous and broken. The 
mouth, south by Pawlet, and west Isoil is generally gocnl, where it is 
by Hampton, N. Y. Itlies40mile«|'aot so uneven as to preclude the 
north from Bennington, 65 south-'ipossibility of cultivation. There 
west from Montpelier, and 13 south- i is a small village, situateil near the 
"West from Rutland. It was char-! south end of the pond, called the 
tered, September 15, 1761, to Elia-'Iro/Tie/*, whicli contains a meeting- 
kim Hall and others. Tliis town-' [house, a store, a tavern and several 
!*hip was originally six miles square,, mechanics' shops. The town is di< 

but a pai*t of it has since been an- 
nexed to Poultney and a part to' 
Middletown. The settlement ofi 
this township was commenced by' 
Ogden Mallary, who moved his! 
fUmily here about the year 1768. 
Daniel and Samuel Culver came 
into town, in 1771, and moved their 
families here the following year. 
The town was organized, March 9, 
1773, and John Ward was first town 
clerk. It was fiist represented in 
1778, by Daniel Culver. The re- 
bgious denominations are Method- 
ist?, Reforrxxed Methodists, £i>isoo- 
palians and UniversalistSi, There 
tire two meetinghouses, one belong- 
ing to the Methodists, and the otther 
is held in common by the several 
denominations. There is qo settled 
minister. The Rev. Aar^n Kins- 
woft a uaiversalist, preaches here 

Z 2 

vided into ten school districts, nine 
of which are furnished with school 
houses. There are also two grist 
mills, three saw mills, one wooUea 
factory, one fulling mill, two card- 
ing machiives, one store, two taverns, 
one distillery and one tc^iuiery. Pop- 
ulation, 1820, 98^ 
Wells Rivitit, has its sonroe ia 
Kettle pond, which lies at the north 
west comer of Groton and » part 
of it in Marshfield, H runs nearly 
southeast about two miles, and ialla 
into Long Pond in Groton, which ia 
about two miles long and lOQ roda 
wide. From this pond it continues 
its southeasterly oourse half a mile, 
and falU into aoother pond^ which 
ia «,bout half a mile loog^ and a 
quarter ctf a mile wideu It then 
riuM « mile and a half^and meets the 






fouth branch which riseaDear theljeasterly by Brunswick, eoutherlj 
southwest corner of the town, and {.by Ferdinand and Random, and 

runs nearly east to its junction with 
the main stream ; it then runs east 
southeast about a mile, and re- 
ceives the North branch, which has 
its source near the northeast comer 
of the town. Continuing the same 
courbe, i( passes through tlie north- 
west part of Ryegate into Newbury, 
and runuiug near the line between 
Newbury and Ryegate about four 
miles, falls into Connecticut river 
about half a mile south of the 
northeast comer of Newbury. Tliis 
is generally a rapid stream, furnish- 
ing many excellent mill privileg-es. 
In Groton, there is a saw mill at the 

outlet of Long Pond ; there 


grist and saw mill at the outlet of 
the next pond ; about a mile below 
the mouth of the north branch is a 
grist mill, two saw mills, a fulling 
mill and a carding machine. In 
Ryegate, on this stream are two 
grist mills, two saw mills, and a 
mill for hulling barley ; about half a 
mile below where it enters New- 
bury, is a grist mill, a saw mill, a 
fulling mill and a carding machine. 
Here is a large fall, at the head of 
which is the mill dam. In the dis- 
tance of about four rods from the 
top of the dam, it falls about 20 
feet. It then collects into a chan- 
nel about 30 feet wide, and falls 40 
feet nearly perpendicular. At 
Wells' river village, near the mouth 
•f the river, are a paper mill, a 
corn mill) a saw mill, a fulling mill, 
a trip-hammer, a bark mill, and 
two turjoing lathes. At this village 
is a post omce, a tavern and three 
merchants' stores, and here is the 
head of navigation on Connec- 
ticut river, J. w. 

WnNLOCK, a township in the 
central part of Essex county^ is in 
lat. 44^ 47', and is bounded north- 
Cfly by Lewis and Arery's gore, 

westerly by Morgan. It was char* 
tercd October la, 1761, and lics53 
miles northeast from Moutpelier. 
The south and principal branch of 
Nulhegan river rbes in thb town- 
ship. A road has been opened a- 
jlong this stream from Connecticot 
■river to Orleans county, but it can 
yet be hardly said to be passable. 
;In September, 18^ there were 
jonly two families settled in tbii 

I Wkst Fairlbe, a township in 
the eastem part of Orange coaotj, 
\h in lat. 43<' 56', and long 4<' 4^, 
;and is bounded north by Bradfurd, 
a ^ cast by Fairlee, south by Thelford, 
and west by Vershire. It is situated 
28 miles southeast from Montpelier 
and 35 northeasterly from Windsor. 
It was chartered in connexion with 
Fairtee, September 9, 1761. This 
township was set off from Fairlee 
and constituted a township by the 
name of West Fairlee, February 
25, 1797. This town was organiz- 
ed immediately after it was set off, 
and Hon. Elisha Thayer was first 
town clerk. It was first represent- 
ed seperately from Fairlee, in 1823, 
jby Samuel Graves. The Ras. Jo- 
seph Tmey was settled over the 
Cougr^itioi^l church here and 
the wl%ffiM¥)art of Thetford, in 
Jolly, 1820. lie preaches at the 
imeeting house here, and at Post- 
imills village, in Thetford, alternate^ 
jly. Fairlee lake lies partly in the 
southeast corner of this township, 
and Ompompanoosuc river runs 
across the southwest comer. The 
surface is very uneven* The town 
is divided into five school diitricts, 
and contains two saw mills, and one 
fulling mill. Population, 1820, in- 
cluding Fairlee, 1143.. 8. G. 
Ociaktr, 18^4. 





Westfikld, a township in the 
northwest part of Orleans county, 
is in lat. 44«> 52', and long. 4° 26', 
and is bounded north by Jay, east 
by Troy, south by Kellyvale, and 
west by Montgomery. It lies 42 
miles north from Montpelier, and 
44 northeast from Turlington. It 
was chartered May i^, 1780. to 
David Owen, and azsociates, con- 
taining 23040 acres. Bat little 
settlement was made here previ- 
ous to the year 1800. The town 
was organized, March 29, 1802, 
and Jesse Olds was first town 
clerk. Missisque river runs about 
four miles, through the southeast 
em part of the township, and re- 
ceives here three considerable trib- 
utaries which afford several mill 
privileges. The eastern part of 
this township is very good land, 
but the western is high and moun- 
tainous. Hazen^s Notch in the 
Green Mountaius lies m the south- 
west corner. Pop. 1820, 225. 

Westford, a post township in 
the north part of Chittenden coun- 
ty, is in iat. 44° 36', and long. 3° 
57', and is bounded north by Fair- 
fax, east by Underhill, south by 
Cssex and west by Milton. It lies 
thirteen miles northeast from Bur- 
lington and 32 northwest from 
Montpelier; and was chartered 
J une8, 1 763, containing 23040 acres. 
The settlement of this township 
was commenced immediately after 
the revolutionary war, by Hezeki- 
ah Parmelee and others. The re- 
ligious denominations are Congre 
gationalists and Baptists, each of 
which have a meetinghouse. The 
Rev* Simeon Parmelee^ pastor of the 
Congregational church, was set- 
tled in September, 1809. The 
only stream of consequence in 
the township, is Brown's river, 
which runs tbiroo^h it from south 

to north, and falls into Lamoille 
river in Fairfax. The surface of 
this township is uneven, but it 
contains no mountaius. The town 
contains six school districts, two 
grist mills, two saw mills, one full- 
ing mill, and one nardmg machine» 
Population, 1820, 1025. 

Wkst-Havew, a township in 
the western part of Rutland coun- 
ty, is in lat. 43^' 36^, and long. 2^ 
40', and is bounded north by Ben- 
son, east by Fair-Haven, south by 
Poultney river, which separates it 
from Whitehall, N. Y. and west 
by lake Champlain. This town- 
ship was set off from Fair-Ha- 
ven in October, 1792, and for its 
early history the reader is re- 
ferred to the account of that town- 
ship. It was organized immedi- 
ately after the divsion, and Wil- 
liam Wyman was first town clerk. 
The Congregational and Baptist 
are the only regular churches. 
The Rev. Ebenezer Hibbard was 
installed over the Congregational 
church in this township and in 
Whitehall in 1822. The Baptist 
church has no settled miniitter. 
The Baptists and Congregationalists 
have erected a meetinghouse near 
the centre of the township, which is 
occupied by each a share of the 
time. In 1787 Doct. Simeon 
Smith moved into this town from 
Sharon, Connecticut. He died in 
1804, having accumulated a large 
estate, ^1000 of which he be- 
queathed to the town of West Ha- 
ven, which was to be let under the 
direction of the seJect men at the 
rate of six per cent, interest, the 
interest to be paid annually, and 
again loaned. At the end of 69 
years, a certain part ot the mon- 
ey accumulated was to oe em- 
ployed in building a mt ti 'i^house, 
settling a mioister, erec iifi^ schools 





iiouses, £cc. The epiilemic ol 
181^2 aud 13 was very dialressiiig 
here, aud destrojed inaiij valuable, 
lives. Doct. Lane U the onlji 
practtciny^ piiysiciun. Hubbard 

1741. The earliest peraument 8cl> 
tiers, came from N» rlhfield, in iMas- 
sachusetts, and from Ashford and 
Vliddlctown, in Coimecticut; and 
were soon followed by others from 

fou liver, unci Cogmau's ccttek^re the same states. The pleasant sit- 

the only streams, of consequence,' 
except Poultnty river, which wnsh-j 
es a part of th«; southern bouoda*' 
ry. They empty into East bay,' 

nation of the town, and its proxim- 
ity to the fort maintained by the 
Newhampshire government in what 
is now called Walpole, caused the 

viiM about a mile, aud the other jsettlement to proceed with consid- 
^bout two miles below the head oi jerablc rapidity, and it was, at an 
the bay. Hubbardton river has "**''^" ""'•*~' """ --•'«'— — -• — -— » 
three considerable falls in West-' 
}[avFn, on which are a grist iitill, 
six saw mills, u clothier^s works,i 
and a carding machine. On Cog | 
mau's creek in one saw mill near! 
its mouth. The soil is principally | 
clay, and there is an abundance of 
e^ccelicnt limestone. There are' 
eight school districts and fivei 
school housep. Pop. 1820, 684. ' 
Au'rusi. 1824. o. ! 

Westminster, a post township' 
in the eastern part of Windham 
county, is in lat. 43^ 5', and long^.: 
4^ 28', antl is bounded north by 
Brattleborough, east by Connecti-' 
cut river, which separates it from, 
Walpole, N. H., south by Putney,' 
and west by a part of Hrookline,; 
and a part of Athens. It lies 37i 
miles northeast from Benuin§^ton,| 
82 south from Montpelierj and 27j 
from Windsor. This township; 

was chartered, by the Gov. of N. 

Hampshire, November 9, 1752 ;il^*^ "' however, a good township 
and as the grants which had beenl^^nd, and inhabited by a steady^! 
made, of the townships of Marlbo- ' "~* " '"' ' "^ 

early period, one of the principal 
towns west of the Connccticat. 
The meetinghouse was erected in 
1770. A jail formerly stooil in this 
place, and a court house in which 
were held some of the earliest 
courts of justice; and when Ver- 
mont subsequently set up an iade- 
peudentjurisdiotioQ, several sessions 
of the Legislature were also held 
here. It was here that the famous 
Massacre of the.l3th March 1775 
took place, and that the first regu- 
lar steps were adopted to resist by 
force the government of New York; 
and after the erection of the county 
of Windham, the courts were held, 
alternately at Westminister and 
Marlborough, for many years, until 
they were removed to New Fane, 
For many years afterwards it main- 
tained its reputation, as a place of 
considerable business and trade ; 
but has, of late years, been rather 
stationary, if not on the decline. 
It is, however, a good township oC 

rough and Wilmington, anterior to 
that date, were superceded by their 
new charters, it may be considered 
as the third, in point of time, in the 
State, Bennington and Halifax hav- 
ing preceded it. At what precise 
time the first settlement commen- 
ced, it is now difficult to ascertain. 
One of the oldest inhabitants thinks 
it to have been about the year 

dustrious agricultoral populatioir^ 
Westminster is divided by law, int* 
two parishes, the east and the wmU 
There are but two religious 8ooi»^ 
ties in the town, one ia. eaoh pUK 
ish; and both Congregt^omK 
The Rev, Sylvester Sage^ was oiv' 
dained October Kith, 1790, in til»' 
east, and' the Rev. Timothy F^M^ 
was installed in January 1807, in 
the west parish. There k iJm m 


28 f 



fabove the lur^e and fertile mead- 
ows by which it is approached on 
{the north and south ; and the 
iwhole is enclosed by a semicircle 
!of hills which touch the river about 
'two miles above and below the 
'town. It is this barrier which, while 
lit contributes to the natural beauty 
'of the place, has, by turning the 
! water courses in another direction, 
deprived it of all those facilities of 
Saflbixl. Thirfj|acccs3, and of water power, which 
share of men have so much contributed to the 

respectable number of Baptists, in 
the last nained parish, who worship 
with their brethren at the Baptist 
meetinghouse in the south part of 
Rockingham, which is conveniently 
situated for the purpose. There is 
likewise at the present time a very 
interesting revival in the west par- 
ish, both among the Congregational- 
ists and BapL'sta. The physicians 
are Edward R. Campbell, William 
Ware, and Pliny 
town has had its 
whose names occupy a distinguish- 
ed place in the history of the State. 
At an early period Crean Brush, 

the Colonial Deputy Secretary of jiyears ago, upon one of the small 
New York, and J2zra Stiles, the la^eams running from the range of 
son of the late Dr. Stiles, President Ihills, which encirle the village, but 
of Yale College, removed to this 'witliout success. There is an- 
place, and entered into the practice i Mother beyond the range in the west 

rapid growth of some of the neigh- 
boring villages. A woollen man- 
ufactory was attempted, 


of the law. The former left at the 
breaking out of the revdlution, and 
died a short time after, and the lat- 

parish, which is understood to be 
successful. There are no other 
manufactories in the town, except 

ter deceased long before his learned'; those which occur in almost every 
and venerated Father. Gen. Ste- ' 
phen R. Bradley, whose name oc- 
curs so often in all the important 

tranaactions connected with the || the immediate use of the in- 
formation of the State, and who is 'habitants. Their number is as 
better known abroad as a 8enator||follows : two tanneries, two carding 

town in the State ; such as tanne- 
ries, fulling mills, and mechanic 
shops, where articles are made for 

m Congress, which office he held 
for sixteen years, was for more than 
thirty years a resident in this! 
town; as was also the Hon. Lot 
Hall, a distinguished lawyer, and 
afterwards Judge of the Supreme 
Court, who died here in the year 
1809. Hon. Mark Richards, the 
late member of Congress, as also 
the Hon. Wm. C. Bradley, the pres- 
ent representative, still reside in 
Westminster. The principal and 
oldest village is delightfully sit- 
uated in the 6ast parish, on the 
bank of Connecticut river. 
The main street which is perfectly 
lerel, eroses a table of land about 
one mile in diameter, considerably 
elevated abore the riyer, and also,: 

machines, three fulling mills, eight 
saw mills, five grist mUls, one dis- 
tillery, two stores, and two taverns. 
Pop. 1820, 1974. 8. 8. 

Westmore, a township in the 
southeast part of Orleans county, i» 
in lat. 44^ 45' and long. 4°63',and 
is bounded northerly by a part of 
Random and Navy, easterly by 
Newark, southerly by Sutton, and 
westerly by Brownington. It lies 
43 miles northeast from Montpelier, 
was granted November 7, 1780, and 
chartered to Uriah Seymour and 
others, by the name of Westford, 
August 17, 1781, conUining 23040 
acres. This township is but little 
settled. The surface ia uneven, 
and mount Hor, Pisgah ami Pico 





are the most importaDt summits. 
Willoug^hby's lake lies iu this towa- 
ship, and is about six miles io leng^th 
and oue and a half wide. Its wa- 
ters are discharged by Willoughby's 

jnghouse, owned by the several 
ideuominations, was completed here 
'in 1817. Jeremiah Blanchard is 
lupwards of 90 years of age, and ii 
the oldest person in this town. The 

river into liarton river. Some of ||epidemic of 1813 was very distresi- 
the head bVanches of Clyde riveri'inghere. Doct Uenry Gray iithe 
and of the i^assumpsic rise here.!|only practicing physician. West 

Population, 18'^, 18. 

river passes through the township 

West River, called by the In- "in a southerly direct ion, affordio^ 
dians Wautastiquet, rises itf West-j several good mill privileges. Oft 
ou, and runs south into London- jthe bank of this river are two small 
derry. Near the south line of this ivillages. The upper village is near 
township, it receives Winhall river the centre, and contains a meeting;^ 
from Winhall. It then takes a south- house, two stores, one cluthiePv 

easterly course through Jamaica, 

works, one carding machine, one 

Townshend, Newfane and Dum- .tannery, and one blacksmith. The 

merslon, and unites with Connec- 
ticut river in the northeast part Sf 
Brattleborough. In Jamaica, it re- 
ceives from the west. Bald Moun- 
tain branch, which rises in Stratton, 
and another large branch from 
Wardsborough, and from the east. 
Meadow branch, which rises in 
Windham. In Newfane it'receives 
South branch and Smith's branch. 
This stream affords but few mill 
privileges, but there are a greatj 
number on its branches. Along itsj 
banks are some fine tracts of inter- 
val. This river receives the waters 
from about 440 square miles. 

Wkstojt, a township in the south 
west corner of Windsor county, is 
ia lat. 43^ 19' and long. 4° 10', and 
is bounded north by Mount Holly 
and Ludlow, east by Andov«*, south 
by Londonderry, and west by Ben- 
ton's gore and a part of Landgrove. 
It' lies 66 miles south from Mont- 
pel ier, and 22 southwest from 
Windsor. This was formerly a part 
of Andover. It was set off in 1790, 
and organized March 3, 1800. Al- 
vin Simons was the first tow»clerk, 
and also the first representative 
The religious denominations are 
Congregational ist-^, Baptists, Meth- 
odists an I Cniversalists. A meet- 

town is divided into nine school dis- 
tricts, in which are nine school- 
houses, and 370 scholars between 
four and 18 years of age, two griit, 
three saw and one fullin|; mill, two 
stores, two taverns and one tannery* 
Population, 1820, 890. 
July, 1824. 
WsTBRiDGS, a township in the 
central part of Addison county, if 
in lat. 44^^ 2' and long^. 4^ 46', and is 
bounded north and east by Otter 
creek, which separates it from New- 
Haven and Middlebury, south by 
Cornwall, and west by a pact of 
! Bridport and a part of Addison. It 
Lies 80 miles north from Bennington, 
and 30 south frpm BorlingtoB, and 
was chartered November 3, 176 It 
containing 8261 acres. ThB settle- 
ment of this township was com- 
menced about the beg^inning of the 
revolutionary war by David Stow 
and John Sanford, but the settlen 
were soon after dispersed or made 
prisoners by the enemy. The set- 
tlement was recommenced on the 
return of peace. The first 'settlen 
were mostly from Massachusetts. 
The religious denominations are 
Congregationalists, Baptistss Meth- 
odists and a few Friends. 71i* 
Hey. John Hovey wi^ settled orec 





the Cofigreg^Uoaal church about 
tlie year 1798, and, being dismissed 
about 1818, was succeeded, in 1823, 
by the Rev, Eli Moody. This so 
ciety erected a house for worship 
about the year 1802. Zenas Shaw 
is the only practiciog^ physician. 
Otter Creek is the most important 
stream, and in it are here several 
falls which furnish fine mill privi- 
leges. Lemonfair river is a slug- 
gish stream whiohrons through the 
western part of the toWnship into 
Otter creek. Snake mountain lies 
mostly in the western part of the 
township. Near the paper mill is 
found earthy asbestus between lay- 
ers of limestone which is the com- 
mon rock in this township. A few 
years since a considerable body of 
land here slid into Otter creek, 
which completely stopped the wa- 
ter for some time, leaving the chan- 
nel bare below, and altering ma- 
terially the course of the stream, 
when it again commenced flowing. 
At one of the falls on Otter creek is 
a small village containing 14 or 15 i 
families, one store, one tavern, a 

Wheelock in honor of Rev. John 
Wheelock, who wa^, at that time, 
president of Dartmouth college. A 
considerable part of the lands are 
held by lease. Jos. Page com- 
Imenced the settlement of this town- 
Iship, in 1790. lie was joined the 
next year by Abraham Morrill, 
from Danville^ and also by Dudley 
Swasey. The town was organized 
iMarch 29, 1792. There was for- 
merly a considerable Congregation- 
al society here, which is now small. 
The Freewill Baptist is the most 
numerous sect, and this society, at 
present, numbers upwards of 100 
members. ' A meetinghouse was e- 
rected here about the year 1798, 
but is not yet finished. The prac- 
ticing physicians are Cyrus Root 
and Frederick Leavenworth. The 
streams, in this township, are all 
small, but they t^fibrd several good 
mill privileges. There are two 
ponds. One, in the western part, 
covers about 100 acres, and dis- 
charges its waters into the Lamoille. 
On the outlet is one saw mill. The 
other is in the eastern part, covers 

woollen factory, &c. There areJ|about 50 acres, and discharges its 

in town, five school districts and 
«ichoolhouses, five saw mills, one 
g^rist mill, one paper mill, one wool- 
len fiiictory, one carding machine, 
one store, three taverns, one distil- 
lery and tMK) potteries. Popula- 
tion, 1820, 714. M.S. 
October, 1824. 
Whbelock, a post township in 
tlie north part of Caledonia county, 
is in lat. 44° 33' and long. 4^ 46', 
and is bounded north by Sheffield, 
east by Lyndon, south by Danville, 
and west by Greensboroagh. It 
ties 30 miles northeast from Mont- 
pelier, was granted and chartered 
to the president and trustees of 
Dartmouth college and Moore's 
charity school, Jane 14, 1785, con- 
taining 23040 acres. It was nasnadj 

waters into the Passu mpsic. . The 
eastern range of the Green Moun- 
tains passes through the western 
part of the township, and is here 
called Wheelock mountain. In the 
eastern part are many good farms, 
but the land, in the western part, is 
cold and stoney, and but little of it 
under improvement. The county 
road, from Danville to Stansted in 
Canada, passes through the eastern 
part, on which a stage runs each 
way once a week, 'fhere are, in 
town, seven school districts and 
schoolhbuses, four saw, two grist 
and one fulling mill, one carding 
machine, one tannery, one store and 
four taverns. Population, 1820,906. 
September^ 18S3. 





Whktstone Branch, is a small 
jmill stream, which rises in Marl- 
borough, and runs nearly east! 
.through Brattleborough into Con- 
jienticut river. It affords a consid- 
firable number of good mill privi- 

White Creek, is formed in Ru-* 
pert by the union of a number of 
■small branches, and taking a south* 
westerly course, unites vriih Batten- 
Jcill river in Washington county. 
New- York. 

White River, rises in Kingston, 
and, running a southeasterly course 
-through the northeast corner of 
Hancock, the southwest part of 
Rochester and the northeast corner 
o( PittsfieW, -enters Stockbridge. 
•It then turns to the northeast, and, 
cast corner 


through the south- 
of Bethel into Royal- 
ton, bear? to the southeast through! 
•Sharon, across the northeast corner! 
of Pomfret and through Hartford,! 
And falls into Connecticut river a-| 
bout five miles above the mouth of 
Queechy river. From Kingston,' 
this river runs slowly through aj 
narrow tract of interval till it ar- 
rives at the eastern part of Stock- 
bridge, after which the current is 
very rapid till it reaches Bethel 
village. From Bethel to its mouth 
the channel of the river is from 16 
to 18 rods in width, and the current 
generally rapid, and the water 
shallow. On account of its prox- 
imity to Queechy river. White riv- 
er receives no large tributaries from 
the south. Broad brook and Lo- 
cust creek are the most important. 
From the north it receives three 
large branches, called the first, the 
second and the third branch. The 
Jirst branch rises in Washington 
near the head branches of Wait's 
and Onion river, and, running 
through Chelsea and Tunbridge, 
unites with White river in the east- 

ern part of Royalton. The secord 
branch risfca in Williamstovn in 
conjunction with Ste^ena' brauchof 
Onion river, and, running souther- 
ly through Brookfield and Ran- 
dolph, enters White river a liMe 
west of the centre of Royalton. 
This stream runs with a gentle car- 
rent, through a narrow tract of fine 
interval. The ihird branch origin- 
ates in Rozbury, runs through the 
comer of Kingston, through Brain- 
tree and the corner of Randolph, 
and joins White river at Bethel 
village. Each of these streams is 
about 20 miles in length, and on 
each are several very good mill 
'privilegea,particularly on-the latter, 
iat Bethel village. White river is 
jthe' largest stream in Vermont on 
'the east side of the mountains. Ill 
length is about 55 miles, and it wa- 
ters about 680 square miles. 

WfiiTiiTG, a post township in 
the south part of Addison coooty, 
is in Iat. 43° 51', and long. 3® 49', 
and is bounded north by Cornwall, 
cast by Otter creek, which, sepa- 
rates it from Leicester and Salis- 
bury, south by fiudbury and west 
{by Orwell and Shoreham. It lies 
'40 miles southwest from Montpe- 
Her, 42 south from Burlington, and 
70 north from Bennington. It was 
chartered August 6, 1763, to Col 
John Whiting, of W^rentham, Mass. 
from whom it derives its- name, ani 
contains about 9000 acres. John 
Wilson, from the same townshipt 
erected the first house in this town- 
ship in 1772, and in June 1773, a 
family by the name of Bolster, 
moved into it. In 1774, Mr. Wilson^s 
and several other families mov- 
ed here. During the revolution 
the settlement was abandoned, bat 
was recommenced immediately up- 
on its close, by those persons who 
had been driven off, and by others. 
Among the first settlers, were a 


28 H 



Mr. Marshall, Gideon Walker, Jo-j! but allorda no miH privileges. Two 
«eph Williams, Daniel Washbarn,|jSHW mills are the only mills in 
Joel Foster, Samuel Beach, Ezra! town. These are on a small 
Allen, Jehiel Hull, H«nry WisWell,;; stream, and do but little business. 

and Benjamin Andrus. The town 
was organized in March, 1 785i and 
John Wilson was first town clerk. 
In 1786, Ebenezer Whcclock was 
tshosen delegate to the eonvention 
for revisino^ the constitution, and 
Samuel Beach was appointed rep- 
resentative to the General Assem- 
bly in 1788. The reHg^ious denom- 
inations are Baptists, Congregation- 
alists and Universal ists. Elder Da- 
vid Rathbum was ordained overj 
the Baptist church in June, 18(X),| 
«nd continued three or four years. 

After this, the Rev. John Ransom' ship, near Otter creek, is a swaiftip. 

Otter creek, till lately, afforded no 
valuable fish. In the spring of 1819, 
Mr. Levi Walker of Whiting pro- 
posed to the inhabitants of this and 
the neighboring towns, along the 
creek to transfer fish from the lake 
into the creek above Middlebury 
falls. The plan Was carried into 
exectttion, and the fish have since 
multiplied exceedingly. In 1823 
not less than 500 pounds of excel» 
lent pickerel were \aken from the 
creek in the distance of two miles. 
Along the eastern part of the town- 

preached here about two years. 
In January 1809, the Rev. Justin 
Parsons was settled oyer the Con- 
gregational church, and continued 
nbout three years. For three years 
past Elder Joseph W, Satvyer has 
been hired by the two societies, ai^nd 
the Baptist and Congregational 
society both contribute to his sup- 
port. These two societies united 
in 1809 in erecting a meetinghouse, 
"which was the next year consumed 
by fire, supposed to be the work of 
an incendiary. A meetinghouse 
has since been erected, in which all 
-the several denominations are pro- 
prietors. The dysentery prevailed 
here in 1803, and the epidemic of 
1&12 and 18 was very mortal. 
The physicians are DariUs Carpen 
ter and Asher Nichols. One per- 
son has lived in this town to be of 
100 years of age, and Mr, Wilson, 
the first town clerk, and one other 
person, are now living, aged about 
90 years. Ebenezer Wheelock has 
been 4 years a councillor of the 
state, several years a representa 
tive and a justice of the peace, 
since 1790. Otter creek waters 
the eastern border of the township/ 

which covers 2 or 3000 acres. It 
affords an abundance of excellent 
cedar, pine, ash, &c. This is one 
of the pleasaotest towns in the 
state. The soil is generally of the 
marly kind, and produces good 
grass and grain. In 1910 Mr. Sam- 
uel H. Remmele had a field of five 
acres of wheat, which averaged 50 
bushels to the acre, and Mr. Bena- 
jah Justin has for four years past, 
raised an annual crop of corn, which 
has averaged 100 bushels to the 
acre. The stage road from Bur- 
lington to Albany, parses through 
the centre of the township. The 
town is divided into four school 
districts, with a school house in ' 
eiteh. Pop. 1820, 609. 

E. W. & J. O. W. 

Jimc, 1824. 

WHITIFTGIIAltt, a post toWQshlp 

in the southwest corner of Wind- 
ham county, is in lat. 42*^ 47', and 
long. 4° 9', and is bounded north, 
by Wilmington, east by Halifax, 
south by Heath and Rowe, Mass. 
'and west by Reedsborough. It lies 
18 miles southeast from Bennington, 
20 north\trest from Greenfield, 
Mass. and contains 23404 acres. 


Will WLI 

The 5cltlemeDt of this to-wnshipliare two natural ponds. Sawlavda 
was commenced in 1*770, by a Mr. [pond is so called from an Indiau of 

Bratlin and Silas Hamliuton. In 
1773, Messrs. Angel, Gustin, Nel- 
son, Lamphire, and Pike, emi 

that name who formerly lived oear | 
jit, and was afterwards supposed to 
have been drowned in going down 

grants from Masscu^husetts and Con-j'Deerfield river. This pond has been 
necticut, moved their families here.|igradually decreasing for 50 years 
ll)e town was organized, Marchj.past, by land forming over the wa- 
^iS, 1780, and Elipbalet Hyde was|{ter, ifhich,to the rxtentof 70or{;0 
Itrst town clerk. Silas Hamlinton* acres rises and falls with the wa- 
was the first justice of peace, andi'ters of the pond. The su Hare of 
first representative. The religious ||the township is uneven but the toil 
«lenominations are Baptists, iVlcth-|jie generally good, and is timbered 
odists, Univcrsalists and Congrega-j with maple, becrh, birch, ath, 
tionaiii<t3. The Baptist church con-i'sprncc, and hemlock. A roin^ral 
sists of 73 members, over which tlic.:spring wafi. discovered here in 11*22, 
Jitv, Linus Austin Wasscttlcd Jan-, which was analyzed by Duct Wil- 
vary 8, 1817. JLheneser Davis is, i^on and found to coitaiu the follow- 
minister in the Methodist society.jjing ingredients, viz. mariate of lime, 
The other denominations are witli-;'oarbouate of lime, muriate of mag- 
•ut regular preaching. There, uesia, carbonate and per- oxide of 
have been several instances of lon-'.'iron, alumina with an acid trace, 
gevity. The two oldest persons: It is said to be a s|^oific for cuta- 
now living here, are Benjamin, neous eruptions, scrophulous ha- 
Cook, and Mrs. Morgan, who are,;mour8, dropsy, gravel, chronic ul- 
each about 98 years of age. Mr. jeers, liver complaint, and a variety 
Cook is very healthy, can make a| of other diseases. 'J'he western 
pair of shoes in a day, travel three :=part oi the township abounds uilh 
or four miles with ease, and can ij limestone which is burnt extensive- 
read the smallest print without 'ly into lime. There are elev 

glasses. In 1793, the canker-rash 
was very mortal, amd carried off 

en kilns, which are supposed to 
bum at least 2000 hogsheads of 

one fourth of the children in town., .lime annually, which is tran^x>rted 
The typhus fever prevailed in 1801,' to different parts of the country, 
and was fatal to more tlian 40 adult*, The town contains a well finished 
persons. Nathaniel Smith is the 'meetinghouse 50 by 55 feet on the 
only physician. Many of the first 

settlers of this township had numer- 
ous families of children. Mr. Pike 

ground, fourteen school districts, 
thirteen school houses, four grist 
mills, eight saw knills, two fulling 

had 28 children, ten by his first, mills, two carding machines, two 
wife, and 18 by two others. Most, stores, one tavern and one tannery, 
of these lived to a mature ag6, and | Fop. 1820, 1397. ▲. b. 

19 of them are now alive, thcj 

October, 1824. 

youngest of whom is 25 years old.j Wild Braivch, ori^nates in 
Deei-field river runs through the!, Eden, runs through the western 
whole length of the township, along|,part of Craftsbury, and unites with 
the western part, fertilizing some the river Lamoille in "Wolcott. 
handsome tracts of meadow, i Wildebsburoh, Name alte^ 
There arc many other smaller ed to Barre, October 19, 1703. 
streair^ in different parts. There See Barre, 





WnxiATusTOWN, a post town- 
ehip ia the northwestern part of 
Orange county, i^ in lat. 44° 6', and 

^own by the naoiG 
Road, on account 
throusrh which it 

of the Oulf 

of the gulf 

passes in this 

long. 4? 24', and is boanded northjitownship, near the head of the 2(1 
by Barre, east by Washington^jlbranch. The hills here, upon each 
Qoath by Brookfield, and west byjlside of the branch, are very high 
NorthQeld. It lies eleven lnile^s''aa.i abrupt, and approach so near 
froutlieasterly from Montpelier, an^l^ each other as hardly to leave space 
43 northwesterly from \VinJ?or. for a roud b^ween thera. Thii 
It was granted November 6, I7o0, township is limbered principally 
and chartered August 9, 1781, to, .with hard wood, and the soil is 
Samuel Clark and others ; con-;|weU adapted to the production of 
taining 23040 acres. The settle-' grass. There is a small but p»eas- 
ment of this township was com men- 1 ant village near the centre of the 
ced in June,. 1784, by Hon. Elijah !l township, containing a Cen^frcga- 
Paine, Joha Paine, John Smith,! tional moetinghouae, three stores. 
Joseph Crane, and Josiah Lyman.!- two taverns, two tanneries, several 

'mills and mechanic's sIiop?» and 

■about 30 dwelling hou«es. There 

are in town thirteen school districts, 

and snhool houses, one i^ri-t, fiv^e 

Penuel Doming moved his family 
here in Februar}', 1785, and this 
vras the first family in town. Hon. 
Cornelius Lynde, moved here in 
1786. The town was organizedj; saw, one clover and iwa i-A'rv^' 

September 4-, 1787. Corneliu^! mills, one cardin^i^ macUiue 
Lynde wal first town clerk, and 
Klijah Paiae first representative. 
T^he reliidous denominations are 

Congregationalists, Baptists, Meth- 

jtriphammer shop. Population^ 
18^0, 148K D. P. 

November, 1824. 
Wii.LouGHBx'a River, issues 

odists, and Universalists^ Rev. f:Qm Willoughby's lake in West- 
Joel DavU was installed ayer thei^more, runs through the south part 
Congregational church in March,!; of Brownington, and unites with 
1824. The former ministers were, | Barton river in the north part of 
Rev. Jesse Olds, Nathan Waldo,- Barton. 

and Benton Pixley. The Congrega- 1 Williston, a post township ia 

'tionalists erected a meetinghousei'the central part of Chittenden 

vck 1812, and the Baptists in 1846. 'county, is in lut. 44^ 25', and long. 

13^ 54\ and is bounded north by 
; Onion river, which separates i^ 

The phyncians are William Glys- 

son, and Abraham Waldo. James 

Lynde, attorney! This township !' from Essex, east by Jericho and 

lies on the height of lands betweenji Richmond, south by St. George* 

Onion river and White river, and 

contain? QO large streams. A 
brook, which here runs down a 
steep hill, towards the Wjcst, divides 
naturally, and while one part runs 
to the north, forming Steven's 
branch of Onion river, the other 
runs to the south, forming the 2d 
branch of White river. The turn- 
pike from Royalton to Montpelier, 
^se^ j^long theso streams, aad is 

'and west by Muddy brook, which 
separates it from Burlington. It 
lies 27 miles northwest from Mont* 
pelier, and was chartered, June 7, 
1783. The settlement of this town- 
ship was commenced in May, 1774» 
by Thomas Chittenden, who was 
joined in 1776, by Ellihu Allen, 
Abijah Pratt, and Johnathan Spaf- 
ford. These families had however^, 
but just arrived, when the enemy 





advanced from Canada, and all the pothers as a committee to repair lo 
snitlciDCDts in this part ol'thu coun- • Philadelphia, to procure intellU 
liy were abandoned The settlers igemo, and obtain nil vice respcctiuu 
rotiirnod-after the war, and in I7i,6 'what measures Confess was par- 
the t'liMi \Ya8 org;aaixe>1. Robert , suing;, and what kind of political 
DorintUy was tlie firj't town olei k, Iproceedmgrs "were proper for the 
and Jonathan Spaifordtlic Arst rrp-i'pcople of- the N. If. Grant". In 
reseutative. The religious dononi- ,1776, he removed his family to Ar- 
inntions are Congregationali^ts and lington and took a very active part 
Methodists, each of which have !in the controversy with New York, 
vegulariy organized chuiches.l'and was in^trument&l in securing the 
Rev. James Collins was settled o-'j independence of. the state. After 
ver the Congregational church, in| the organization ef the government 
January 1800, and dismissed in Jhe was chosen first goveraor of Ver- 
KK)3 ; Rev. James Johuiron was mont, which office he held, with 
vettlod in October 1818, and dis-.'tiie exception o( one year, till the 
mi«scd in October 1823, and the jtime oi his death, a period of 
Kcv. Josiah F. Goodhue^ the pres .,18 years. After an active and 
etit pustor, yras settled in JM ay '.useful life, beloved by his family 
13'24. i hoy ha\\e a ruectioghou8e,uiid friends, and esteemed and la- 
which was erected in. 17D7. Mra.;Jmented by tlie people of the state, 
Rachel Mann, aged 96, is the most. [he died in this township, August 
remarkable instance of longevity.! !25, 179*7, in the 68tb year of ta's 

The practicing- physcians are j^oah 
Corning J. Lyman and O. Smith. D.j 
French, and Ghauiicey Brownell,! 
altornics. Thomas Chittenden has 
already been mentioned as tlie first; 
fettler of tliis township, 'iliis use-, 
ful man was born at Guilford, Con- ; 
necticut, and in the early part of 
his life removed to Salisbury. | 
Here he acquired a handsome land-! 
ed property, became a member of! 
the Connecticut assembly, a civil! 
magistrate, and a colonel in thcj 
militia of that state. In 1773 hej 
removed, to tiie New Hampshire 
grants, as Vermont was then called, 
aad purchased a tract of laud in 
this township, to which lie removed 
his family the next year, as above 
stated, lie moved here without 
knowing the spot on which he was 
to locate himself, and without hav- 
ing any habitation provided for the 
shelter of his family. At this time 
there were scarcely any inhabitants, 
or roads in this part of the state. 
In 1775 he was epjploycd with four 


WillistoD is a very fine form- 
ing township. The surface is di- 
versified, but not mountainoas. 
The soil is a rieh loam, of a black 
or yellow color, and produces a- 
bundant crops. Onion river wash- 
es the border of this township, and 
there are within it some small 
streams, on which mills have been 
erected, but there are only two, 
which can be called good mill priv- 
ileges. Williston is divided into 
seven school districts, with a school 
house in each. I'here are four 
saw mills, one falling mill, three 
stores, four^taverns, one tannery, and 
one distillery. Pop. 1820, 1246. 
August, 1824. M. c. 2d. 
' Williams^ Rivsr, is formed .in 
Chester by the union of three con- 
siderable branches, which origin- 
ate in small streams in the town- 
ships of Ludlow, Andover, Wind- 
ham and Grafton. These three 
branches unite about a mile and a 
half to the southeast of the two vil- 
jlages in Chester, and th^ir upite^ 






waters, after 

15 miles in ai 
directioD full intc 


There is oae large natural pond . 
called Ruy*s pond, on the outlet o 

Connecticut river in Rocking'hani,! which is a gribt mill, with two run 
three miles above Bellows^ falls J of stones. Inhere is also a grist 
Along this stream is :;ome Hue inter-| mill on a branch of Deerfield river^ 
val, and it affords several good mill with two run of stones. I'hei^ are 
privileges. William's river detives jiu town 12 school districts tind 
its name from the celebrated^choolhouses, two grist, sixsawandi 
John Williams,, who was taken byitwo fulling mills, one carding ma-* 
the Indians at Oeerfield, Mass. in'ichine, one trip-hammer, two tav- 
I704v and who, at the mouth of thisi!eru8, threeittores and two tanneries., 
ftti-eaxn, preached a sermon to his 'PopulutioA, 1820^ 11^9. J. H. 
fellow captives. Ocioher, 1824. 

WiLMjusGTOw, a township in the WifrDHAM,a post township in the- 
westerapart of Windham county, northwestern part of Windham: 
is in, lat. 42^ 32' and long. 4° 9', and! county, is in lot. 43° 1 T and long,. 

13 bounded north by Dover and a 
part of Somerset, east by Marlbo- 
rough, south by Whitingham, and 
west by Searsburgh. It lies 17 
miles east trom Beunington, and 46 
southwest from Windsor. The set- 
tlement of this township was com- 
menced before the revolutionary 
war by emigrants from* Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut, but the set- 
cement was, for several years, re- 
tarded in consequence of the town 
ship having been, twice chartered, 
by New-Hampshire, to di^rent 
proprietors, iirst by the name of 
' Wilmington, and afterwards by the 
name of Draper. There is a Coo« 
gregational church here, consisting 
' Qf between 30 and 4U male mem- 
bers, and a Baptist church, each of 
which have a meetinghouse. There 
have been, fi ve regularly settled mia? 
isters in the Congregational, church, 
3 of whom deceased^ and the other 
tiwo w^e dismiflsedi The otiurch 
is now destitute of a pastor.. The 
Rev, Mawifield. Bruce is pastor of 
the Baptist. chUrch and society. 
The physicians are John Pulsipher 
finch Orson Flagg. I'he east and 
west branch x)f Deerfield river unite 
in this township, and there are two 
other considerable streams called 
fieaver brook and Cold brook. 

A a 2, 

4° 15', and is bounded north by 
Andover, east by Grafton, south by 
Jamaica, and west by Londonderry.. 
It lies 31 miles northeast from Ben"* 
nington, and 25 southwest from< 
Windsor. This township was for- 
merly a part of Londonderry.. It* 
was setoff, and. with the addition, 
of a small, gore of land called^ 
Mack^s Leg, was ooastituted.a.sep-' 
arate township by the name of^' 
Windham. Among the first settlera^t 
of this township were Edward. 
Aiken, James McCormick and Johu^ 
Woodburn.. It was organized im-. 
mediately after the division.. The- 
religious denominations are Cot^-. 
gregationalists. Baptists, Methodists; 
and Universalists. . The Rev. John) 
Itorto.' wa» settled over the Con- 
gregational church about the year. 
181Q, ai^d dismissed about 1820.. 
There aret two Congregational^ 
meetinghouses, one in the north, 
part and the other near the centre.. 
The latter was built about the year 
1807, and the other a little before.. 
FAdti' Samuel Kingsbury, a Baptist,, 
is the only minister here ht present.. 
Doct. Clark is the only physician.. 
The line, between this township 
and Londonderry, runs along the^ 
summit of a considerable moun-- 
tain. The streams are all small «. 





and consist of branches of Williams', 
Saxlon's and West river. In the 
northwest part of the town is a con- 
siderable pond. The most import- i 
ant minerals found in this towushipj 
are actynolite, chlorite, g^arnets, ser- 
pentine^ steatite and talc. The ac- 
tynolite is found about two miles 
from tlie south meetinghouse, on 
tlie road leadings to Grafton. It is! 
in slender four sided prisms of a 
letk green color. Some of the 
crystals are five or six inches in 
length, and they vary from a hun- 
dredth of an inch to an inch in 
breadth. These crystals are em- 
bedded in talc, and are very abun- 
dant. Besides actynolite and talcj 
at this locality, within the compass 
of a few feet, are found common 
serpentine, amianthus and ligni- 
form and earthly asbestus. The 
town is divided into eight school' 
districts with aschoolhouse ineach.j 
There are also, one grist mill, three- 
saw mills, one store, one tavern and! 
one tannery. Population, 18:20, 

031. »• P- 

Octvber, 1824. 
\Yi5DHAM CoujrTX, lics in thej 
southeast comer of the state.. It 
is situate<l between 42*^ 44' and 43^1 
16' north lat. and between 4^ and' 
40 42' east long., being 36 miles; 
long from north to south, and 28: 
wide from east to west, and con-| 
taining about 780 square miles. It is^ 
bounded north by W^indsor county,! 
east by Connecticut river, which' 
separates it from Cheshire county,. 
N. H., south by Hampshire county, 
Mass., and west by BenningtoU| 
county. This county was incor-i 
porated by the name of Cumber-, 
lund, Febi-uary 11, 1739. New-| 
fane, lying near the centre, is the! 
seat of justice. The Supreme Court 
aits here on the 4th Tuesday of 
May, and the County Court on the 
2d Monday of March and 2d Mon- 

iay of ^ptember. There are sev- 
eral pleasant villages in this county, 
the most important of which are 
i hose of Brattleborougb and Roek- 
ngham. The surface of the 
county is very broken. Connecti- 
cut river washes the eastern border, 
Williams* and Saxton^s river water 
the northeastern part. West river, 
the central part, and Deerfield riv- 
er, the southwestern part. The 
tract,, embraced within the ooaaty 
uf Windham, is hilly aod uneven, 
and, in the western part, mountain- 
ous. Its geological features, thoogii 
distinctly marked, are very irr^- 
Lar. Few continuous ranges can 
be traced with certainty, and 
many sections, especially the west- 
ern, have not as yet been partica- 
larly explored. The geological 
character of the county is aniform- 
ly primitive. The westera part is 
of the oldest and the easterm pt 
more recent formation.. f'taniU, 
Phis is, by no means, an nncommoa 
rock. It forms the Manicknungin 
Strattofi, the highest peak in the 
county, and one link in the great 
chain of the Green Mountains. 
This granite is coarse grained, high- 
ly chrystalline, and contains but 
little mica.. ]9^ether it exists as a 
range or not, is at present unascer^ 
taineil. Granite,, of a later for- 
mation, rises in the soHtheQi part of 
Newfane, and dbn be tnfted in & 
direction, nearly nerth through 
fownshend, Acton • and Grafton, 
i'his granite is fine grained, contains 
considerable mica and feldspar, and 
quartz, in nearly equiU proportions. 
The immense mass of g^ranite in. 
Dummerston, called Black Mono- 
tain, and which can be traced 
though Brattl^boroogh^s similar in 
lits structure and general appear- 
ance to the preceding. The Bel- 
lows Falls granite might, on account 
of the great proportioa of mica it 





contains-, be easily mistaken for 
mica slate. On closer examination 
itseema to be sufficiently well char- 
acterized. It is of very limited ex- 
tent. Boulders and rolled masses 
of granite are scattered in profu- 
sion over every part of the county. 
They are some times found on the 
summits of high hills, which are 
composed entirely of mica sla^e. 
Gneiss, This aggreg^ate is found 
attending the granite at Black 
Mountain and Manickaung. The 
ease with which the Black Moun- 
tain gneiss is split into blocks ren- 
ders it a convenient as well as beau- 
tiful building stone. Hornbltiide. 

(the borders of Newfane, Dover i.nd 
[Marlborough, presenting perpcn- 
jdicular precipices, at some places, 
,40 or 50 feet in height. The chryst- 
ialline appearance of this rock de- 
jmonstrates it to be of the most 
primitive kind. Its texture is close 
'and it is extremely tough and hard, 
jthough, in some cases, it is easily 
;broken on account of the fi^sure^, 
|that pass through it. Chlorite slate. 
This rock occurs at Whitingham. 
Its extent is not known. Chlorite 
slate also occurs at Dover and 
Wardsborough, closely atteiAling 
the talcose slate. ArgUlitty enters 
the county at Guilford and Vernon, 

Of this rock though very common,' and decreases in width as it passes 

there is but one principal range 
ivhich runs between the Black 
Mountain and Newfane ranges of 
granite, through the extent of the 
county. It is principally the va- 
riety called hornblendo slate. This 
elate is often curiously curved and 
twisted. It passes on the west in- 

north through Brattleborough, 
iDummerstou, Putney, Westminster 
|and Rf)ckingham, at most of which 
towns it is quarried for grave stones 
and roof slate. Primitive limestone, 
Tiiis, which is probably a branch of 
the s:reat range of primitive lime- 
stone in the western part of Massa- 

to primitive greenstone and green-jchusetts, runs through Whitingham, 
stone porphyry.^ Micatlate, This! {Somerset and Jamaica, at all of 
i6\>y far the most common rock in; | which towns it is quarried. Primi- 
ihe county, and yet no connected! live limestone also exists in be^ in 
range can be traced. It can onlyjimica slate at various places. At 
be remarked generally that it fbrmsij fownshend is a very extensive bed. 

the summits and frequently the 
sides of the hillsi aud in the vallies 
it is not an uncommon rock, but 
hornblende is constantly thrustingj 
itself frcm underneath the mica 
slate, and interrupting the continuity 
of its ranges. Talcose slate. This 
rock better deserves the name of a 
range than any other in this section. 
It traverses the whole county, passing 
through Whitingham, Wilmington, 
Marlborough, Newfane,Townshend, 
Acton, Windham, and Grafton. At 
the latter place it is extensively j 
quarried and wrought into fire; 
jams, aqueduct pipes, &c. Ser- 
pentine^ fprms a bed in Talcose 

bUte, four or fiv« uuIm io exteat on; 16. Qurablendet— -IT. Mici^Slate,--» 

They are also frequent in Dummer- 
ston, Westminster, and Rocking- 
ham, though smalL jiiiuviot^ The 
meadows, on Connecticut river in. 
Putney and Westminster, are allu- 
vial as are some of the meadows on 
West river. Thte order of the 
ranges, from Connecticut river to. 
Manicknung in Stratton, is as foK 
lows ; — 1. Alluvion, — 2. Mica Slate, 

— 3. Aigillite,— 4. Mica Slate, 

5. Hornblende, — 6. Granite anct 
Gneiss, — 7. Hornblende^ — 8. Gran- 
ite, — 9. Mica Slate, — 10; Horn- 
blende, — 11, Mica ^ate, — 12. Tal- 
cose Slate,— 13. Chlorite slate,^. 
14. Hornbkade, — IS.Mica Slate,— 





She was for a oamber of years the 
only midwife for many miles a- 
round. She is stiU living;, aod 
though her legal settlement is oot 
in the town, she has been for maoy 
yeai's supported by it. Mr. 
Samuel Smith, noWa resident in the 
town, a^*ed 59 years, a son of Capt 
Steele Smith, was the fir«t child 
l/orn wiLl»in it. The town wai 

18. Primitive Limestone, — 19. Mica 
Slate, — V.O. Granite and Gneiss.* — 
'I'lie Grand List of tliis county, for 
l»ij>3, was $27l,6ii5. Population^! 
18^20,23457. i 

Windsor, a po:it town in thei 
eastern pa.t of Wi»id>or couuty, is' 
in lat. 4l>«^ 29', and long. 4 ' 23', and: 
if bounded north by HarLland, east; 
by Connecticut river, whicli scpa-' 

rates it from Cornish N. H. south by lUettled rapidly, and was soon or- 
WcalhersiieldaudwesLby Kcading.;:ganiz£,d, though the records do not 
It lies 55 miles south from Montpe-ijahow tlie time when. Deacon 
lier, 5:i northeast from Bennington,! Thomas Cooj^er was chosen tho 
95 irom Boston, and 420 fromijfirst town clerk. His successors to 
"Washington. It was chartered to ko t}iat office have bcea Bryant 
Samuel Ashley and 53 others, JulyijBrown, Esq. the Hon. Williain 
6, 1761, containing, by charter, I Hunter, the Hon. Asa Aikens, and 
23500 acied. The proprietors im-';Carlos Coolidge, Esq. who is the 
mediately organized themselves un j present incumbent. During thecoo- 
der this charter^ and proceeded to; troversy betweenthe g^overnment of 
sur vey, make a plan of^ and allot the! iVew York and New Hampshire 
town. I'he first permanent settle- respecting the jurisdiction, of the 
men in the town was commenced territory now forming the State oC 

by Captain Steele Smith, who re 
moved his family from Farmington, 
Connecticut, to this town, in Au- 
gust, 1764. At that period there 
was no road north of Charleston, 
N. H. then called Ji'umber Four. 
The next season Maj. Elisha Haw- 
ley, Capt. Isreal Curtis, Deacon 
liez. Thompson, Deacon Thomas 
Cooper, and some othecscame on 
^nd began improvements. There 
WAS, however, a man by the name 
of Solomon Emmons, and his wife, 
who had erected a but, and^ were 
living here when Capt. SmitK ar 
rivedv but he had not purchased the 
land, or made any improvenients 
with a view to a. permanent settle- 
ment. Mrs. Emmons was the first 
and for some lime the only white 
woman, who. resided in the town. 

* Fdr the preceding geological 
sketch of Wmdham countj/^ the Au- 
thor is indebted to Mes^r^ Chca, K. 

Vermont, the proprietors of Wind- 
sor became alarmed fpr their title,, 
and conveyed their i^espective. 
rights of land, in trust, to Col. Na- 
than Stone, who surrendered the 
same to William Try on, the Gov. 
of the Province of New York, who 
regranted the township to Col. 
Stone and 28 othersv by Letters 
Patent, dated March 28, 1772.. 
Both these Royal grants reserved 
one whole share for the Propaga- 
tion Society, one shar« for the first 
settli^d minister of the gospel, one 
for a glebe for the Church of Eng- 
land, and one ior the benefit of 
a public school in town. From 
what few of the proprietors records 
are now remaining,, it appears 
that the public lots were drawn 
and set apart, aocording to a plai,. 
or map of the town, then in. esust- 
enoe, previous to the regrant of - 
1772. But after that g^ant, the 
ol€ plan seems to have disappeared, 
kod ft A6W oa» w«u^ substituted,, ia. 





which all the public rights are lo- 
cated on the most barren aud ir»ac- 
ecssible part of Ascutney moun- 
tain ; so that* they are of no value 
to the town. At an early period, 
two religious societies of the Con- 
g^regatioaal order were fnrmed in 
Windsor, the one in the East, and 
the other in the West parish, of the 

Martin Tuller, and the Rev. Pela- 

in each to send a representative to 
the General Assembly. The next 
,year, however, the party excite- 
ment which had induced tliat meas- 
ure, having in some degree Hubsid- 
'ed, they were reunited again into 
!uue town, under the ancient name 
jof Windbor. This town is hilly; 
I but it is well watered by small 

town. Aboutlheyear 1778, the Rev. 'streauis and the soil is fertile. Near- 

ly all the tillagable land in the 

tial Chapin were ordained the first!, town is now settled ; but it is ca- 
ministers over their respective 
churches in those parishes. The 

Rev. Samuel Shuttle worth succeed- 
ed Mr. Tuller, as the pastor over 
the Congregational church in the 
east parish, who was ordained June 
23, 1790. His successors have been 
the Rev. Benjamin Ball, Rev. Ban- 
croft Fowler, and the Rev, John 
Wheeler. The Congregational 
church in the west parish has been 
for some time vacant. There is 
also a small Baptist church in the 
west parish, of which Elder Samuel 
Xa/iuoTi is the pastor. In 1813, a 
Baptist church and society was 
formed in the east parish. The 
Rev. Joshua Bradley was the first 
pastor over this church. He has 
been succeeded by the Rev. Le- 
Iftnd Howard, and the Rev. Romeo 
Elton, In 1816, an Episcopalian 
church was also formed in tlie east 
parish. The Rev. James Morse, of 
Portsmouth, N. H. was elected the 
first rector. The Rev, George 
Leonard is the officiating clergy- 
man in this church. The three 
churches in the east parish are all 
in a flourishing condition, and their 
meetings are well attended. In 
1793 the town was divided into two 
distinct parishes, by an act of the 
Legislature. In 1814, these two 
parishes were, by an act of the Le- 
gislature, erected into two distinct 
towns, by the names of Windsor, 

';pable of subsisting a much denser 
jpopulation, than it does at present. 

The principal stream in the town 
is Mill brook. It rises in the west- 
erly part of Reading, and after an 
easterly course of about 15 miles,, 
it falls into the Connecticut river 
at the south end of Windsor village^ 
This stream affords a variety of mill' 
seats, both in Reading and Wind- 
sor. Ascutney mountain is situa- 
ted partly in Weathersfield and 
partly in Windsor ; the Ijne be* 
(tween the towns passing across the 
lapex of the mountain. It is insula- 
ted, and its base is low on every 
side. It is little other than a mass 
of granite, the south side being 
nearly bare, but the north side is 
principally covered with ever- 
greens. Its height is about 3320 
feet above tide water. The tim- 
ber of this township is principally 
sugar maple, white n^aple, birch, 
ash, walnut, red oak, butternut^ 
basswood, and rei^mon, white pine, 
spruce, and hemlock. This towa 
contains one of the largest villages 
in Vermont. It is situated on thev 
west bank of Connecticut river, 
about equi distant from the north 
and south lines of the township. 
It is built on the westerlv side of 
the meadow, which here is large 
and beautiful, about one fourth of 
a mile from the river, between the 
Mill brook on the south and soutli- 

aaU West Wiodflor, with |he ri^tjfwert, ^XkCi the piUk-hole brook, so 





called, which terminates it oj UiercontHirii an eleg^aut or^an receuliy 
north aiiJ northwest. These two constructed, by Air. Saiuuc-1 Hedge» 

streams approach very near to eachjiau ingenious mechanic oi the vil 
other ou the wett aide of the vil- ^ 

lag-e, leaving but a narrow istlimus 
between them ; then suddenly 
turning, the one to the south, and 
the other to the north, they diverge 
to the extent of a mile, and then 
both turning easterly, they fall into 
the river, it is through this isth- 
mus ti)at the main roads ft\>m 
Reading, and the west parish of 
Windsor, and the new road from 

iage. There is also a Female A- 
jcademy incorporated, which has 
{been in successful operation io this 
Tillage for a number of years ; but 
owing to a want of funds, and the 
recent removal of th« instructor*, 
its operations are now suspended. 
The village also contains a small 
woollen factory, two grist mills, a 
saw mill, and tannery, all sitoated 
on Mill brook,, two public inns, a 
Woodstock Green, which form a pfltst office, seven lawyers' offices^ 
'""' " *•-« -.« three physicians, two printing offi- 

ces, at one of 'Which is pubhshed 
the " Vermont Jouraar' by Wyman 

junction a little west of the village. 

enter it. The scite of the village 
is uneven, and the main street, 
which passes through it from north 
to south, is serpentine, making no 
less than lour very obtuse angles 
within the village ; the effect of 
which is,, that not more than about 
one third of the village can be seen 
by the traveller from any one point 
of view. The village contains a- 
bout 95 dwelling houses, 25 stores! 
and mechanic's shops, and some- 
thing more than 100 barns, exclu- 
sive of out-houses and sheds. The 
public buildiugs in the village, 
consist of a congregational meetiug-j 
house, an Episcopalian church, and 

Spooner, and at the other the 
"> Vermont Republican and Amer* 
ican Yeoman,'^ by Simeon Ide, both 
weekly papers ; thre^r small book 
stores, and two bio^deries, seven 
stores for retailing l^ng, E. anl W« 
I. and other good[i< one store for the 
sale of the manufactures of the 
State Prison, three druggist storen 
one shoe store and three shoe ma* 
ker's shops, two jeweller's shops, 
fpur cabinetmakers' shops, one 
looking-glass manufactory, one hat 
manufactory and store, three tin and 
shf^et iron factories, one carriage 

a Baptist meetinghouse, the /irst of .manufactory, one painter and gla- 
wood, and the two latter of brick ;| zijsr^s shop, one milliner's shop, one 
a court house, in which the circuit! cutter and carver of stonB, two sad- 
nnd district court of the U. S. an- dlers, two tailors, and two black- 

nually hold their sessions, on the 
21st and 27th days of May respect- 
ively ; a bank, a large two story 
brick school house, and the State 
Prison. The three houses for pub- 
lic worship, are ornamented with 
steeples, and the other public build- 
ings (excepting the bank) with cu- 
polas, which give to the village an 
air^ of grandeur, not exceeded by 
any other village in the State. 
The Episcopalian church is a very 
neat model of architect uie, and 

smiths The village is rather 
compactly built, and several of 
the houses are elegant. The 
place is much adorned with trees 
and shrubbery, which, united with 
the hill prospect around, and a fine 
viewofAscutney mountain, which 
lies three miles southwest of it, 
render it, one of the most pleasant 
villages in this part of the couutry. 
iThe whole population of Windsor 
[in 1820, was 2956, bein^ 356 mor« 





inhabitants, than were contained in 
any other town in the state. 

October^ lli24. a. A. 

WijfDSOR CouwTT, is situated on 
the east side of the Green Moun- 
tains between 43*=> 13^ and 43*^ 56' 
north lat. and>betweea 4° 7' and 4^ 
45' east lon^j^. beings 48 miles long 
from north to south, and 30 wide 
(rom east to west, and containing; a- 
bout 900 square miles. It is bound-! 
ed north by Orange county, east by) 
Connecticut river, which separates 
it from Grafton and Cheshire coun 
ties, N. H., south by Windham 
^county, and west by Rutland coun- 
ty. This county was incorporated 
ia February, 1731. Woodstock, 
fituatcd near the centre of the 
county, is the seat of justice. The 
Supreme Court sits here the 2d 
Tuesday next following the 4th 
Tuesday of May, and the County 
Court on the first Monday of March, 
and 3d Monday of September. 
There arc several pleasant villages 
in the county, the most important 
of which are Wmdsor, Woodstock, 
Korwich and lloyalton. White 
river runs across the north part of 
the county, Queechy river through 
the central part, and Black river 
through the south part. Some of 
the head branches of West and 
Williams' rivers rise in the soutli- 
wsetem part. The surface of this 
county in uneven, but the soil is 
generally oi an excellent quality, 
producing fine crops of grass, corn 
and grain. A range oi ta loose slate 
passes tbrou^ the western part of 
the county, in which several quar- 
ried of excellent steatite or soa/>> 
stone have been opened, particular- 
ly in4^1ymouth, firidgewater and 
Bethel. In the southeastern part 
is an abundance of excellent gran- 
ite, and primitive limestone abounds 
in the southwestern part, where it is 
« QXteuii^iy manufactured into lime, 

particularly in Plymouth. The 
rocks, in the other parts, are prin- . 
cipally gneiss, mica slate and horn- 
blen(^, A range of argillaceous 
slate extends into the northwestern 
part of the county. The mica and 
talcose slate, in many places, a- 
bounds with garnets. The Grand 
List of this county, for 1 (323, was 
^4303j0. Population, 1 820, 38233. 

Wi^HALL, a post township in 
the eastern part of Bennington 
I county, is in lat. 43° 10' and long. 
4^ 4', and is bounded north by Peru, 
east by Jamaica and a part of Lon- 
donderry, south by Stratton, and 
west by Manchester. It lies 25 
miles northeast from Bennington, 
33 southwest from Windsor, and 
was chartered September 15, 1761, 
containing by charter 23040 acres. 
Mr. Nathaniel Brown, from Massa- 
chusetts, commenced the settlement 
t>f this township, during the revolu- 
tionary war. The town was or- 
ganized about the year 1706. Asa 
Bebee,jr., was first town clerk, iand 
Asa Bebee was first representative. 
I'he religious denominations are 
Congregationalists and Baptists. 
The Kev. Blackleech Barrett was 
settled over the Congregational 
church about the time the town was 
organized, who died about two 
years after. There has been no 
settled minister since. There is a 
small meetinghouse situated near 
the centre ^ the township. Job 
Leonard is the practicing physician. 
The town is watered by Winhall 
river, which aifords a great number 
of good mill privileges. There ure, 
in town, five school districts and 
four scfaoolhouses, one grist and five 
saw mills,' one store, three tavema, 
and one tannery. Pop., 1820, 428. 
J^otember^ 1824. 

Winhall River, is a small mill 
stream, which is collected in Win* 
IhaU, and, aifter rvtmao^ easterly 





through the coruei* of Jamaica,; east by Seareburgfa ■ and a part of 
unites with West river in the south! Reedsboroogb, south bj Stsunfordi 

part of LoUilonderry. 

[and west by BeDDiogton. It lies 24 

WoLCOTT, a iN>fit town«hip in the| miles west from Brattleboroag^h, 50 
south part of Orleans county, is iii' south from Rutland, and was char- 
lat. 44^ 34', and long^. 4° 27', and is: tered Maroh-e, 1753,<^ntainin^, by 
bounded north by Craftsbury, east; charter, 23040 acres. This town- 
by Hardwick, south by Elmore,' ship began to be settled immediate- 
andwestby Hydopark. It lies 37' ly after the revolutionary war, bat 
miles northeast from Bcrling^on, the process of the settlement has 
and 22 nearly north from Montpe-' been slow. The religious denom- 
lier. It was g^ranted November 7, 'inations are Cong^egationalists and 
1780 and chartered to Joshua Stan- Reformed Methcxlists. Elder Jo- 
* "nd others, August 22, 1781,! «epA C. HoZ2iff/er is minister in the 



23040 acres. This 

latter society. Thb township is 

towui>i.:p is but thinly settled. Itisj.watered principallj by the head 
watered by the river Lamoille, 'i branches of Waloomsac river, the 
which runs through it from east to ''largest of which^rig^ates near the 
west, and by several uf its branches,' centra in a pond, which covers aboat 
amopg whi«h Green river and-'i-OO acres. A branch of Deerfield 
Wild branch are tlie most consider-:: river rises from a small pond in the 
able. There is in the eastern part 'j northeast part. The township is 
a large natural pond called Fish;, mountainous, and much of it inca- 
pond. There are in town one grist,! pable of settlement. It is well tim- 
and one saw mill, . Population,!' bered Vith beech, maple, bifcb, 
1820, 123. 1 1 spruce, hemlock, &c. '\ he tarn- 

WooDBURT, a township in thoijpike, from Bennington te JBrattle- 
western part of Caledonia county,' I borough, passes through the sooth 
is in lat. 44^.' 26', and long. 4° 31','ipart. There are, in town, three 
and is bounded north by Hard wick,!; school districts, four saw mills, one 
east by Cabot, south by Calais, and | forge and two taverns. Popula- 
west by Elmore. It lies 15 miles 
northeasterly from Montpelier, was 
granted November 6, 1780, and 
chartered to Ebenezer Wood and 


tion, 1820,212. 

JVorcmfter, 1824. 
Woodstock, a post to^wn ani 

- _ capital of Windsor county, is in lat 

others, August 16, 1781, containing! '43^ 36' and long. 4® SS*, and is 
23040 acres Eut little settlement I bounded north by Pomfret, east by 

was made in this township before 
the year 1800. The whole popu- 
lation in that year amounted to 23. 
This township is watered by 
branches of Onion and Lamoille riv- 
ers, and contains the greatest num- 
ber of nataral ponds of any town- 
ship in the State. Population, 
1820, 432. 

Woodford, a township in the 
central part of Bennington county, 
is in lat. 42^ 52* and long. S^' 56' and 

jHartland, south by Reading, and 
west by Bridgewater. It lies 11 
I miles northwest from Windsor, 46 
south from Montpelier, and 428 
from Washington. It was charter- 
ed July to, 1761, and contains 
26017 acres. The settlement of 
this township was commenced by 
Mr. James Sanderson, who moved 
his family here about the year 1768. 
He was soon joined by other set- 
tlers, and, in May, 1773, the towa 

4« bounded nocth by Glastenbury,!^wa9 organized, and Joab Hoiaixi|;toi 



waj cliosBn town clerk. Tile whoii 
Dumberof tamiUea in lIU wu H 
Major Joah Uabington was the hn 
settler in lliat pnrtirf the toff n nou 
called Uia "Green." In 1776, br 
built a grist mill, nnJ soon after, i 
saw DiilL, on the tioutfa branch ofl 

hMuruh 1 


ITaj. The 


. Bdi. ■' 

' Ant mitia erecletl in 




Iheir graia to Wioilsi 

timSs, io Ct 

JJoct. Stephen IMwers was tt 

reaitlsQl phyiiciim. In 1774, 

jBoreJ-to thi9 towiuhi|i Iroiu MiJ 

- illeburotig'ii, Plymoutli co. Musii. 
and erected the aeeoQil log house oi 
tbe-'Grean.'" Uaniij tJterevolu. 
tionary war, the prugrew of lii* 
BCttlcmeot waa much ratnrded. 

' There were ut this time acurcely 
any iohabitants lu the ttata to the 
north and luirlbiTesL oi this town- 
ship, and the eattlen here were 
lubjsct to freqaeul alarms, byre- 
pnrt! that ttie lodiaoa Aere coieing 
■' -t which tirofii they 

uiuui {.'iiureii,. lu the QortJt pariah, 
jrecttd A meetio^houae in ISOfi, 
which Vi-aa fiuiahei] in. 1808. In 
A)>ril, lUlO, Uiey lettled the Ji«:. 
TVailer Chapin, who ia tlieir present 
pitslor. The other Teli^ions d^